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Simferopol 2011 Выполнили: Студенты 3 курса НУБиПу КАТУ ЮФ Авраменко И.В., Олейников Д.А. Научные руководители: Проф. Барсуков Н.П., Проф. Пикалюк В.С.

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Presentation on theme: "Simferopol 2011 Выполнили: Студенты 3 курса НУБиПу КАТУ ЮФ Авраменко И.В., Олейников Д.А. Научные руководители: Проф. Барсуков Н.П., Проф. Пикалюк В.С."— Presentation transcript:

1 Simferopol 2011 Выполнили: Студенты 3 курса НУБиПу КАТУ ЮФ Авраменко И.В., Олейников Д.А. Научные руководители: Проф. Барсуков Н.П., Проф. Пикалюк В.С.

2 Embryology- science about embryo, but it includes more aspects. There are human, animal, plant embryology. Embryology of animals and man studies pre-embryonic development, fertilization, embryonic development, т. of е. development of embryo into egg and embryonic shells, larval (for many invertebrates and amphibious), post- embryonic (for fishes, reptiles and birds) or post- natal (for mammals) period of development, proceeding to converting of developing organism into adult, able to propagate. Embryology- science about embryo, but it includes more aspects. There are human, animal, plant embryology. Embryology of animals and man studies pre-embryonic development, fertilization, embryonic development, т. of е. development of embryo into egg and embryonic shells, larval (for many invertebrates and amphibious), post- embryonic (for fishes, reptiles and birds) or post- natal (for mammals) period of development, proceeding to converting of developing organism into adult, able to propagate.

3 Embryology researches in India, China, Egypt and Greece reflected to religiously-philosophical schools. The important stage of development of embryology was appearance works of В. Koiter (1573) and Fabricias from Aquapendente (1604), containing observances of chicken embryo development. A change in development of embryology came only from middle of 17 century, when Garwey generalized ideas about an egg as source of development of all animals, similarly as well as the Dutch scientist de Graaf (1672), signing the follicles of ovary.

4 Pander in 1817 published work about details of the early stages of chicken embryogenesis, in which expounded the ideas about embryonic sheets. Baer opened and described in 1827 an egg in the ovary of mammals of animals and man. He developed a concept about embryonic sheets as basic embryonic organs and found out their subsequent fate. Comparative supervisions above embryonic development brought Baer to the theoretical conclusions, the major is a law of embryos similarity, this similarity as more, as younger embryo is. Remak setting the cellular structure of embryonic sheets

5 Kovalevsky and Mechnikov set that development passed through the stage of isolation embryonic sheets. This fact underlay Kovalevsky's theory of embryonic sheets (1871). On this theory were built hypothesis of Gekkel and studies of O.Gertwig and R.Gertwig about an origin and value of middle embryonic sheet. On this theory were built hypothesis of Gekkel and studies of O.Gertwig and R.Gertwig about an origin and value of middle embryonic sheet. In parallel with descriptive researches the experimental embryology is developed. Experimental embryology became the arena of sharp discussions, related to the problems of general biology, of mechanic, vitalistic and other of interpretations of embryonic development.

6 proembryonic development, proembryonic development, fertilization, divining, fertilization, divining, formation of embryonic sheets, formation of embryonic sheets, organogenesis, organogenesis, histogenesis, histogenesis, value of provisional organs and different displays of pathological development. value of provisional organs and different displays of pathological development. stimulation of development through chemical agents embryonic morphogenesis, stimulation of development through chemical agents embryonic morphogenesis, genetic and cytological bases of cellular differentitation, genetic and cytological bases of cellular differentitation, influence of one parts of embryo on other. influence of one parts of embryo on other.

7 watching living embryos with the use of the cinema- and video surveys method of study of the fixed cuts of embryos by means of light, confocal and electronic microscopy, historadiography, histo— and immunocytochemistry marking method, allows to study moving of cages in a developing embryo. methods of microsurgery (included: removal of shells of eggs of animals, transplantation of parts of one embryo to other )

8 Transplantation of nucleus is a method, allowing to clone embryos. Transplantation of nucleus is a method, allowing to clone embryos. These experiments pawned basis of cloning higher vertebral and assisted appearance (in 1997) of famous sheep Dolly These experiments pawned basis of cloning higher vertebral and assisted appearance (in 1997) of famous sheep Dolly Yet in 1967 conducted researches of characteristics ovule by scientists on the base of the Crimean state medical institute (Velikij P. ).

9 The newest achievement of experimental embryology was development of method of extra corporal fertilization. Honor of creation of method of extra corporal fertilization and transfer of embryo in an uterus belongs to the English scientists — embryologist Edwards and togynaecologist Steptou. For ten of years till in 1978 in England first girl Eliza Brown, conceived in a tube, bore in the world, in printing reports told that an italian doctor Petrucci successfully carried out the fertilization of human ovule out of organism, in vitro, and grew in artificial environment quite big embryo.

10 Extra corporal fertilization Extra corporal fertilization Cell division of the human zygote out organism Cell division of the human zygote out organism

11 At the department of histology, cytology and embryology of the Crimean medical institute, headed by a professor Boris Pavlovich Khvatov, conducted researches on the artificial fertilization of ovules of animals out of organism, which carried out by Grigory Nikolaevich Petrov. If experiments on the fertilization of ovules of animals of in vitro will pass successfully : second step extra corporal fertilization, second step extra corporal fertilization, third step - to work out the problems of sterility third step - to work out the problems of sterility Now this method is used in livestock- rising. Scientists can get about 60 calfs in a year. Now this method is used in livestock- rising. Scientists can get about 60 calfs in a year.

12 With participation of Boris Trotsenko specially for these experiments an artificial biological cradle was created. Assistant Korolev Vitalij Aleksandrovich offered to add salpinx contents More then 1100 ovules of animals were used. As a result of the conducted experiments the first embryos of pig and rabbit were got on the initial stages of divining. Certain experience was already produced on the fertilization of ovules of animals, and a scientist went the tested way- were got human zygotes on the stage of 2th and 3th cells (blastomeres).

13 Embryo transplantation /embryo technology\ is taken from one or more embryos from donors and transplanting to them to the recipients till they will be born. Embryo transplantation /embryo technology\ is taken from one or more embryos from donors and transplanting to them to the recipients till they will be born. About 100 years ago, on 27th April 1890, Walter Heape transferred rabbit embryos from one mother to another. One animal became pregnant and delivered young from the transferred embryos. Thus the first mammalian embryo transfer experiment was successfully completed. In 1930 scientists used this method on another animal – goat. Than, till 1950, there were no successful embryo transplantations. And only since 1970 this method is used in livestock-rising. About 100 years ago, on 27th April 1890, Walter Heape transferred rabbit embryos from one mother to another. One animal became pregnant and delivered young from the transferred embryos. Thus the first mammalian embryo transfer experiment was successfully completed. In 1930 scientists used this method on another animal – goat. Than, till 1950, there were no successful embryo transplantations. And only since 1970 this method is used in livestock-rising. In on the base of Crimean medicine institute were also researches connected with transplantation of embryo to the mother-recipient. More then 1000 embryos were examined, such as: horse, pig, rabbit. In on the base of Crimean medicine institute were also researches connected with transplantation of embryo to the mother-recipient. More then 1000 embryos were examined, such as: horse, pig, rabbit. Embryo transplantation

14 Method of transplantation

15 Perspective Embryo transplantation is equal to artificial fertilization in its potential. Embryo transplantation is equal to artificial fertilization in its potential. It helps to solve problems with many infectious diseases ( Rhinotracheitis infectiosa, diarrhea virosa, leucosis ). It helps to solve problems with many infectious diseases ( Rhinotracheitis infectiosa, diarrhea virosa, leucosis ). Getting more then 50 embryos from one donor Getting more then 50 embryos from one donor Opportunity to restore population of disappearing species Opportunity to restore population of disappearing species

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