Presentation on theme: "2618 Pregnancy, childbirth, and parenting zIt is a myth that the sperm penetrates the egg. Instead, the egg reaches out and draws the sperm into the inner."— Presentation transcript:
2618 Pregnancy, childbirth, and parenting zIt is a myth that the sperm penetrates the egg. Instead, the egg reaches out and draws the sperm into the inner area. zShortly after the egg has implanted itself into the uterus, the placenta begins to develop. zPregnancy lasts 37 to 42 weeks.
Physical reactions to pregnancy zNausea is an especially common symptom during the 1st trimester of pregnancy. 50 to 70% of all pregnant women will experience nausea at some point in their pregnancy. zOther physical symptoms include weight gain, protrusion of the abdomen, breast tenderness, urination, and fatigue. zVariability in women’s sexual interest: y60% reported less interest y20% reported no change y20% reported more interest
Emotional reactions to pregnancy zPositive emotions yMany women feel excitement, anticipation, approval, transitioning into adulthood, and an attachment to the new baby. zNegative emotions yMany women report that their emotions are fragile & continuously changing; they have depressive feelings, fear, and anxiety. Some may be concerned about their physical appearance.
Reactions to pregnancy zA woman’s reaction to pregnancy is influenced by: yphysical reaction ywhether the pregnancy was planned yher relationship to the baby’s father yher employment status
Attitudes toward pregnant women zOften strangers will invade the privacy of a pregnant woman. zIn the study by Taylor & Langer (1977), people tended to avoid standing close to a pregnant woman. zPeople are likely to help a pregnant woman.
Pregnant women and employment zDiscrimination against pregnant worker is illegal, but they may still be treated differently in the workplace. However, most women with challenging jobs feel comfortable about combining work with pregnancy, and employment during pregnancy does not endanger the health of the pregnant woman or the baby.
Childbirth zThe biology of childbirth yLabor is divided into 3 stages. xDuring the first stage, the cervix dilates xIn the second stage, contractions and the woman pushing, move the baby farther down the vagina. Progesterone levels drop. The second stage ends with the birth of the baby. xThe third stage is the delivery of the placenta. Estrogen levels drop
yAbout 20 to 25% of women in the U.S. and Canada, deliver by cesarean section; many health care critics argue this is too high. zExpectations about childbirth yMost women do not have realistic expectations about the amount of pain experienced during labor and delivery.
Emotional reactions to childbirth zSome women focus on the joy, others focus on the pain, and finally, others focus on coping with the pain.
Alternative methods of childbirth zPrepared childbirth involves these elements: yReduce fear through education. yControl pain through controlled breathing. yProviding social support and relaxation from someone close to the mother. zMothers report positive attitudes, less anxiety, and reduced pain from involvement in prepared childbirth.
Cont. yFamily-centered approach xDifferences from prepared childbirth: Labor should not be artificially induced for convenience. Women should be encouraged to move around during labor. No requirements for enemas, shaving. No anesthetics unless required Supportive family/friends present Health care providers who encourage a woman’s sense of empowerment during childbirth.
Motherhood zThe reality of motherhood yNegative factors xFathers help less than mothers expected. xChildcare is exhausting. xMany women report feeling incompetent. xSome mothers expect a happy, cuddly baby but many babies are fussy, and resist cuddling. xMother’s partner may feel neglected. xWomen struggle with the ideal mother syndrome.
yPositive factors xSense of strength. xCloseness with children. xFun and interesting.
Motherhood and women of color zFor Af-A, two stereotypes: yWelfare mother ySuperwoman zFor Latina mothers ySubmissive but truthfully they are an active, powerful force within the family. zFor As-A, there are special customs: yIn Cambodia, new mothers sleep in a bed over a warm fire for a month. In contrast, in India, a new mother is considered unclean for two months.
Lesbian mothers zMany studies show that the children raised in lesbian households and heterosexual households are similar in characteristics such as intelligence, development, self- esteem, psychological well-being, and popularity. zStacey & Biblarz (2001) state, “We argued instead that despite the limitations, there is suggestive evidence and good reason to believe that contemporary children and young adults with lesbian or gay parents do differ in modest and interesting ways from children with heterosexual parents.”
Postpartum disturbances zPostpartum blues yAffects about 50% of new mothers. zPostpartum depression y10%-15% yMore severe zSocial factors implicated yLow-income yLack of social support yProbably not due to hormone levels.
Breast feeding z60% of new mothers breast-feed z15% nurse their babies for a whole year. zMore likely among better educated and higher income zAf-A less likely to breast-feed. zMothers who bottle feed emphasize the convenience.
Returning to work zReturn to work more quickly if employer has guaranteed their jobs and if they have relatively nontraditional attitudes toward parenting. zChildren do not experience problems if they are cared for by someone other than their mother.
Deciding to have children z20% of women will never have children. zFamily size is not correlated with couples’ satisfaction. z16% of couples are infertile. yWomen who are infertile show higher levels of distress and anxiety than fertile women. yAbout half of couples who seek medical attention will eventually become parents.
Work and Play zWomen spend more time with infants but in the time that men spend with children, they play more than women. zPrimary activity is custodial; secondary activity is interactional. yReasons xMaking up for their absence. xPlay is cleaner and more desirable. xPlay requires less attention and less time.
Can men “mother” z141 passive receptor fathers were surveyed. (90% white) zResults y80% + took care of the house yFathers tried to make their houses child centered. x92% had first aid supplies. x83% had emergency number posted.
zThey report spending considerable time in housekeeping chores and recreational time with their children. zThey believe their children share their feelings with them. zMost fathers reported satisfaction.