Presentation on theme: "Chapter 15: Evolution and the Human Life Cycle Pregnancy –Pregnancy sickness –Parent Offspring Conflict Senescence –Why do we grow old and die? Menopause."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 15: Evolution and the Human Life Cycle Pregnancy –Pregnancy sickness –Parent Offspring Conflict Senescence –Why do we grow old and die? Menopause –Grandmother Hypothesis Left Out –Mating –Parenting
Pregnancy Sickness (Margery Profit) Human Universal –Throwing up and food avoidance First trimester –Not eating for two (1.01 maybe) –Organ formation Certain types of food –Plants Secondary Compounds Fewer Birth Defects
Child and parent are related by.5, therefore they will not always agree on what is the best strategy. Each offspring is related to each other by.5 Related to themselves by 1 Each child will demand more than parent is willing to give Parents will try to distribute resources more evenly or by need Sibling rivalry Parent-Offspring Conflict (based on Kin Selection)
Parent-Offspring conflict before birth Preeclampsia: –Fetus will introduce hormones into to the mother to increase blood flow to itself so that it grows faster and bigger –Open up arteries to the placenta –Restrict arteries in the rest of the mother’s body –Leads to high blood pressure in the mother with lower pressure in the fetus and therefore a greater supply of blood to the baby –Mother attempts to limit blood flow to safeguard her own health to the point that the fetus is viable but not much more than this –Women with preeclampsia have health problems but give birth to bigger fatter babies.
Gestational diabetes –Fetus introduces hormones into the mother to increases the sugar content in the blood in order to increase its nutrition –Mother has to process more sugar than normally and sometimes her blood has more sugar than is health for her and higher blood pressure –Babies are big and fat.
Gestational anemia: –Iron is food for bacteria –Iron is necessary for blood clotting –Mother iron level is set to balance risk of bacterial infections against risk of blood loss –Fetus wants iron levels to minimize bacterial infections but does not incur a cost due to blood loss –Mother’s blood does not clot as well and is more prone to blood loss during birth and from injuries. –Fetus is less prone to bacterial infections
Infanticide is also an example of Parent-Offspring Conflict (Chapter 19) Parricide (killing parents) –Oedipal vs. Parent-Offspring conflict
Senescence Pleiotropy or another reason for “Programmed Death”? Is suicide adaptive? –Burden on kin –Low sexual opportunities –Status effects on kin
Grandmother Hypothesis –Female Reproduction ends before other physiological functions –Byproduct of longer lifespan? –Born with all of the eggs you will ever have? –Why is there no Grandfather Hypothesis? Grandmothers more that grandfathers More care for daughter’s children than for son’s children