Presentation on theme: "HIV Medication Overview John J. Faragon, PharmD, BCPS, AAHIV-P Albany Medical Center Hospital NY/NJ AIDS Education and Training Center."— Presentation transcript:
HIV Medication Overview John J. Faragon, PharmD, BCPS, AAHIV-P Albany Medical Center Hospital NY/NJ AIDS Education and Training Center
When to Start
DHHS: Changing Criteria for Initiating ART CD4+ Count, cells/mm > 500 Offer if VL > 20,000 Offer if VL > 55,000 Consider if VL ≥ 100,000 Consider in certain groups ConsiderTreat Offer if VL > 20,000 Consider if VL > 55,000 Consider if VL ≥ 100,000 Consider in certain groups Treat Offer if VL > 20,000 Offer, but controversy exists Offer after discussion with patient Treat < 200 or symptomatic disease Treat
Current Guidelines for Initiating ART – Other Guidelines GuidelineSymptomatic/ AIDS CD4+ Count < 200 CD4+ Count CD4+ Count CD4+ Count > 500 DHHS (5/2014)Yes IAS-USA (7/2012)Yes British HIV Association (9/2012) Yes Defer* European AIDS Clinical Society (11/2012) Yes ConsiderDefer WHO (7/2010)Yes No † Not addressed *If a patient with CD4+ count > 350 cells/mm³ wishes to start ART to reduce the risk of transmission to partners, that wish should be respected and ART started. † With the exception of an HIV-positive partner in a serodiscordant relationship, who should be offered antiretroviral therapy at CD4+ count > 350 cells/mm³ to prevent transmission to the uninfected partner.
Potential Benefits of Early Therapy: Supporting Data (2) CD4 count >500 cells/µL Cohort study data are not consistent; some show survival benefit if ART initiated early Other considerations (eg, potential benefit of ART on non-AIDS complications, HIV transmission risk) support recommendation for ART Data not entirely conclusive, especially for patients with very high CD4 counts…
Why treat at CD4 >500 cells/mm3? Untreated HIV infection and ongoing viremia associated with development of non-AIDS defining diseases such as Cardiovascular Disease Renal disease Liver disease Neurologic complications Malignancy
Community Viral Load Mirrors Reduced Rate of New HIV Cases in San Francisco Retrospective analysis of relationship between community viral load (CVL; mean of summed individual HIV-1 RNA results per yr) and new HIV diagnoses Das-Douglas M, et al. CROI Abstract 33. Reproduced with permission. Mean CVL ,000 15,000 20,000 25,000 30, Yr Mean Community Viral Load (copies/mL) *Data insufficient to prove significant association with reduced HIV incidence. Newly diagnosed and reported HIV cases Number of Newly Diagnosed HIV Cases P =.005 for association*
START Study INSIGHT Network: multinational Study population: adults with CD4 >500 Study treatment: Immediate ART CD4 <350 Study endpoints: Serious AIDS-defining illness, non-AIDS illness, death Sample size: N=900 (pilot for feasibility; enrollment completed) N=3100 (definitive) Duration: ~6 yrs. START Protocol Synopsis
What to Start
Current ARV Medications NRTI Abacavir (ABC) Didanosine (ddI) Emtricitabine (FTC) Lamivudine (3TC) Stavudine (d4T) Tenofovir (TDF) Zidovudine (AZT) NNRTI Delavirdine (DLV) Efavirenz (EFV) Etravirine (ETR) Nevirapine (NVP) Rilpivirine (RPV) PI Atazanavir (ATV) Darunavir (DRV) Fosamprenavir (FPV) Indinavir (IDV) Lopinavir (LPV) Nelfinavir (NFV) Ritonavir (RTV) Saquinavir (SQV) Tipranavir (TPV) Integrase Inhibitor Raltegravir (RAL) Elvitegravir (EVG) Dolutegravir (DTG) Fusion Inhibitor Enfuvirtide (ENF, T-20) CCR5 Antagonist Maraviroc (MVC) 26 medications, but we use only about ½ of them usually
3-Drug Combination ART 1996: Crixivan/Retrovir/Epivir Fasting (1 hour before/2 hours after meals)1.5 liters of hydration/day 8AM4PM12 MID
HIV Lifecycle And Drug Targets Fusion Reverse transcription 3’-processing Integration (strand transfer) Transcription Translation Assembly Budding Viral DNA Nucleus RNA Viral RNA Protein chains Viral proteins Viral DNA Pre-Integration Complex Uncoating Human Genomic DNA Entry Inhibitors Protease Inhibitors Nukes and Non Nukes Integrase Inhibitors
DHHS Guidelines Update 2014: Recommended Regimens in ARV Naives Regardless of Baseline CD4 and Viral Load NNRTI – Based Regimen Efavirenz/tenofovir/emtricitabine (AI) PI – Based Regimens: Atazanavir/ritonavir + tenofovir/emtrictiabine (AI) Darunavir/ritonavir + tenofovir/emtricitabine (AI) INSTI – Based Regimens: Dolutegravir plus abacavir/lamivudine – ONLY if patient HLA-B*5701 negative (AI) Dolutegravir plus tenofovir/emtricitabine (AI) Elvitegravir/cobicistat/tenofovir/emtricitabine – ONLY if pre-ART CrCl >70ml/min (AI) Raltegravir plus tenofovir/emtricitabine (AI) Panel on Antiretroviral Guidelines for Adults and Adolescents. Guidelines for the use of antiretroviral agents in HIV- 1-infected adults and adolescents. Department of Health and Human Services. Available at Accessed 5/2/14
Reyataz/Norvir/Truvada Prezista/Norvir/Truvada Atripla 3/day 1/day DHHS Guidelines Initial Recommended Regimens Panel on Antiretroviral Guidelines for Adults and Adolescents. Guidelines for the use of antiretroviral agents in HIV-1-infected adults and adolescents. Department of Health and Human Services. Available at Accessed 5/2/14.
Isentress (BID)/Truvada 3/day Tivicay/Truvada OR Epzicom 2/day Stribild 1/day OR DHHS Guidelines Initial Recommended Regimens Panel on Antiretroviral Guidelines for Adults and Adolescents. Guidelines for the use of antiretroviral agents in HIV-1-infected adults and adolescents. Department of Health and Human Services. Available at Accessed 5/2/14.
Atripla Key Points 3 drugs in one tablet Efavirenz/tenofovir/emtricitabine AKA Sustiva+Truvada Dosed at bedtime usually Pregnancy Category D CNS side effects common in first few weeks Renal side effects possible with tenofovir
Reyataz Norvir Truvada Key Points 3 pills daily “Boosted” PI regimen Dosed once a day with food GI side effects, minimal effect on lipids Hyperbilirubinemia, nephrolithiasis Proton Pump Inhibitor interaction Renal side effects possible with tenofovir
Prezista Norvir Truvada Key Points 3 tablets daily “Boosted” PI regimen Dosed once a day with food GI side effects, minimal effect on lipids Sulfa moeity Renal side effects possible with tenofovir 400mg off market now!
Ritonavir (Norvir ®, RTV, r) Dosing / Administration For PI-boosting: mg PO BID or daily Full dose - 600mg PO Q12H (usually wrong) Take with food to improve tolerability Refrigerate capsules Adverse effects GI effects, taste perversion, circumoral tingling [cholesterol] & [triglycerides] Drug interactions Potent CYP3A4 inhibitor and inducer
Single-Dose Pharmacokinetics of Lopinavir With and Without Ritonavir Lopinavir Concentration ( g/mL) Time After Dosing (hr) IC 50 wt HIV Lopinavir alone Lopinavir/ritonavir Sham HL, et al. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1998;42(12): ; Lal R, et al., 37 th ICAAC, 1997, # I-194
Why Norvir Boosted Protease Inhibitors Less resistance – nearly no resistance reported in naïve trials with all boosted PI regimens currently on guidelines Lower pill burdens Reduced frequency – now all are once daily, versus 2-3 times daily for unboosted protease inhibitors “Ritonaphobia” is the REAL downside
Isentress Truvada Key Points 3 tablets Isentress dosed twice a day Once daily dosing possible, but inferior to BID Well tolerated, no effect on lipids Renal side effects possible with tenofovir
Stribild Key Points 4 drugs in one tablet Elvitegravir – a new integrase inhibitor Cobicistat – a new booster (does the same thing as RTV) Tenofovir – preferred NRTI Emtricitiabine – preferred NRTI Head to head data with Atripla and Reyataz/Norvir/Truvada showed similar results (non- inferior at 48 weeks) Sax P, et al. CROI Abstract 101. DeJesus E, et al. CROI Abstract 627.
Stribild – Additional Information Contains cobicistat Booster for the elvitegravir Similar to Norvir for drug interactions Increased creatinine levels due to inhibition of tubular secretion of creatinine back into bloodstream in the kidney Similar to cimetidine
Tubular Reabsorption Substances reabsorbed back into blood from the renal tubule Tubular Secretion Substances secreted from the blood back into renal tubule for elimination Blocking Tubular Secretion Cobicistat BLOCKS tubular secretion of creatinine, causing an increase in blood levels of creatinine X
Tivicay Key Points FDA-approved August 12, 2013 Approved for wide range of HIV populations, adults and children aged 12 and above and at least 40kg New integrase inhibitor dosed as a 50 mg tablet Once daily for treatment-naïve patients Twice daily for integrase treatment-experienced patients Can be taken with or without food Pregnancy category B Adverse events > 2% were insomnia and headache Contra-indicated to be given with dofetilide, an anti- arrhythmic Submitted to FDA STR of Epzicom/dolutegravir OR
Tivicay Dosing Treatment naïve or treatment experienced, integrase inhibitor naïve 50mg once daily Treatment naïve or treatment experienced, with UGT1A/CYP3A4 inducers: Efavirenz, fosamprenavir/ritonavir, tipranavir, or rifampin 50mg twice daily Integrase inhibitor with II resistance 50mg twice daily No food restrictions Separate from cations – ie Magnesium, Calcium, Iron
DHHS Guidelines Update 2014: Recommended Regimens, ARV Naives, ONLY if Pre ART Viral Load <100,000 copies/ml NNRTI – Based Regimen Efavirenz + abacavir/lamivudine – ONLY if patient HLA-B*5701 negative (AI) Rilpivirine/tenofovir/emtricitabine – ONLY if patient has CD4 count>200 cells/mm 3 (AI) PI – Based Regimens: Atazanavir/ritonavir + abacavir/lamivudine (AI) – ONLY if patient is HLA-B*5701 negative 28 Panel on Antiretroviral Guidelines for Adults and Adolescents. Guidelines for the use of antiretroviral agents in HIV- 1-infected adults and adolescents. Department of Health and Human Services. Available at Accessed 5/2/14
Complera Rilpivirine/tenofovir/emtricitabine STR once daily Food required Take antacids at least 2 hours before or at least 4 hours after Take H-2 blockers at least 12 hours before or at least 4 hours after PPIs are contraindicated
DHHS Guidelines Update 2014 Alternative Regimens in ARV Naives PI – Based Regimen Darunavir/ritonavir + abacavir/lamivudine – ONLY for patients who are HLA-B*5701 negative (BII) Lopinavir/ritonavir (once or twice daily) plus abacavir/lamivudine – ONLY for patients who are HLA-B*5701 negative (BI) Lopinavir/ritonavir (once or twice daily) plus tenofovir/emtricitabine (BI) INSTI – Based Regimens: Raltegravir + abacavir/lamivudine – ONLY for patients who are HLA-B*5701 negative 30 Panel on Antiretroviral Guidelines for Adults and Adolescents. Guidelines for the use of antiretroviral agents in HIV- 1-infected adults and adolescents. Department of Health and Human Services. Available at Accessed 5/2/14
Preferred NRTI Backbones in Pregnancy – DHHS Perinatal Guidelines, March 2014 Panel on Treatment of HIV-Infected Pregnant Women and Prevention of Perinatal Transmission. Recommendations for Use of Antiretroviral Drugs in Pregnant HIV-1-Infected Women for Maternal Health and Interventions to Reduce Perinatal HIV Transmission in the United States. Available at Accessed 5/2/14 31 Preferred NRTI Backbones Abacavir/lamivudineAvailable as fixed dose combination, once daily dosing. Do NOT use in patients testing positive for HLAB*5701 Tenofovir/emtricitabine or lamivudineAvailable as fixed dose combination, once daily dosing. Tenofovir may cause renal impairment Zidovudine/lamivudineAvailable as fixed dose combination. Most experience in pregnancy to date, but twice daily adminstration, and potential for hematologic toxicity
Preferred PI, NNRTI Regimens in Pregnancy – DHHS Perinatal Guidelines, March 2014 Panel on Treatment of HIV-Infected Pregnant Women and Prevention of Perinatal Transmission. Recommendations for Use of Antiretroviral Drugs in Pregnant HIV-1-Infected Women for Maternal Health and Interventions to Reduce Perinatal HIV Transmission in the United States. Available at Accessed 5/2/14 32 Preferred PI Regimens Atazanavir/ritonavir + preferred dual NRTI backbone Once daily administration Lopinavir/ritonavir + preferred dual NRTI backbone Twice daily administration. Once daily dosing not recommended in pregnancy. May need to increase dosage in 3 rd trimester Preferred NNRTI Regimens Efavirenz + preferred dual NRTI backbone initiated AFTER first 8 weeks of pregnancy Teratogenicity in primates.
What to Avoid
ARV Medications: Should NOT Be Offered at ANY Time ARV regimens not recommended: Monotherapy with NRTI* Monotherapy with boosted PI Dual-NRTI therapy 3-NRTI regimen (except ABC + 3TC + ZDV or possibly TDF + 3TC + ZDV) * ZDV monotherapy is not recommended for prevention of perinatal HIV transmission but might be considered in certain circumstances; see Public Health Service Task Force Recommendations for the Use of Antiretroviral Drugs in Pregnant HIV-Infected Women for Maternal Health and Interventions to Reduce Perinatal HIV Transmission in the United States.
ARV Medications: Should NOT Be Offered at ANY Time ARV components not recommended: Didanosine + stavudine Didanosine + tenofovir Emtricitabine + lamivudine Stavudine + zidovudine Darunavir, saquinavir, or tipranavir as single, unboosted PIs Atazanavir + Indinavir
ARV Medications: Should NOT Be Offered at ANY Time ARV components not recommended: Efavirenz during first trimester of pregnancy and in women with significant potential for pregnancy Nevirapine initiation in women with CD4 counts of >250 cells/µL or in men with CD4 counts of >400 cells/µL Etravirine + unboosted PI Etravirine + boosted Atazanavir, fosamprenavir or tipranavir Any combination of 2 NNRTIs
2014 CDC PrEP Guidelines Guidelines for PrEP were released in May 2014 Addresses the role of PrEP in the following adult populations Men who have sex with men Heterosexual men and woman Injection Drug Users Sero-discordant couples ONLY medication to be used in this setting is tenofovir/emtricitabine (Turvada) 38 Accessed 5/15/14.
Results of PrEP Trials, CDC Results from randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trials of the efficacy of daily oral antiretroviral preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for preventing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection Clinical trialParticipantsType of medication mITT efficacy*Adherence-adjusted efficacy based on TDF detection in blood %(95% CI)% Bangkok Tenofovir Study Injecting drug users TDF49(10–72)70(2–91) Partners PrEPHIV discordant couples TDF67(44–81)86(67–94) TDF/FTC75(55–87)90(58–98) TDF2Heterosexually active men and women TDF/FTC62(22–83)84NS iPrExMen who have sex with men TDF/FTC42(18–60)92(40–99) Fem-PrEPHeterosexually active women TDF/FTCNS—NA— VOICEHeterosexually active women TDFNS—NA— TDF/FTCNS—NA— Abbreviations: mITT = modified intent to treat analysis, excluding persons determined to have had HIV infection at enrollment; CI = confidence interval; TDF = tenofovir disoproxil fumarate; FTC = emtricitabine; NS = not statistically significant; NA = data not available. * % reduction in acquisition of HIV infection. 39 Center for Disease Control. MMWR. June 14, 2013 / 62(23);
2014 CDC PrEP Guidelines – Recommended Indications for PrEP Use in MSM 40 Accessed 5/15/14. Adult man Without acute or established HIV infection Any male sex partners in past 6 months Not in a monogamous partnership with a recently tested, HIV- negative man AND at least one of the following Any anal sex without condoms (receptive or insertive) in past 6 months Any STI diagnosed or reported in past 6 months Is in an ongoing sexual relationship with an HIV-positive male partner
2014 CDC PrEP Guidelines – Recommended Indications for PrEP Use in Heterosexual Men and Women 41 Accessed 5/15/14. Adult person Without acute or established HIV infection Any sex with opposite sex partners in past 6 months Not in a monogamous partnership with a recently tested HIV-negative partner AND at least one of the following Is a man who has sex with both women and men (behaviorally bisexual) Infrequently uses condoms during sex with 1 or more partners of unknown HIV status who are known to be at substantial risk of HIV infection (IDU or bisexual male partner) Is in an ongoing sexual relationship with an HIV-positive partner
2014 CDC PrEP Guidelines – Recommended Indications for PrEP Use Injection Drug Users 42 Accessed 5/15/14. Adult person Without acute or established HIV infection Any injection of drugs not prescribed by a clinician in past 6 months AND at least one of the following Any sharing of injection or drug preparation equipment in past 6 months Been in a methadone, buprenorphine, or suboxone treatment program in past 6 months Risk of sexual acquisition
2014 CDC PrEP Guidelines – Monitoring 43 Accessed 5/15/14. All patients receiving PrEP should be seen as follows: At least every 3 months to Repeat HIV testing and assess for signs or symptoms of acute infection to document that patients are still HIV negative Repeat pregnancy testing for women who may become pregnant Provide a prescription or refill authorization of daily TDF/FTC for no more than 90 days (until the next HIV test) Assess side effects, adherence, and HIV acquisition risk behaviors Provide support for medication adherence and risk-reduction behaviors Respond to new questions and provide any new information about PrEP use
2014 CDC PrEP Guidelines – Monitoring 44 Accessed 5/15/14. At least every 6 months to Monitor eCrCl If other threats to renal safety are present renal function may require more frequent monitoring or may need to include additional tests A rise in serum creatinine is not a reason to withhold treatment if eCrCl remains ≥60 ml/min. If eCrCl is declining steadily (but still ≥60 ml/min), consultation with a nephrologist may be indicated. Conduct STI testing recommended for sexually active adolescents and adults (i.e., syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydia) At least every 12 months to Evaluate the need to continue PrEP as a component of HIV prevention
HIV Prophylaxis Following Exposure The Medical Care Criteria Committee now recommends tenofovir + emtricitabine* plus raltegravir as the preferred initial PEP regimen excellent tolerability, proven potency, and ease of administration. Zidovudine is no longer recommended no clear advantage in efficacy over tenofovir higher rates of treatment-limiting side effects.
HIV Prophylaxis Following Occupational Exposure Recommendations place emphasis on the importance of initiating occupational PEP as soon as possible, ideally within 2 hours of exposure. First dose of PEP should be offered while evaluation is underway. PEP should not be delayed while awaiting source patient or results of the exposed baseline HIV test.
Updated Public Health Service Occupational PEP Guidelines, November 2013 Preferred HIV PEP Regimen Raltegravir (Isentress; RAL) 400 mg PO twice daily PLUS Truvada, 1 PO once daily (Tenofovir DF [Viread; TDF] 300 mg + emtricitabine [Emtriva; FTC] 200 mg) Fixed Dose Combination 48 Kuhar DT. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2013;34(9):
Web Resources of Interest –DHHS Guideline Tables –http://www.aidsinfo.nih.gov/guidelines/ –NY/NJ AIDS Education and Training Center –http://www.nynjaetc.org/ –University of Liverpool –www.hiv-druginteractions.org –Toronto HIV Clinic –http://www.hivclinic.ca/main/home
Upper Left Corner New data, reports Top middle – Charts and Recommendations
NY/NJ AETC –
HIV Medication Overview John J. Faragon, PharmD, BCPS, AAHIV-P Albany Medical Center Hospital NY/NJ AIDS Education and Training Center