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Your Contraceptive Choices. Most Widely Used in US Birth Control Method  Pill  Tubal Ligation  Male Condom  Vasectomy  Injectable  Withdrawal 

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Presentation on theme: "Your Contraceptive Choices. Most Widely Used in US Birth Control Method  Pill  Tubal Ligation  Male Condom  Vasectomy  Injectable  Withdrawal "— Presentation transcript:

1 Your Contraceptive Choices

2 Most Widely Used in US Birth Control Method  Pill  Tubal Ligation  Male Condom  Vasectomy  Injectable  Withdrawal  IUD  Natural family planning  Implant  Other  Diaphragm % of total 30.6% 27.0% 18.0% 9.2% 5.3% 4.0% 2.0% 1.6% 1.2%.9%.3%

3 Abstinence What it is and How it works  Abstinence means choosing not to have sex. What’s Your Definition?  Refraining from all sexual behavior, including masturbation  Refraining from sexual behavior involving genital contact  Refraining from penetrative sexual practices Many more definitions out there…it’s not enough to ask “Have you had sex before?”  Cost: Free!!! Emotionally and financially!  Its the only thing that is 100% effective for preventing pregnancy and STIs

4 Advantages & Disadvantages of ABSTINENCE Advantages  100% prevents sexually transmitted infections and pregnancy  No medical or hormonal side effects  Postpone emotional and physical risks  Less likely to become infertile  Free! ($0) Disadvantages  May be difficult to abstain  May not be prepared with back- up method if or when you choose to become sexually active

5 WITHDRAWAL What is it? How does it work?  Pseudo-contraceptive method practice  The man pulls his penis out of the vagina before he ejaculates to keep the sperm from joining the egg

6 Advantages and Disadvantages of Withdrawal Advantages  Full personal control over use; no need for special medical procedures or exams  Better than using no method at all  No side effects  Free Disadvantages  High failure rate  Must rely totally on partner to pull out in time – woman has no control  Inexperienced or young partner may not be able to withdraw in time  Pre-ejaculate -- possibility for sperm  No protection against any STIs

7 Effectiveness and Cost  73% effective (27 out of 100 women using this for one year will get pregnant)  It is Free ($0) since you do not use any devices

8 Spermicides What they are and how they work  A method that a woman inserts into the vagina before having sex  Contain chemicals (Active ingredient: nonoxynol-9) that kill sperm and/or block sperm from entering cervix  Forms: Gel, foam, cream, film, suppository, or tablet  Used alone OR as part of another barrier method  Time sensitive – usually requires 15 min wait before sex for spermicide to activate; must reapply/effective for only an hour  Don’t wash it away – especially not for at least 6 hours after having sex.

9 Advantages and Disadvantages of Spermicides Advantages  Full personal control over use  No need for special procedure or exam  Doesn’t contain hormones  Side effects are uncommon; almost anyone can use them  Available without a prescription and in most drug stores; relatively inexpensive Disadvantages  Need to plan ahead – must have available when you have sex  Must reinsert often (every hour)  Doesn’t provide protection from any STI’s  Not as effective as other methods  Some have allergic or chemical reaction to ingredients in it  Side effects may include increased urinary tract infections or irritation

10 Effectiveness  71% effective (29 out of 100 women using it for 1 year will get pregnant)

11 Cost Approximately $.30 - $1.00 per act of sex  Film (12 sheets) – approx. $9.25  Foam (container) -- $12.00  Suppositories (12) -- $4.00  Gel or Cream (tube) -- $12.00

12 The Female Condom What is it and How it works  Thin, loose-fitting and flexible plastic (polyurethane) tube worn inside the vagina  A soft ring at the closed end covers the cervix and keeps sperm from entering the vagina (fits like diaphram)  Outer ring covers the labia on the outside of the vagina – hangs out about 1 inch when inserted  One time use only – throw away after you use it and it is replaced with a new one before your next act of sex.

13 Advantages and Disadvantages of the Female Condom Advantages  Available without a prescription  No hormonal side effects  Can be used for people with latex sensitivities  Prevents STIs: chlamydia, gonorrhea, herpes, HPV, and HIV  Stays in place regardless of penis hardness – cannot fall off Disadvantages  Difficult to use  Can break or leak  More expensive then the male condom  Does not contain spermicide

14 Side Effects  There are no physical side effects  There is a chance though that it will break or slip during intercourse  DO NOT USE WITH MALE CONDOM!!! (The friction will cause both to break)

15 Effectiveness  79% effective (21 out of 100 women using this for one year will get pregnant.)

16 Cost About $2.50-$3.00 per package/condom

17 The Male Condom What is it and How does it work?  Keep sperm from entering the vagina during intercourse  It is a thin layer of latex (plastic) that covers the penis; polyurethane and tactylon (plastic) are available as well.  Rolled onto an erect penis  Once man ejaculates, must hold on to base of condom and remove himself from woman; gently pull off condom and discard  Removal must be done immediately before penis becomes soft (flaccid) to prevent spilling of semen.  A new one must be used before next sex act.

18 Advantages & Disadvantages of Male Condoms Advantages  Easy to buy  Inexpensive  Full personal control over use; no special procedures or exams  Side effects uncommon  Helps prevent pregnancy and most STIs  Can be used with other methods Disadvantages  Can sometimes break  Need to plan ahead; have available when you have sex  Latex and/or Spermicide Allergies – other brands or types of plastic available for those who suffer  Loss of sensation

19 Condom Not Recommended For:  Women or Men who are uncomfortable touching the penis  Those who have an allergy to latex (rubber) or spermicide. Avanti and Trojan Supra brands have a polyurethane male condom (best) or natural membrane condoms (lamb skin) Only 1-2% of women and men have such allergies

20 Effectiveness  85% effective (15 out of 100 couples using condoms for one year will get pregnant.)  Up to 95% effective when used with vaginal spermicide  Nearly 100% if used with withdrawal

21 $$ Cost $$  $.30 - $1.00 each Family Planning Centers may give them away or charge very little

22 Mini Pills What are they and How do they Work?  A special kind of oral contraceptive pill  Taken daily (one pill)  Contains the hormone progestin which works to prevent pregnancy by  stopping ovulation and/or  thickening the cervical mucus to stop the sperm from passing through

23 Advantages and Disadvantages of Mini Pills Advantages  Studied for more than 30 years; long-term safety well known  Stops monthly periods or causes extremely light periods  Contains no estrogen  Alternative for women over 35 who smoke  Decreased menstrual cramps and pain; relief from acne and facial hair  Decreased risk of endometrial cancer, ovarian cancer, and PID (pelvic inflammatory disease)  Immediate reversibility Disadvantages  Must take them every day at the same time  Effectiveness is compromised easier if taken with other medications because dose is very low  Does not protect against STIs  Not recommended for women who:  Have impaired liver function  Known or suspected breast cancer  Abnormal vaginal bleeding in medical history  Don’t have access to healthcare provider as they require a prescription

24 Effectiveness  95% effective (5 out of 100 woman using it for one year will get pregnant)  Increased effectiveness if used with other barrier methods

25 Cost  $17.00 – $25.00 per monthly pill pack  $35-$125 for exam

26 Depo-Provera What it is and how does it work?  A high dose shot of the hormone progestin (no estrogen used) that prevents pregnancy for about 3 months  Stops ovulation and/or thickens cervical mucus to keep sperm from joining egg; get shot within first 5 days of period to improve effectiveness the first 3 months  Must receive shot every 12 weeks; given in arm or buttocks

27 Advantages and Disadvantages of Depo-Provera Advantages  Stops monthly periods or have extremely light periods  Contains no estrogen  Safe, highly effective, long- lasting protection – no need for action before, during or after sex  Reduces menstrual cramps and pain  Can be used right after birth and while breast feeding  Alternative to women who are over 35 and smoke  Decreased risk of endometrial and ovarian cancer, and PID Disadvantages  Must receive shot every 3 months  Irregular or late periods, spotting may occur. After a year most stop having periods; safe – most welcome it.  Bloating, weight gain, headaches, depression, loss of interest in sex, hair loss, and abdominal pain  May result in bone loss during use; density returns to normal when you stop using it  Side effects can’t be reversed until wears off  May cause delay in pregnancy after shot is stopped  Does not protect against STIs

28 Depo-Provera Not Recommended for women who are:  Are uncomfortable with needles/injections  Plan to get pregnant within 5 years  Have impaired liver function or liver tumors  Have known or suspected breast cancer  Have abnormal vaginal bleeding  Have depression in their medical history  Don’t have access to health care provider – requires a prescription and must be injected by a health care provider

29 Effectiveness and Cost  97% ( 3 out of 100 women using the injection for one year will get pregnant)  $30 - $75 for each injection  Average initial exam costs around $35-$125  Follow-up visits $20-$40

30 IUD What is it and How does it work?  A small plastic device inserted into (and removed from) the uterus by a health care provider  Contains copper (ParaGard) or hormone progestin (Mirena) that keep the sperm from joining the egg  Mirena thickens cervical mucus and thins endometrium; may make sperm less active and less likely to live in fallopian tube  ParaGard prevents sperm from going through the uterus and into fallopian tubes; in rare instances, prevents implantation into uterus

31 Advantages and Disadvantages of IUD Advantages  Immediately and highly effective  Longest lasting of any method; cost-effective if used for its full term of effectiveness  Easily removed by provider at any time  Convenient: no action needed before, during or after sex; requires no daily attention  Women who are breast-feeding can use this Disadvantages  Doesn’t prevent against STIs  Requires health care provider visits for insertion and removal  Small risk of pelvic infection for first few weeks after insertion; higher risk if woman has multiple sexual partners.  Possible risk to future fertility  For some, insertion can be painful  May increase cramps and bleeding during monthly periods  Expensive if used for only a short amount of time

32 Effectiveness Mirena (hormonal) – replaced every 5 years  99.9% effective (1 woman out of 1,000 using the device for one year will get pregnant) Copper (ParaGard) – replaced every 10 years  99.2% % effective (6-8 woman out of 1,000 using the device for one year will get pregnant)

33 COST  $175-$400 (exam, insertion, and follow-up visit)  Mirena (hormonal) - $300-$400 every 5 years  ParaGard (copper) - $200-$300 every 10 years

34 Emergency Contraceptives What it is and How it Works  Used after contraceptive device fails or after unprotected sex  Prevents pregnancy by inhibiting ovulation, fertilization, or implantation  Regimen of combined oral contraceptive pills (ECPs – emergency contraceptive pills)  Plan B: first tablet taken ASAP within 3 days of sex, second tablet must be taken 12 hours later. OR - IUD - Insertion of copper-releasing IUD within 5 days of unprotected sex

35 Advantages and Disadvantages of Emergency Contraceptives Advantages  Only methods a couple can use to prevent pregnancy after unprotected sex or after an “accident”  Provides emergency treatment for victims of sexual assault who were not protected by an effective method at the time Disadvantages  Not as effective at preventing pregnancy as other birth control methods  Possibility of short term side effects like nausea, vomiting, and menstrual changes at next period  Does not protect against STIs

36 Effectiveness  92-98% effective with pills (8 out of 100 who have unprotected sex during first part of cycle will become pregnant) (1-2 women out of 100 will become pregnant after taking Plan B)  99% effective after ParaGard IUD insertion (1 woman out of 100 will become pregnant after insertion )

37 Cost  Approximately $25 for Plan B Available to women and girls age 17 and older without a prescription at most pharmacies. You must show proof of age. For girls ages 16 and younger, Plan B is available only with a doctor’s prescription.  ParaGard (copper) IUD - $200-$300 $175-$400 (exam, insertion, and follow-up visit)

38 Advantages and Disadvantages of Sterilization Advantages  Generally more reliable than other birth control methods Disadvantages  Requires outpatient surgery  Leaves small scars and may involve stitches.  Can be expensive  Does not protect against STIs

39 Effectiveness Both procedures require at least 3 months before either are effective to the rates below: 99.7%- 99.8% tubal ligation for women 99.85%-99.9% vasectomy for men

40 Not Recommended for women who:  Plan to get pregnant in the future  Want the choice of getting pregnant at some point in their lives  Do not have access to a health care provider – sterilization requires outpatient surgery

41 Cost  Approximately $1,300-$3,500 for Essure or tubal ligation  Approximately $250-$1,000for vasectomy

42 MYTHS about birth control and contraceptives  A woman will not get pregnant the first time she has sex  A woman can only get pregnant once a month  A woman will not get pregnant if her partner pulls out  A woman will not get pregnant if she urinates or douches after sexual activity.


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