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Rubella – German Measles

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Presentation on theme: "Rubella – German Measles"— Presentation transcript:

1 Rubella – German Measles
Dr. Harivansh Chopra, DCH, MD Professor, Community Medicine, LLRM Medical College, Meerut.

2 Objectives of Lecture To study the epidemiology of Rubella.
To study Rubella in pregnancy and its management. Understanding the manifestations of Congenital Rubella. Prevention of Rubella and strategies for Rubella vaccination. Dr. Harivansh Chopra

3 Why Rubella is k/a “German Measles”?
The word "German" in the name of this disease has nothing to do with the country. The name likely comes from the Latin term "germanus" meaning "similar." And indeed, rubella and measles (rubeola) share some characteristics, but they're caused by different viruses. Dr. Harivansh Chopra

4 RUBELLA (GERMAN / 3-DAY MEASLES)
Etiology  Pleomorphic RNA virus. Family Togaviridae; Genus Rubivirus. Dr. Harivansh Chopra

5 RUBELLA (GERMAN / 3-DAY MEASLES)
Epidemiology  Spread by oral droplet or transplacentally through congenital infection. Dr. Harivansh Chopra

6 RUBELLA (GERMAN / 3-DAY MEASLES)
Epidemiology  The period of infectivity is 7 days prior to onset of rash and 7 days after disappearance of rash. The incubation period ranges from 14 days to 21 days (average = 18 days). Dr. Harivansh Chopra

7 RUBELLA (GERMAN / 3-DAY MEASLES)
Epidemiology  Peak incidence of disease in children 3-10 yrs. of age (> 70% of cases in developed countries occur in > 15 yrs. old). Many infections are sub clinical with a ratio of 2:1; inapparent to overt disease. Dr. Harivansh Chopra

8 RUBELLA (GERMAN / 3-DAY MEASLES)
Epidemology  In closed population, almost 100% of susceptible individuals may become infected. In family setting spread of virus is less – 50-60%. Dr. Harivansh Chopra

9 RUBELLA (GERMAN / 3-DAY MEASLES)
Epidemiology A single attack usually confers permanent immunity. Epidemics occurred every 6-9 years before vaccine was available. Infants with rubella are a source of infection for older children who are not immune & for non-immune adults, including pregnant women & nursery personnel. Dr. Harivansh Chopra

10 RUBELLA (GERMAN / 3-DAY MEASLES)
Epidemiology Disease occurs in seasonal pattern i.e. during the later winter and spring, with epidemics repeating every – 9 years. Dr. Harivansh Chopra

11 CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS OF RUBELLA
Prodromal phase – Mild catarrhal symptoms; shorter than measles; may be so mild as to go unnoticed. Most characteristic sign is Retroauricular, Posterior Cervical & Post-Occipital adenopathy which is tender. Lymphadenopathy is evident at least 24 hrs. before rash appears & remains for 1 week or more. Dr. Harivansh Chopra

12 CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS OF RUBELLA
An enanthem may appear just before the onset of skin rash. It is discrete rose spots on soft palate that may coalesce into a red bluish & extend over the fauces. (Forchheimer spots) Rash begins on face & spread quickly; rash may be fading on face by the time it appears on the trunk. Dr. Harivansh Chopra

13 CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS OF RUBELLA
Rash is discrete maculo-papular with large areas of flushing; spreads rapidly over the entire body within 24 hrs. Rubella without a rash has been described. Fever is slight or absent during the rash & persists for 1-2 or occasionally 3 days. Dr. Harivansh Chopra

14 CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS OF RUBELLA
Anorexia, Headache & Malaise are not common. Spleen is often slightly enlarged. Thrombocytopenia is rare. Paraesthesia. Dr. Harivansh Chopra

15 CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS OF RUBELLA
In older children Polyarthritis may with Arthralgia & Swelling, Tenderness & Effusion but without Residuum; Small joints of hands are affected most frequently. Duration is usually several days to 2 weeks rarely for months. Orchidalgia also reported. Dr. Harivansh Chopra

16 DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS
Viral Others Measles. Meningococcemia. Roseola Infantum. Typhoid fever. Erythema Infectiosum. Scarlet fever. Infectious Mononucleosis. Live viral vaccine. Drug eruption. Dr. Harivansh Chopra

17 Risk of damage to fetus by Maternal Rubella during pregnancy
Stage of Gestation (weeks) when mother is infected Percentage of fetus infected Percentage of infected fetus damaged Overall risk damages to fetus (in percent) < 11 90 100 11-16 55 37 20 17-26 33 27-36 53 Dr. Harivansh Chopra

18 DIAGNOSIS Latex agglutination, enzyme immunoassay,
passive hemagglutination, and fluorescent immunoassay appear to be equal or superior to the HI test in sensitivity. Immunoglobulin (Ig) M antibodies are detectable in the first few days of illness and are considered diagnostic. Dr. Harivansh Chopra

19 DIAGNOSIS Detection of IgM antibodies, which do not cross the placenta, in the newborn is especially useful for the diagnosis of congenital rubella syndrome. Seroconversion, or a fourfold increase in IgG titer, is diagnostic. Dr. Harivansh Chopra

20 TREATMENT SYMPTOMATIC PARACETAMOL FOR FEVER Dr. Harivansh Chopra

21 COMPLICATIONS Complications are relatively uncommon in childhood. Encephalitis similar to that seen with measles occurs in about 1 in 6,000 cases. The severity is highly variable, and there is an overall mortality rate of 20% Thrombocytopenic purpura occurs at an overall rate of 1 in 3,000 cases. Dr. Harivansh Chopra

22 Pregnant Female with unknown immune status
PREGNANCY & RUBELLA Pregnant Female with unknown immune status exposed to Rubella ANTIBODY TESTING SUSCEPTIBLE NOT SUSCEPTIBLE Abortion advised Reassurance Dr. Harivansh Chopra

23 PREGNANCY & RUBELLA Female susceptible but Abortion unacceptable
Rubella Immunoglobulin 0.55 ml/kg body weight given IM Under no condition in pregnancy should an Active Immunisation against Rubella be performed in pregnancy. Dr. Harivansh Chopra

24 CONGENITAL RUBELLA SYNDROME
IUGR is most common. Cataract B/L or U/L; Associated with micro-ophthalmia. Blueberry skin lesion, similar to CMV infection. Dr. Harivansh Chopra

25 CONGENITAL RUBELLA SYNDROME
Myocarditis & structural cardiac defects – PDA or Pulmonary Artery Stenosis. Hearing loss from Sensorineural deafness. May have active meningo-encephalitis at birth; Later motor & mental retardation. Dr. Harivansh Chopra

26 CONGENITAL RUBELLA SYNDROME
Pneumonia. Hepatitis. Thrombocytopenic Purpura. Dr. Harivansh Chopra

27 CONGENITAL RUBELLA SYNDROME
Pancreatitis. Syndactyly. Retinal lesions – Salt and Pepper retinitis. Dr. Harivansh Chopra

28 Prevention against Rubella
Rubella Vaccine – RA 27/3 Produced in human diploid fibroblast. Produces an immune response more closely paralleling natural infection & largely prevents sub clinical infection. Single dose of 0.5 ml subcutaneously Seroconversion in >95% vaccinees. Immunity persists for at least 14 – 16 years and probably lifelong. Dr. Harivansh Chopra

29 MMR Vaccine Composition –
Live hyperattenuated Measles virus (Schwartz strain) – 1000 TCID50 Live attenuated Mumps virus (Urabe AM 9 strain) – 5000 TCID50 Live attenuated Rubella virus (Wistar RA 27/3M strain) – 1000 TCID50 Stabilizer excipient (containing human albumin) Dr. Harivansh Chopra

30 MMR Vaccine Route and Dose – 0.5 ml Subcutaneous or Intramuscular.
Single dose between 12 and 15 months of age (Recommended age). Second dose recommended 6 months later in children vaccinated below 12 months of age, particularly in collective environment. Dr. Harivansh Chopra

31 MMR Vaccine 1.It is freezed dried vaccine
2.Has to be reconstituted with distilled water 3.Reconstituted vaccine must be used as early as possible Dr. Harivansh Chopra

32 MMR Vaccine It has shell life for 2 years Must be stored between
2-8 degree centirgade Dr. Harivansh Chopra

33 Complications of vaccine
Fever Rash Rarely S.S.P.E Dr. Harivansh Chopra

34 Contraindications to Rubella
Congenital or Acquired immunodepressions. (An infection with HIV should not be contraindication to MMR vaccination, but advised only under specialised paediatric team). True allergy to egg proteins. Dr. Harivansh Chopra

35 Contraindications to Rubella
Recent injection of Immunoglobulins (Vaccine must not be given till 3 months after Immunoglobulin transfusion, or Immunoglobulins must not be given 2 weeks after vaccination). Pregnancy (Recipients of vaccine must not be advised to become pregnant over next 3 months). Dr. Harivansh Chopra

36 Vaccination Strategy – Rubella
First protect women of childbearing age (15 – 34 or 39 years of age). Then interrupt transmission of Rubella by vaccinating children 1 – 14 years of age. Subsequently vaccinating all children at 1 year of age. Dr. Harivansh Chopra

37 Conclusion Rubella is a vaccine preventable disease, which is very similar to Measles in its presentation. A relatively mild clinical manifestation but hazardous to developing foetus if contracted in pregnancy. Affected foetus presents with a variety of signs grouped under “Congenital Rubella Syndrome”. Dr. Harivansh Chopra

38 Thank You Dr. Harivansh Chopra

39 MCQ Which of the following disease can result in congenital anomaly in the newborn child HIV. Hepatitis B. Rubella. All of the above. Answer – 3. Dr. Harivansh Chopra

40 MCQ “Three day measles” is another name for Roseola Infantum.
Erythema Infectiosum. Scarlet fever. None of the above. Answer – 4. Dr. Harivansh Chopra

41 MCQ The most characteristic differentiating feature between measles and rubella is Type of rash. Prodromal period. Tender enlargement of cervical group of glands. Degree of fever. Answer – 3. Dr. Harivansh Chopra

42 MCQ The efficacy of rubella vaccine is 80% 90% 95% 98% Answer – 3.
Dr. Harivansh Chopra

43 MCQ The pregnancy should be deferred in the recipient of Rubella vaccine for a period of Next 1 month Next 2 months Next 3 months Next 6 months Answer – 3. Dr. Harivansh Chopra

44 MCQ Q-6 Incubation period of rubella is 1 – 7 days 7 – 14 days
Ans 3 Dr. Harivansh Chopra


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