Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Your Contraceptive Choices

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Your Contraceptive Choices"— Presentation transcript:

1 Your Contraceptive Choices

2 Most Widely Used in US Pill 30.6% Tubal Ligation 27.0% Male Condom
Birth Control Method Pill Tubal Ligation Male Condom Vasectomy Injectable Withdrawal IUD Natural family planning Implant Other Diaphragm % of total 30.6% 27.0% 18.0% 9.2% 5.3% 4.0% 2.0% 1.6% 1.2% .9% .3%

3 Abstinence What it is and How it works
Abstinence means choosing not to have sex. What’s Your Definition? Refraining from all sexual behavior, including masturbation Refraining from sexual behavior involving genital contact Refraining from penetrative sexual practices Many more definitions out there…it’s not enough to ask “Have you had sex before?” Cost: Free!!! Emotionally and financially! Its the only thing that is 100% effective for preventing pregnancy and STIs

4 Advantages & Disadvantages of ABSTINENCE
100% prevents sexually transmitted infections and pregnancy No medical or hormonal side effects Postpone emotional and physical risks Less likely to become infertile Free! ($0) Disadvantages May be difficult to abstain May not be prepared with back-up method if or when you choose to become sexually active

5 WITHDRAWAL What is it? How does it work?
Pseudo-contraceptive method practice The man pulls his penis out of the vagina before he ejaculates to keep the sperm from joining the egg

6 Advantages and Disadvantages of Withdrawal
Full personal control over use; no need for special medical procedures or exams Better than using no method at all No side effects Free Disadvantages High failure rate Must rely totally on partner to pull out in time – woman has no control Inexperienced or young partner may not be able to withdraw in time Pre-ejaculate -- possibility for sperm No protection against any STIs

7 Effectiveness and Cost
73% effective (27 out of 100 women using this for one year will get pregnant) It is Free ($0) since you do not use any devices

8 Spermicides What they are and how they work
A method that a woman inserts into the vagina before having sex Contain chemicals (Active ingredient: nonoxynol-9) that kill sperm and/or block sperm from entering cervix Forms: Gel, foam, cream, film, suppository, or tablet Used alone OR as part of another barrier method Time sensitive – usually requires 15 min wait before sex for spermicide to activate; must reapply/effective for only an hour Don’t wash it away – especially not for at least 6 hours after having sex.

9 Advantages and Disadvantages of Spermicides
Full personal control over use No need for special procedure or exam Doesn’t contain hormones Side effects are uncommon; almost anyone can use them Available without a prescription and in most drug stores; relatively inexpensive Disadvantages Need to plan ahead – must have available when you have sex Must reinsert often (every hour) Doesn’t provide protection from any STI’s Not as effective as other methods Some have allergic or chemical reaction to ingredients in it Side effects may include increased urinary tract infections or irritation

10 Effectiveness 71% effective (29 out of 100 women using it for 1 year will get pregnant)

11 Approximately $.30 - $1.00 per act of sex
Cost Approximately $.30 - $1.00 per act of sex Film (12 sheets) – approx. $9.25 Foam (container) -- $12.00 Suppositories (12) -- $4.00 Gel or Cream (tube) -- $12.00

12 The Female Condom What is it and How it works
Thin, loose-fitting and flexible plastic (polyurethane) tube worn inside the vagina A soft ring at the closed end covers the cervix and keeps sperm from entering the vagina (fits like diaphram) Outer ring covers the labia on the outside of the vagina – hangs out about 1 inch when inserted One time use only – throw away after you use it and it is replaced with a new one before your next act of sex.

13 Advantages and Disadvantages of the Female Condom
Difficult to use Can break or leak More expensive then the male condom Does not contain spermicide Advantages Available without a prescription No hormonal side effects Can be used for people with latex sensitivities Prevents STIs: chlamydia, gonorrhea, herpes, HPV, and HIV Stays in place regardless of penis hardness – cannot fall off

14 Side Effects There are no physical side effects
There is a chance though that it will break or slip during intercourse DO NOT USE WITH MALE CONDOM!!! (The friction will cause both to break)

15 79% effective Effectiveness (21 out of 100 women
using this for one year will get pregnant.)

16 Cost About $2.50-$3.00 per package/condom

17 The Male Condom What is it and How does it work?
Keep sperm from entering the vagina during intercourse It is a thin layer of latex (plastic) that covers the penis; polyurethane and tactylon (plastic) are available as well. Rolled onto an erect penis Once man ejaculates, must hold on to base of condom and remove himself from woman; gently pull off condom and discard Removal must be done immediately before penis becomes soft (flaccid) to prevent spilling of semen. A new one must be used before next sex act.

18 Advantages & Disadvantages of Male Condoms
Can sometimes break Need to plan ahead; have available when you have sex Latex and/or Spermicide Allergies – other brands or types of plastic available for those who suffer Loss of sensation Advantages Easy to buy Inexpensive Full personal control over use; no special procedures or exams Side effects uncommon Helps prevent pregnancy and most STIs Can be used with other methods

19 Condom Not Recommended For:
Women or Men who are uncomfortable touching the penis Those who have an allergy to latex (rubber) or spermicide. Avanti and Trojan Supra brands have a polyurethane male condom (best) or natural membrane condoms (lamb skin) Only 1-2% of women and men have such allergies

20 Effectiveness 85% effective (15 out of 100 couples using
condoms for one year will get pregnant.) Up to 95% effective when used with vaginal spermicide Nearly 100% if used with withdrawal

21 Family Planning Centers may give them away or charge very little
$$ Cost $$ $.30 - $1.00 each Family Planning Centers may give them away or charge very little

22 Mini Pills What are they and How do they Work?
A special kind of oral contraceptive pill Taken daily (one pill) Contains the hormone progestin which works to prevent pregnancy by stopping ovulation and/or thickening the cervical mucus to stop the sperm from passing through

23 Advantages and Disadvantages of Mini Pills
Studied for more than 30 years; long-term safety well known Stops monthly periods or causes extremely light periods Contains no estrogen Alternative for women over 35 who smoke Decreased menstrual cramps and pain; relief from acne and facial hair Decreased risk of endometrial cancer, ovarian cancer, and PID (pelvic inflammatory disease) Immediate reversibility Disadvantages Must take them every day at the same time Effectiveness is compromised easier if taken with other medications because dose is very low Does not protect against STIs Not recommended for women who: Have impaired liver function Known or suspected breast cancer Abnormal vaginal bleeding in medical history Don’t have access to healthcare provider as they require a prescription

24 Effectiveness 95% effective
(5 out of 100 woman using it for one year will get pregnant) Increased effectiveness if used with other barrier methods

25 Cost $17.00 – $25.00 per monthly pill pack $35-$125 for exam

26 Depo-Provera What it is and how does it work?
A high dose shot of the hormone progestin (no estrogen used) that prevents pregnancy for about 3 months Stops ovulation and/or thickens cervical mucus to keep sperm from joining egg; get shot within first 5 days of period to improve effectiveness the first 3 months Must receive shot every 12 weeks; given in arm or buttocks

27 Advantages and Disadvantages of Depo-Provera
Stops monthly periods or have extremely light periods Contains no estrogen Safe, highly effective, long-lasting protection – no need for action before, during or after sex Reduces menstrual cramps and pain Can be used right after birth and while breast feeding Alternative to women who are over 35 and smoke Decreased risk of endometrial and ovarian cancer, and PID Disadvantages Must receive shot every 3 months Irregular or late periods, spotting may occur. After a year most stop having periods; safe – most welcome it. Bloating, weight gain, headaches, depression, loss of interest in sex, hair loss, and abdominal pain May result in bone loss during use; density returns to normal when you stop using it Side effects can’t be reversed until wears off May cause delay in pregnancy after shot is stopped Does not protect against STIs

28 Depo-Provera Not Recommended for women who are:
Are uncomfortable with needles/injections Plan to get pregnant within 5 years Have impaired liver function or liver tumors Have known or suspected breast cancer Have abnormal vaginal bleeding Have depression in their medical history Don’t have access to health care provider – requires a prescription and must be injected by a health care provider

29 Effectiveness and Cost
97% (3 out of 100 women using the injection for one year will get pregnant) $30 - $75 for each injection Average initial exam costs around $35-$125 Follow-up visits $20-$40

30 IUD What is it and How does it work?
A small plastic device inserted into (and removed from) the uterus by a health care provider Contains copper (ParaGard) or hormone progestin (Mirena) that keep the sperm from joining the egg Mirena thickens cervical mucus and thins endometrium; may make sperm less active and less likely to live in fallopian tube ParaGard prevents sperm from going through the uterus and into fallopian tubes; in rare instances, prevents implantation into uterus

31 Advantages and Disadvantages of IUD
Immediately and highly effective Longest lasting of any method; cost-effective if used for its full term of effectiveness Easily removed by provider at any time Convenient: no action needed before, during or after sex; requires no daily attention Women who are breast-feeding can use this Disadvantages Doesn’t prevent against STIs Requires health care provider visits for insertion and removal Small risk of pelvic infection for first few weeks after insertion; higher risk if woman has multiple sexual partners. Possible risk to future fertility For some, insertion can be painful May increase cramps and bleeding during monthly periods Expensive if used for only a short amount of time

32 Effectiveness Mirena (hormonal) – replaced every 5 years 99.9% effective (1 woman out of 1,000 using the device for one year will get pregnant) Copper (ParaGard) – replaced every 10 years 99.2% % effective (6-8 woman out of 1,000 using the device for one year will get pregnant)

33 COST $175-$400 (exam, insertion, and follow-up visit)
Mirena (hormonal) - $300-$400 every 5 years ParaGard (copper) - $200-$300 every 10 years

34 Emergency Contraceptives What it is and How it Works
Used after contraceptive device fails or after unprotected sex Prevents pregnancy by inhibiting ovulation, fertilization, or implantation Regimen of combined oral contraceptive pills (ECPs – emergency contraceptive pills) Plan B: first tablet taken ASAP within 3 days of sex, second tablet must be taken 12 hours later. OR - IUD - Insertion of copper-releasing IUD within 5 days of unprotected sex

35 Advantages and Disadvantages of Emergency Contraceptives
Only methods a couple can use to prevent pregnancy after unprotected sex or after an “accident” Provides emergency treatment for victims of sexual assault who were not protected by an effective method at the time Disadvantages Not as effective at preventing pregnancy as other birth control methods Possibility of short term side effects like nausea, vomiting, and menstrual changes at next period Does not protect against STIs

36 Effectiveness 92-98% effective with pills (8 out of 100 who have unprotected sex during first part of cycle will become pregnant) (1-2 women out of 100 will become pregnant after taking Plan B) 99% effective after ParaGard IUD insertion (1 woman out of 100 will become pregnant after insertion )

37 Cost Approximately $25 for Plan B
Available to women and girls age 17 and older without a prescription at most pharmacies. You must show proof of age. For girls ages 16 and younger, Plan B is available only with a doctor’s prescription. ParaGard (copper) IUD - $200-$300 $175-$400 (exam, insertion, and follow-up visit)

38 Advantages and Disadvantages of Sterilization
Generally more reliable than other birth control methods Disadvantages Requires outpatient surgery Leaves small scars and may involve stitches. Can be expensive Does not protect against STIs

39 99.7%- 99.8% tubal ligation for women
Effectiveness Both procedures require at least 3 months before either are effective to the rates below: 99.7%- 99.8% tubal ligation for women 99.85%-99.9% vasectomy for men

40 Not Recommended for women who:
Plan to get pregnant in the future Want the choice of getting pregnant at some point in their lives Do not have access to a health care provider – sterilization requires outpatient surgery

41 Cost Approximately $1,300-$3,500 for Essure or tubal ligation
Approximately $250-$1,000for vasectomy

42 MYTHS about birth control and contraceptives
A woman will not get pregnant the first time she has sex A woman can only get pregnant once a month A woman will not get pregnant if her partner pulls out A woman will not get pregnant if she urinates or douches after sexual activity.

Download ppt "Your Contraceptive Choices"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google