Presentation on theme: "Unwanted pregnancy, unsafe abortion and women’s reproductive rights-"— Presentation transcript:
1Unwanted pregnancy, unsafe abortion and women’s reproductive rights- why pregnancy may be unwanted, what is unsafe abortion and complications of unsafe abortionByDr Michael Ezeanochie21/06/2014
2Learning Objectives Concept of women’s Reproductive rights Unwanted/unplanned pregnancyConsequences of unwanted pregnancyUnsafe abortionComplications of unsafe abortion
3IntroductionSexual and reproductive health and rights or SRHR is the concept of human rights applied to sexuality and reproduction.It is a combination of four fields that are separate but inherently intertwined.These four fields are sexual health, sexual rights, reproductive health and reproductive rights.
4IntroReproductive rights are legal rights and freedoms relating to reproduction and reproductive healthReproductive rights rest on the recognition of the basic right of all couples and individuals to decide freely and responsibly the number, spacing and timing of their children and to have the information and means to do so, and the right to attain the highest standard of sexual and reproductive health.They also include the right of all to make decisions concerning reproduction free of discrimination, coercion and violence
5Reproductive rights may include : the right to legal or safe abortion;the right to birth control;freedom from coerced sterilization, abortion, and contraception;the right to access good-quality reproductive healthcare;the right to education and access in order to make free and informed reproductive choices.the right to receive education about sexually transmitted infections and other aspects of sexuality, and protection from gender-based practices such as female genital mutilation
6Unwanted pregnanciesUnintended pregnancies are pregnancies that are mistimed, unplanned or unwanted at the time of conception.It is a core concept to better understand the fertility of populations and the unmet need for contraception and family planning.Unintended pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of problems for the mother and foetus.
7EpidemiologyIn 2006, 49% of pregnancies were unintendedAmong women aged 19 years and younger, more than 4 out of 5 pregnancies were unintended.The proportion of pregnancies that were unintended was highest among teens younger than age 15 years, at 98%.Large increases in unintended pregnancy rates were found among women with lower education, low income, and cohabiting women.Source: Unintended pregnancy in the United States: incidence and disparities, 2006.External Web Site Icon Contraception. 2011;84(5):478–485.
8Worldwide, 38% of pregnancies (about 80 million pregnancies) were unintended as at 1999. WHO ?? Nigerian figures
9ConsequencesIn 2008, just over half of all unintended pregnancies (excluding those ending in miscarriage) among unmarried 20–29-year-old women ended in abortionUnintended pregnancies are the main reason for induced abortions
10Consequences Prenatal care initiated later, and less adequate. Adversely affects health of woman and of child and less preparation for parenthoodUnintended pregnancies preclude chance to resolve sexually transmitted diseases (STD) before pregnancy. Untreated STD in pregnant woman can result in premature delivery, infection in newborn or infant death.Preclude use of genetic testing to help make decisions about whether to become pregnant.Women with an unintended pregnancy are more likely to suffer depression during or after pregnancy.Poorer maternal mental healthIncreased risk of physical violence during pregnancy.Reduced likelihood of breastfeeding, resulting in less healthy children.Lower mother-child relationship quality and thus Greater relationship instability
11consequences Children whose births were unintended are: Greater likelihood of low birth weight, particularly for unwanted pregnanciesGreater infant mortality.Likely to be less mentally and physically healthy during childhood.At higher risk of child abuse and neglect.Less likely to succeed in schoolMore likely to live in poverty and need public assistanceMore likely to have delinquent and criminal behaviorLess likely to have a close relationship with their mother.
12Unsafe abortionAn unsafe abortion is the termination of a pregnancy by people lacking the necessary skills, or in an environment lacking minimal medical standards, or both. (WHO)Unsafe abortion is a significant cause of maternal mortality and morbidity in the world
13Unsafe abortions usually occur: where abortion is illegalwhere affordable well-trained medical practitioners are not readily availablewhere modern contraceptives are unavailable
14Some common methods of unsafe abortion include: Trying to break the amniotic sac inside the womb with a sharp object or wirePumping toxic mixtures, such as chemicals like alum and herbal preparations into the body of the woman. This method can cause the woman to go in to toxic shock and die.Inducing an abortion without medical supervision by self-administering abortifacient over-the-counter drugs or drugs obtained illegally or by using drugs not indicated for abortion but known to result in miscarriage or uterine contraction. Drugs like oxytocin, ergometrine, misoprostol, prostaglandins , quinine, ampiclox etc.Risks include uterine rupture, irregular heartbeat, a rise in blood pressure hypertension, a drop in blood pressure cardiovascular problems, intense bronchospasms in women with asthma and death.
17ConclusionWomen's reproductive rights are intricately intertwined with their fundamental human rightsThey should be able to take decisions on their sexuality freely with coercion and prejudiceUnwanted pregnancy often leading to unsafe abortion with its associated morbidity and mortality result from restriction of the reproductive rights of women.