Presentation on theme: "P RENATAL C ARE AND C HILDBIRTH Chapter 5 Child Development 2."— Presentation transcript:
P RENATAL C ARE AND C HILDBIRTH Chapter 5 Child Development 2
S IGNS OF P REGNANCY A woman cannot feel the sperm and egg unite. She cannot feel cells divide as the baby begins to develop. However, her body begins to change almost immediately. The signs of pregnancy help a woman recognize these changes.
S IGNS OF P REGNANCY Mensturation stops Nausea Tired/fatigue Frequency in urination Swelling and tenderness of the breasts Skin discoloration Internal changes (softening of the uterus, cervix or uterin enlargement) Other signs Presumptive Signs- could be the signs of pregnancy, but they could be the signs of something else. A doctor would determine their cause. HCG (Human Chorionic Gonadatrophin)- hormone levels detected by lab tests. HCG found in blood and urine. Fetal heartbeat Fetal movement Fetal image-seen on an ultrasound Fetal shape-felt through the abdominal wall Uterine contractions Positive Signs - definitely caused by pregnancy
M EDICAL C ARE Medical care is the best way to make childbearing safe and successful. A woman who suspects she may be pregnant should make an appointment with a doctor as soon as possible. Many pregnant women choose to visit obstetricians, or doctors who specialize in pregnancy and birth.
T HE F IRST A PPOINTMENT The doctor will first gather information such as the age and health history of each parent. Next, the doctor will ask the details about the woman’s menstrual cycle and any past pregnancies. The doctor will answer any questions the couple has a bout pregnancy. Then a physical exam is usually completed. The woman will be weighed, her pulse taken, blood pressure, etc. Her breasts may be checked and a pelvic exam done. Urine and blood tests will be done. Blood tests check for blood type, anemia and diseases that may harm an unborn child. Sometimes a test for blood sugar levels will be done. The doctor will advise the couple on health habits to be followed. At the end of the appointment, the obstetrician estimates the due date for the baby’s birth. Babies are born about 40 weeks after the beginning of the last menstrual period.
T HE U NBORN B ABY ’ S E NVIRONMENT At the moment of conception, the baby begins to firm traits from both mother and father. These inherited traits, or genetic factors are merged into one unique person. Development is not determined solely by genetic factors. Environmental factors are those caused by a person’s surroundings. The prenatal environment is the mother’s body.
3 S TAGES OF P RENATAL D EVELOPMENT Complete your worksheet on prenatal development by week.
F ACTORS THAT A FFECT THE B ABY ’ S H EALTH Mother’s Age -the ideal time for a woman to have a baby is between years old. Teens and women over 36 are considered high risk. Mother’s Physical Health -women in excellent health prior to pregnancy are the most likely to have healthy pregnancies. Healthy weight, nutrition and activity levels are included in physical health.
M OTHER ’ S E MOTIONAL H EALTH Positive thoughts and feelings are important for a woman to have a healthy baby. Negative thoughts and feelings stimulate the nervous system and the flow of adrenaline. The nervous system and adrenaline control heart rate, breathing, and muscle tension.
C AN STRESS HARM AN UNBORN BABY ? An unborn baby can handle some stress, but if it is long-lasting, severe r frequent, the mother may have a more difficult delivery. Emotional support during pregnancy and delivery is good for the baby.
H EALTH H ABITS DURING P REGNANCY Nutrition-a nutritious diet is essential during pregnancy. Cells need proteins, fats, carbs, minerals and vitamins to help them grow. Diets for pregnant and nursing mothers should provide more calcium, iron, folic acid, and protein than non pregnant women. Water should be increased and caffeine should be decreased to about one cup per day.
H EALTH H ABITS CONT. Weight Gain-to meet the nutritional needs of themselves and their babies, pregnant women need to eat 300 extra calories per day, starting in the 4 th month. Weight gain during pregnancy is not all stored as fat, much of the weight goes to the growing baby and the tissues that support it.
Hygiene Practices -women should continue their normal grooming and body care habits. Rest and sleep -a mother-to-be needs much rest and sleep. Many doctors advise 8-9 hours of slept a bight. Physical Activity and Exercise -unless advised otherwise by her doctor, a pregnant woman can and should be active. Activity helps with weight gain, strengthens muscles used in delivery, increases energy and relieves tension.
H EALTH H AZARDS TO A VOID Diabetes-a disorder caused by the body’s inability to use sugar properly. Another kind of diabetes can occur during pregnancy called gestational diabetes-this appears in women who did not have diabetes before pregnancy and usually it goes away after pregnancy ends. Pregnancy Induced Hypertension (PIH)- the name for high blood pressure caused by pregnancy. Sometimes this is called toxemia or preeclampsia. It includes a sudden increase in blood pressure, protein in the urine, swelling. If untreated it can lead to damage of death of the mother, baby or both.
H EALTH H AZARDS TO A VOID CONT. Sexually Transmitted Diseases- infectious diseases that are passed primarily through sexual intercourse. Some STDs can enter the bloodstream of the mother and cross the placenta to reach the unborn. Others infect the mother’s reproductive tract and can be passed to the baby during delivery. See pg. 142 in your textbook for STDs and their effect on the baby.
H EALTH H AZARDS TO A VOID CONT. Drugs-this includes all medications, over the counter and prescribed my a doctor. Alcohol-Doctors advise women to never drink alcohol during pregnancy. Taking even 1 drink can cause the baby to be abnormal. Almost 3 in every 1000 babies are born with Fetal Alcohol syndrome. Nicotine-babies of smokers are usually smaller than average or premature. Wile a mother is smoking, the baby’s oxygen is greatly reduced. Smoking can cause a baby’s brain to develop abnormally.
H EALTH H AZARDS TO A VOID CONT. Illegal Drugs -can cross the placenta quickly and reach the baby. If a woman is addicted to drugs, changes are her baby is too. Pregnant women who use drugs often have low birth weight and are premature. Pregnant women who use illegal drugs often neglect their own health by eating poorly, smoking or abusing alcohol.
H EALTH H AZARDS TO A VOID CONT. Radiation -X-rays should be avoided during pregnancy, as the increase the likelihood of childhood cancer. Some also link X-rays to congenital disabilities in the fetus. Environmental Pollution -lead, chemicals, pesticides, and herbicides all pose risks to the unborn baby.
C OMPLICATIONS OF P REGNANCY PGS Congenital Problems -is a physical or biochemical that is present at birth. It may be inherited or caused by environmental factors. A miscarriage - is the expulsion of the baby from the mother’s body before week 20 of pregnancy. Stillbirth is the loss of the fetus after 20 weeks of pregnancy. In a stillbirth, the baby is born dead.
M ONITORING THE B ABY ’ S D EVELOPMENT Warm Up: What emotions might these complications (from your research) cause a couple to experience? What resources could help them resolve these emotions? Identify the complication with your response Complete your graphic organizer from today’s notes
M ONITORING THE B ABY ’ S D EVELOPMENT What does the term monitor mean? check, track, or observe
W HAT DOES MONITORING A BABY ’ S DEVELOPMENT HELP DOCTORS DETERMINE ? The baby’s health The baby’s exact age Size of the baby Gender of the baby More than one baby? The position in the mothers uterus
M ONITORING THE BABY ’ S DEVELOPMENT Ultrasound-a test that is done to monitor an unborn baby. This test bounces sound waves off the fetus to produce an image of the fetus in side the womb.
The technician holds a transducer over the mother’s abdomen. This device emits sound waves. The waves are absorbed at different rates, depending on whether they hit bone, organ tissue, blood or water
U LTRASOUND These differences are changed into electrical impulses. This then produces a visual image of the fetus on a computer monitor
U LTRASOUNDS 4 Twins??
C HRONIC V ILLUS S AMPLING (CVS)- Chronic Villus Sampling (CVS)- is a procedure for finding abnormalities in the unborn by testing a small amount of chorion. This is used between 8-12 weeks of pregnancy. Chorion: the membrane that surrounds the baby in the uterus
A MNIOCENTESIS Amniocentesis-a prenatal test used to check for the presence of over 100 congenital problems. A medical professional inserts a needle through the abdominal wall into the uterus. Ultrasound is done at the same time to position the needle. The professional withdraws a small amount of fluid from the amniotic sac. This is done between weeks of pregnancy.
R EFLECT If you were a parent to be, would you request or agree to have CVS or amniocentesis done? Why or why not? What would your reaction be if you had the tset done and problems were discovered with the baby?
A CTIVATE Interviewing a parent: If you were to interview a parent, what are some questions that you would ask regarding childbirth? Compile a list of your top 5 questions that you would ask if you had the chance. Make sure to include at least one question for a father to be
T HE R OLE OF THE F AMILY
F AMILY I NVOLVEMENT Today’s Fathers-to-be take a more active role than they have in the past. Fathers can be an emotional support for the pregnant women What are some ways that husbands can support their wives throughout pregnancy? List as many as you can with your partner
F ATHERS - TO - BE Reassure their wives about their health and baby’s health Decorate the nursery together Read books Attend classes Doctors appointments
LABOR When fathers are involved in childbirth, there are many benefits: Calm mothers Reduce their feelings of anxiety Shorter labor (in some cases) More enjoyable labor Bonding for fathers
A CTIVITY : Draw cartoons showing the “traditional” role of fathers during pregnancy and childbirth. Draw cartoons showing today’s role of fathers during pregnancy and childbirth Describe how traditional and today’s practices differ
F AMILY D ECISIONS C ONCERNING C HILDBIRTH Where will the birth take place? Method of delivery? Parents should base their decision on their doctors advice as well as their own preferences.
H OME V S. H OSPITAL Rotating Stations: What are the benefits of home deliveries? What is a CNM? Where do CNM’s work and why have home deliveries begun to increase in popularity again? What are the benefits of hospital deliveries? What is a birthing room? Which method of delivery has a higher infant death rate and why?
C HILDBIRTH D ECISIONS : C HOOSING A METHOD OF DELIVERY IS A PERSONAL CHOICE Natural childbirth: the woman learns about the birth process so she knows what to expect. She is trained to breathe and relax in a way that helps the birth process. The woman delivers without the aid of medications or drugs. Lamaze method- the mother is taught to focus on something other than pain. She uses breathing patterns to keep her mind off of the pain. She attends Lamaze classes to help prepare her mentally and physically.
C HILDBIRTH D ECISIONS Leboyer method -focuses on the comfort of the baby and mother. This method assumes that delivery is painful for the baby as well as the mother. This method uses low lights, nose is kept at a minimum, and the doctor supports the baby after the head appears. After birth the baby rests on the mother’s body then lowered into water that is near body temperature. Finally the baby is dressed and wrapped in a warm blanket. C-Section- in some cases, traditional methods of delivery are unsafe. In cesarean section, the mother’s abdomen and uterus are surgically opened and the baby is removed. Mother’s pelvis is too small Baby or mother are at risk Baby’s head is too large Contractions are weak or absent That baby is in the wrong position for birth The doctor feels that the previous c-section scar could rupture
A CTIVITY : C HOICES FOR D ELIVERY Complete the chart of advantages and disadvantages for each method of delivery. When completed, write a paragraph summarizing the variety of delivery methods. What factors must be considered when choosing a delivery method? Which method do you feel is the best and why? How can fathers to be stay involved in their baby’s birth?
S TAGES OF L ABOR - T IME TO BE B ORN Stage 1 Dilation of the cervix Contractions every minutes Uterus narrows Stage 2 The baby’s head enters the birth canal The mother’s muscles push to move the baby down Episiotomy may be made to widen the birth canal to prevent tearing. Baby is delivered Stage 3 About 20 minutes after birth the mother has a few irregular contractions. These cause the placenta to completely detach from the uterus and descend. This is commonly called the afterbirth.
W RITING A SSIGNMENT : Analyze the emotions shown from the mother to be and from the father to be. Compare and contrast the emotions felt by the father and by the mother before labor, during labor and after labor. What could be the possible causes of these emotions? Explain the process of this woman’s labor experience. Were there any complications? What was the procedure before, during and after birth? Peer Review Activity
C OMPLICATIONS OF D ELIVERY PG. 161 Writing Assignment : Analyze the emotions shown from the mother to be and from the father to be. Compare and contrast the emotions felt by the father and by the mother before labor, during labor and after labor. What could be the possible causes of these emotions? Explain the process of this woman’s labor experience. Were there any complications? What was the procedure before, during and after birth?