3The Perinatal Period. A uniquely stressful time. Pre-existing psychological conditions can be exacerbated by the stresses of the period.Many psychological illnesses have an increased risk of onset at this time.Whether some psychological illnesses occur uniquely in this period is controversial.
4Some Trends in the treatment of Maternal Psychological Illness (1). maternal age means greater chance of prior treatment of a psychological illness.treatment of depression generally in women of childbearing years.detection of depression via screening programs (antenatally and postnatally).recognition of “PND” beginning antenatally (ie antenatal depression).
5More Trends in the treatment of Maternal Psychological Illness (2). concern about the effects of maternal depression/anxiety on an infant’s psychological development.use of a wider range of new medications, eg,atypical antipsychoticsanticonvulsantsnew antidepressantsuse of medications in combination
6Trends in treating Psychotic Illness. successful therapies = social functioning =rate of psychotic patients becoming pregnant.New antipsychotics = no prolactin effect = reduced incidence of medication-induced birth control. proportion of patients with psychotic illness becoming pregnant.
7Epidemiology of Psychiatric Illness in Pregnancy. Pregnancy does not protect against mental illness as was previously thought.5-10% of women have clinically significant psychological symptoms.70% of women with a history of recurrent major depression will relapse during pregnancy.50% of women with untreated Bipolar Disorder will develop an episode in Pregnancy.Overall a large percentage of women, and their physicians will face this issue of relapse of illness during their pregnancy.
8Epidemiology of Postnatal Psychiatric Illness. 2-3 x increased risk of onset of psychiatric illness in the first weeks postpartum.Time of greatest risk of psych. hospitalisation for a woman cf any other time in her life.The risk is as high as 20x% of women will develop PND.Risk higher if any previous history of illness.Untreated Bipolar Disorder has a relapse rate of % (10-20% will experience a post partum psychosis).
9Clinical Situations Involving Pregnancy and Psychotropics. previous episode/s of Major Depression, Bipolar Disorder or psychotic illness and considering pregnancycurrently taking a psychotropic medication and considering pregnancycurrently taking a psychotropic medication and has become pregnantfirst onset of depression or anxiety disorder during current pregnancy
10Clinical Situations Involving Breastfeeding and Psychotropics. previous history of postnatal depression or psychosis requiring prevention (prophylaxis) while breastfeedingprevious history of depressive illness where postnatal prophylaxis may be advisablenew onset of postnatal psychiatric illness requiring medication whilst breastfeeding
11Potential Treatments for Maternal Psychiatric Illness. No treatmentPsychotherapySupportiveCognitive behaviouralInterpersonalPsychodynamicMedicationsECT
12Supportive Psychotherapy. has many helpful components.information (education), and advice, which is especially relevant to new mothersthe ventilation of difficult thoughts and feelings,support, praise, encouragement and reassurancepositive focussing,all presented in the context of the therapist’s reliability, consistency and continuity of care.Psychological therapies will most likely be used in the first instance. Supportive psychotherapy is a very powerful yet often underrated therapy.The benefits of an empathic relationship with a therapist who exhibits genuine respect and interest while maintaining objectivity (and without overinvolvement) should not be underestimated. There are other helpful components including the ventilation of difficult thoughts and feelings, support and encouragement, praise and positive focussing, reassurance, advice and education, all presented in the context of the therapist’s reliability, consistency and continuity of care.Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy (CBT) and Interpersonal Therapy (ITP) are more specialised forms of psychotherapy, which are especially useful for maternal depression and anxiety. They are however less widely available.Some women, however, will require a combination of medication and psychotherapy to improve their mental state.
13Psychotherapeutic Management (1). Some women will only consider psychotherapy.Some mild to moderate depression can be contained by this approach.It is important to reassure the woman who is “phobic” about medication that you respect their position.Ongoing intermittent psychotherapy allows for monitoring and re-evaluation.
14Psychotherapeutic Management (2). Supportive psychotherapy builds good will with the woman who is for the time being opposed to medication.Helps to create a therapeutic alliance that will be needed if the depression worsens.Avoid the dichotomy, “Well if you don’t want my medication I can’t help you”.or “…. I don’t want to see you.”Always keep the “door open”.
15General Issues to Consider. Mothers and babies elicit strong emotions.We each bring our own attitudes and values into the situation - what are they? Be aware of them.How many patients? One or two or more?The mother,the mother and foetus/babythe parental couple,the family
16The Clinical Problem: Defining Exposure (1). We focus on the issue of exposure.There are 2 exposures:1. What will the foetus/baby be exposed to in terms of medication? (in utero & breastfeeding)2. What will the foetus/baby be exposed to in terms of maternal psychiatric illness? (in utero & breastfeeding)
17The Clinical Problem: Defining Exposure (2). The foetus/baby will be exposed to something. “There is no such thing as non-exposure.” Z. Stowe.The foetus/baby will be exposed to medication or psychiatric illness or both.Our role is to help the mother and her partner decide which path of exposure is best for them.
18Two Basic Assumptions.1. All medications cross the placenta and also enter breast milk.2. We do not yet know all the potential risks from medication exposure.We talk about the “Risk/Benefit ratio”.Risks of treatment vs the benefits of treatment.or risks of treatment vs risks of non-treatment.Our knowledge about medication risks is increasing. We have more information about antidepressant medications in pregnancy and breastfeeding than any other class of drugs given to women in the whole pharmacopoeia.Z Stowe has done most of the studies to do with blood levels in mothers and nursing infants.We know that infants have very small, sometimes undetectable amounts of medication in their blood. What we don’t know is what this means in terms of its effects. Is their a long term effect or not? We still don’t know but the early studies are encouraging.We have to presume that we don’t yet know all the potential risks. Hence we have two lists which are incomplete. A list for risks associated with treatment and a list for risks associated with non-treatment.We don’t know how long each list will ultimately be.
19The Risk/Benefit Ratio. The risks associated with medication are fairly fixed even if some of them are as yet unknown.The risks associated with maternal psychiatric illness varies enormously for each individual.Hence we ask, “What is the risk-benefit ratio for this woman, given her current symptom pattern or what has happened in her previous episodes of illness?”The risks of medication presumably vary somewhat according to time of initiation, dose and duration of exposure. etc,
20Maternal Psychiatric Illness. What are the risks Prenatally? (1) Effects on Mother and foetus and/or baby.poor compliance with obstetric/medical carepoor maternal health/nutritionabuse of alcohol and cigarettesabuse of other substances including over the counter remediessuicidality, self-harm, recklessness
21Maternal Psychiatric Illness.What are the risks - Postnatally? deficits in mother-infant attachmentneurobehavioural sequelaeincreased failure to breastfeedseparations at home, possible psychiatric hospitalisationabuse, neglect, self harm, recklessnessrarely, suicidality/infanticide
22Maternal Psychiatric Illness. Further risks. Effects on Family and Environmentreduced care of other childrenemotional neglect of other childrenmarital disturbanceoccupational deteriorationreduced social networketc.
23What about the direct effects of mat. psych. illness on the foetus? These are potential effects on the foetus via changes in maternal blood chemistry, hormones, catecholamines, immune function etc,What happens to the foetus in untreated maternal psychiatric illness?What are the long term consequences of untreated maternal psychiatric illness (eg depression) for offspring into childhood, adolescence, etc.The previous slides were all about indirect effects. But are there direct negative effects as a result of maternal psychiatric illness? Can the baby’s developing brain (in utero) and their later cognitive and emotional and social behaviour be affected by any physiological changes in the mother (during pregnancy) as a result of stress, anxiety, depression or psychosis (eg paranoia) etcThis is the big question. This is an important area of research.We know that some woman need to be taking medication for the safety of themselves and their babies.But what about the woman who can cope with depression? Does she have any reason to take medication?She may be able to sit out her depression or sit through her panic attacks without treatment, for the benefit of the baby. But is the baby benefiting? This is the question we need to be able to answer.What is the long term outcome for untreated depression or other psychiatric illness during pregnancy?
24Potential direct effects of Maternal Depression/Stress. Effects on foetuschanges in the HPA axislower birth weightprematuritybehavioural teratogenicityInformation is lacking.What are the long term neurobehavioural effects of medication in adolescence, young adulthood middle age and the elderly?What are the long term consequences of untreated maternal psychiatric illness eg depression for offspring into adolescence, etc.Changes to neuroendocrine and neurotransmitter activity in the infant.The true extent of this list is as yet unknown.
25What has been shown?Deleterious effect on obstetric outcome and later infant development.Severe Stress and Depression may:impede foetal growthsmaller head circumferenceincreased rate of preterm delivery and other complicationslong term behavioural problems in offspring
26The Placenta as a Filter. In an Ideal World:the placenta would screen out any direct ill-effects from maternal psychiatric illness.the placenta would block the medication from reaching the baby (or the medication would have no effect on the baby)
27Does the placenta filter out direct effects of maternal psych. illness? Research to date suggests No.Cortisol (stress hormone) levels in the umbilical chord are typically higher than in the maternal serum.There are also possible abnormalities in immune function across the placenta.Research is difficult because of the obvious confounding effects of the postnatal period.Animal data suggests that stress in pregnancy is detrimental to offspring. These negative effects in animals can be blocked by diazepam and antidepressants.Medication may therefore be a protective factor.
28Does the placenta filter out effects of medication? Yes, to some extent.the concentrations of antidepressant medications in the umbilical chord leading to the baby are less than in the maternal circulationthere is incomplete placental passage of antidepressants“As a class of drug, antidepressants cross the placenta less that just about any other drug”.Z Stowe.
29The Placenta as a Filter. What Gets to the Baby? Chord Samples: ratios 0.29 to 0.89sertraline<paroxetine<fluoxetine<citalopramHendrick 2003Blood samples:maternal vs infant (breastfeeding) 1/50 to 1/200Milk Samples:concentrations in mother’s blood/in milk/ in babies blood
32Potential effects of exposure to illness and medications for the foetus/baby. MiscarriageStructural Malformations/TeratogenicityIntra-uterine deathGrowth Impairment (low birth wgt).PrematurityNeonatal toxicity and withdrawalBehavioural teratogenicitycognitive, emotional, social, behavioural.The areas or domains headings under which we would need to look to determine how babies could be effected by medications or maternal mental illness.We have to tick these domains off as we go through them to check if they are effected.So miscarriage: does the baby get started. Growth retardation..etc.Behavioural teratogenicity. Not something that can be “seen”. These are questions of degree. Not so much present or absent but “less” of something or “more” of something. As such they are difficult to investigate to explore to measure and to be conclusive about. These potential changes become mixed up with the potential changes resulting from maternal psychiatric illness.Maternal morbidity. These issues are the same ones we would deal with if the woman was not pregnant. These risks are present none the less. They are risks for the woman but also for her family. If a woman with depression or psychosis suicides and leaves behind two small children and a husband. This is obviously a disaster irrespective of whether she is pregnant or not. We can’t expose women or families to these terrible outcomes just because the woman is pregnant. Yet in reality this is what sometimes happens(Case example of patient with increased suicidality and Dr refusing to agree to increase in antidepressant medication).Some of the most difficult management decisions occur when a partner doesn’t believe in depression they are less impressed with suicidality and don’t see it as reversible.
33Effects of Antidepressants on Foetus. Miscarriage possible slight increaseMalformations no increaseIntra-uterine deaths no increaseLow birth weight slight increasePrematurity slight increaseWithdrawal syndromes can occurBehavioural sequelae as yet unknownAs an example we can use antidepressants to discuss the direct effects on the foetus.While the effects of antidepressants seem to be relatively benign. Other medications like mood stabilisers such as anticonvulsants or lithium are not so benign.
34FDA: “Use in Pregnancy”- Drug categories. Category A: Controlled studies show no riskCategory B: No evidence of risk in humansCategory C: Risk to humans cannot be ruled outCategory D: positive evidence of risk but it is possible in some situations the benefits may outweigh the risksCategory X: Contraindicated in pregnancy. Risks outweigh the benefits in almost every situation.The difficulty is that none of the medications we use are rated A or X.None of the psychotropic drugs are FDA approved in pregnancy or breastfeeding.None of them have very comprehensive data in terms of safety.However there has been more research on antidepressants than any other drug in the whole pharmacopoeia.
35Risk Periods for Foetal Structural Malformations. 2-4 weeks neural tube closure4-9 weeks heart is forming6-9 weeks is when the oral cleft closesby 12 weeks organogenesis is completedThese are the times when you are most worried about the potential teratogenic effects of medications. It is not thought that most psychotropic drugs increase the risks by much, but any increased risk is generally unacceptable.
37Psychotropics and Breastfeeding. It is widely accepted that there are many benefits in breastfeeding both biologically and in terms of mother-baby attachment.Do these benefits outweigh the potential risks of psychotropic ingestion?
40Adverse Effects of Psychotropics on Breastfeeding. (1) As with pregnancy, this depends on the class of medication.All psychotropic drugs pass into the breast milk.Antidepressants as an example:various adverse effects reportedmostly non-specificmany studies show no ill effectscontraindicated in premature, low birth wgt, or medically ill babies.
41Maternal SSRI use and Adverse reactions. (ADRAC, August 2003)
42Adverse Effects of Psychotropics on Breastfeeding. (2) Anti-anxiety (Anxiolytics)various adverse effects reported mostly sedation, lethargy, sleep disturbance and in some instances respiratory depression.The risk seems to diminish as the infant matures due to better metabolism gets older.Long acting benzodiazepines (eg diazepam Valium) are more likely to build up in the infant.Diazepam, lorazepam are secreted at higher levels in breast milk cf. oxazepam.
43Adverse Effects of Psychotropics on Breastfeeding. (3) Antipsychoticsgenerally OK to breastfeedsome adverse effects noted.
44Adverse Effects of Psychotropics on Breastfeeding. (4) Lithium:contraindicated in most casesif mother strongly desires can be done with very close monitoringAnticonvulsantsSome adverse effects reported, some quite seriousagain can be done if mother strongly desires this and is made aware of the risks.
45Approach to Management General PrinciplesPlan Ahead
47Try to Pre-empt Difficulties. Try to discuss the issues prior to pregnancy along with discussion of contraception.Planning ahead is the key. This allows time for informed decisions. Have a plan in place based on the “risk-benefit ratio”.Try to involve partners and families where appropriate.The woman and her partner must ultimately decide what is best for them.Inquire about any plans for pregnancy and discuss with partners where possible.Emphasise the need for pre-pregnancy consultation.50% of all pregnancies are unplanned.Document the birth control method and any exposure to drugs and other substances.Consider the risk of pregnancy even if not planned.
48If Planning a Pregnancy. Stop medications, if possible, while attempting conception.This depends on the persons previous psychiatric history.Stop medications on becoming pregnantby testing each cycle.again this depends on the history and should not be as a matter of routine.
49Approach to Management: Early Pregnancy. (1) Discuss the strengths and weaknesses of each treatment modality.Discuss the risks and benefits of the various options - “Risk-Benefit ratio”.No decision is risk free.Try to minimise exposures.Avoiding all drugs in the first trimester is the ideal, but this is not always possible.Is this medication really necessary? ie Now? Given the current circumstances.What is the risk for this woman it we stop medication?
50Approach to Management: Early Pregnancy. (2) Treat the mental illness as expertly as possible.Avoid changing medications (this will add a new exposure).Stick with medications with good body of information.Avoid poly-pharmacy.Avoid anticonvulsants unless absolutely necessary and monitor with ultrasound.Dilemmas in early pregnancy:Woman previously well on medication with limited safety data.Woman refuses to take medication.
51Approach to Management: Later in Pregnancy Pharmacokinetics can change in pregnancy and doses may need to be changed.Use lowest dose but be ready to increase dose or reintroduce a previous medication.Discontinuation effects.(Neonatal Withdrawal). Consider gradual reduction of medication and ceasing prior to delivery (controversial).
52How Are Decisions Made? A Question of Balance. Decisions are rarely clear cut.Usually there are two or more very reasonable options between which the mother and the physician have to chose.Some factors lead to one decision, other factors lead to a different decision.Weighing the risks is a colaborative process between parents and physician.Decisions have to be made with often conflicting data. A clear cut decision is not always obvious.Most cases fall in the broad middle range rather than at either extreme.Previous decision making only considered the possible negative effects of medication vs the gross indirect effects of severe maternal illness. Now we have to consider the direct effects of maternal psychiatric illness on the foetus/baby.Mothers with high, unrealistic or unreasonable expectations. They may want a 100% guarantee. Its easy and tempting to respond with reassurance because that it what we are trained to do. We may feel like we are being a spoil sport in pointing out all the risks rather than giving reassurance.We have to present all the information that we can in such a way that mothers and fathers feel able to make an informed decision. We want to help them decide but we can’t be deciding for them or taking on responsibility that properly belongs to parents.There are no 100% guarantees and we can’t be lulled into giving complete reassurance at a time of normal anxiety. We can’t give guarantees in order to encourage the woman to have treatment for her psychiatric illness. Fortunately the risks in many cases have been quantified. They tend to be small.The problems that the woman faces are part of her the difficulty in having a psychiatric illness and part of her involvement in the real world.There are potential medico legal issues for the future. Especially when we consider that babies/children possibly affected could sue 20 years later. We have to document that we discussed fully with the parents the risks and risk benefit ratio. And how the person came to their decision. What they took to be of most significance to them as to whether or not to take medication.Although the FDA do not approve the use of these drugs in Pregnancy/lactation. That doesn’t mean they are not allowed to be used it just means that they are not willing to put their seal of approval on them.In the end it has to depend on a woman’s values...
53Who Decides and How?Ultimately it must be a mother’s and partner’s decision.This relies on the information we provide but also on her assessment based on:her values and her choicesher desires for the future and how she gives weight and meaning to different risks and the different information presentedThere is rarely a “right answer”.
54External Considerations. Family pressuresPartner pressuresdoesn’t believe in depression as a diagnosisdoesn’t believe in medicationshasn’t seen an episode of depression yetdoesn’t want her to be like his mother/aunt etc
58Tricyclic Antidepressants. Extensive data that there are no structural abnormalities in the foetusnortriptyline and desipramine have less anticholinergic side effectslow incidence of perinatal syndromesNulman (2002). No negative behavioural sequelae up to 6 years.The data is reassuringSelf limited perinatal syndromes such as poor feeding, irritability. While these adverse effects do not appear to be serious or frequent it is important to note that there are obvious difficulties in determining the exact frequency of adverse effects in babies/infants exposed to medications. Because something is not visible does not mean it is not occurring.Nulman study….
59Fluoxetine (Prozac, Lovan) Increased risk of:miscarriage, 14% cf 7%low birth weightpremature birthdecreased ARGAR Scoresminor anomaliesadmission to NICUpoor neonatal adaptationBaseline rate for miscarriage in the general population is considered to be up to 15%
60Fluoxetine (Prozac, Lovan) No increased malformationssome perinatal syndromesChambers study...increased risk of minor malformationsincreased risk of preterm labourincreased admission to special careExtensive data which is mostly reassuringChambers study. Prospective Study. 228 women taking fluoxetine.No major functional or cosmetic structural changes but suggestions that the medication is interfering with the foetus.Higher rates of premature deliveryHigher rates of admission to special carePoor neonatal adaptation including: respiratory difficulty, cyanosis on feeding,jitterinessLower birth weightSome problems with the study
61Other SSRI’s (1) These have tended to be looked at as a group No increase incongenital malformationsmiscarriage / stillbirthincreased preterm labour,decreased APGAR scoresproblems in “neonatal adaptation” (previously reported as withdrawal syndromes) especially paroxetineAdriana Moldovan’s study 200255 women taking Paroxetine late in pregnancy (Cf exposure in early pregnancy)12 had complications necessitating intensive treatment and prolonged hospitalization : respiratory distress (9) hypoglycemia (2) and jaundice (1)Only 3rd trimester exposure to Paroxetine was associated wit neonatal distress.Study in Finland K. Laine measured umbilical cord serotonin concentrationsproposed that a serotonergic overstimulation occurs in the neonateagitation, myoclonus, hyperrflexia, sweating, shivering, tremor, diarrhea, incoordination, fever, confusion, seizuresThe most common symptoms seen in the newborn were: tremor, restlessness, and rigidity typically seen in a serotinergic overstimulation in adultsThe resolution of the symptoms corresponded with the fall in fetal concentrations of the SSRI which tends to be opposite what would be expected for a withdrawal syndrome.withdrawal symptoms in adults are : dizziness, nausea, tremor, anxiety insomnia
62Other SSRI’s (2)problems in “neonatal adaptation” (previously reported as withdrawal syndromes) especially paroxetineCasper J Pediatrics 200331 mother - baby pairs, various SSRI’sfound a negative effect on motor development and motor controlRegina Casper 200331 pairsmonths follow upNeurological examinationsDysmorphology examinationsBayley Behavioral Rating Scale ; 3 Scales1. Mental development Index2. Psychomotor Development Index3. Behavioral Rating ScaleMedication exposed children were rated significantly lower for behavioral motor quality especially on : tremulousness and fine motor movementsNulman did not find this in his studies but did not report data for the PDI or the BRS of the BayleySome problems with the study including the different ages of those tested.Highlights the importance of motor testing in future studies
63Venlafaxine Einarson Am J Psych. 2001 150 women all used venlafaxine during pregnancy and 34 used it throughout.No increased risk of malformations but numbers small.Small numbers“Only 80% power to detect a 4 fold increase in the rate of malformationsWould need 800 subjects in each group to detect a 2 fold increase in risk of malformation
64Other antidepressants Bupropion/Mirtazapine/ReboxetineNo evidence yet that they are harmful but this could easily changeNot much dataWe just don’t know
65MAOI’s Not much data/studies Not used very often in pregnancy What we know is concerningWe don’t know if they are dangerous though
66Anxiety Disorders. High cortisol levels are problematic for the foetus benzodiazepines are problematicTry CBTtry SSRI’s as first lineuse short acting drugtry to wean before delivery
67Benzodiazepines (1). Neonatal sedation or withdrawal Floppy baby syndrome (baby is not responsive and listless)Oral Cleft Palate?This is controversial 0.6% cf 0.06%some studies dispute thisrisk period is weeks hence avoid during
68Benzodiazepines (2). animal data ...?behavioural teratogens the data is confusing and not reassuringLong acting agents can build up in the infantSSRI’s are preferable
69Bipolar Disorder - 3 problems. 1. Very high relapse rate.2. When untreated it is a very dangerous condition for mother and baby.3. The main treatments (except ECT) are all known teratogens.Consider ECT. This is not always readily available and patients may not prefer it.
70Anticonvulsants - Valproate. The most dangerous psychotropic medication.Discuss with any woman of reproductive age.5 times higher rate of malformations or pregnancy complications.Neural tube defects incr. from 0.3% to 1-5%may be reduced by folate supplementation.Increases defects in heart/limbs/genitals/CNS and face.perinatal syndromes coagulopathy and liver dysfunctionbehavioural sequelaeCategory “D”
71Using Valproate. Discuss ahead of time, before pregnancy. Supplement with folate 4 mg per day from 4 weeks pre conception to 12 weeks gestation.Check foetal alpha-fetoprotein.Do high resolution ultrasound at weeks.Give vitamin K in final month of pregnancy.Keep serum level below 70 if possible.Give in divided doses rather than once daily.
72Valproate and Breastfeeding. Valproate compatible with breastfeeding
73Lithium.increases Ebstein’s abnormality by times (1 in 1000 cf 1 in 20,000)used to be thought to be 400 timesfoetal diabetes insipidus can occurfloppy baby syndromehas been around a long timea lot of data, but the data is concerning.
74Using Lithium in pregnancy. High resolution foetal ultrasound at weeks to check for Ebstein’s abnormality.Give in small divided doses if possible.Monitor maternal serum levels which can change dramatically.Taper dose by a half dose 2 weeks before delivery.Hydrate the woman in labour.
75Lithium in Breastfeeding. Discourage breastfeeding.Very high infant serum levels up to 50% of the maternal level.High risk of toxicity in the infant, especially if dehydration in the infant. eg GIT virus with diarrhoea etc.Many reports of infant toxicity.
76Carbamazepine (Tegretol). The data is quite concerning.Associated with many different adverse outcomes in pregnancy.It is however, like valproate, compatible with breastfeeding (levels 6% to 65% of maternal level).Some case reports of adverse outcomes in breastfeeding.Like valproate it increases the rate of neural tube defects but not as much as valproate. Overall malformation risk is doubled.Deficiency in Vitamin K dependent clotting factors associated with foetal intra-cerebral haemorrhage.Foetal hydantoin syndrome, and possibly developmental delays,Breastfeeding adverse outcomes reported:transient hepatotoxicity, seizure-like activity.
77Lamotrigine.A prospective trail did not show increased risk for major malformations but small sample size.Supplement with folate through pregnancy.Breastfeeding: infant serum levels 25% to 30% of maternal serum.No reports of adverse outcomes thus far.Theoretical risk for life threatening rash.
78Olanzapine.An atypical antipsychotic used increasingly in Bipolar Disorder.One prospective study showed no increased risk in pregnancy but small sample size.breastfeeding: Limited information.Some case reports of adverse effects, but ?if related to the medication.
79General guidelines for managing Bipolar Disorder in Pregnancy. Plan ahead and discuss risks.Abrupt discontinuation greatly increases relapse in Bipolar Disorder.Reduce medications if possible.Consider ECT (good safety data in pregnancy)Monitor pregnancy closely with ultrasound.Consider options for post partum prophylaxis.
80Mild - Moderate Bipolar Disorder Avoid medications in first trimester if possible.Gradually taper medication before pregnancy or immediately on discovery of pregnancy.Reintroduce mood stabiliser immediately if any deterioration in mood.Strongly advise for post partum prophylaxis.
81Severe Bipolar Disorder. Maintain prophylaxis throughout the pregnancy despite dangerousness of medication.Consider switching from an anticonvulsant to lithium prior to pregnancy or switching to olanzapine.
82If Pregnancy occurs while on an anticonvulsant. Foetus has possibly already been exposed at the high risk period for neural tube defects.Switching to a different agent increases the number of drugs foetus is exposed to.No good options.Need full discussion with the woman about what she thinks is best for her. A balancing act depending on the woman’s history of illness.
83Post Partum Management of Bipolar Disorder. Prophylaxis is very important in this period.Postpartum psychosis has a 4% risk of infanticide and 5% risk of suicide.% of women with untreated Bipolar Disorder will have an episode of post partum psychosis.
84Breastfeeding in Bipolar Disorder. Breastfeeding is relatively contraindicated while taking lithium.Consider using an anticonvulsant while breastfeeding. The woman would then need to weigh benefits of breastfeeding vs the unclear risks of breastfeeding with an anticonvulsant.In this context being on a prophylactic medication should take precedence to breastfeeding.The question is not “Should I breastfeed or should I take medication?” it is “Should I breastfeed while taking this medication?” some women will decide yes to the second question and some women no.
85Antipsychotic drugs. High potency drugs: eg haloperidol Neonatal extra pyramidal signs, are self limiting and resolve.No known teratogenicity based on surveillance data.Low potency drugs: eg chlorpromazineNeonatal anticholinergic symptoms?some teratogenicity not supported by surveillance data.Err towards a high potency agentAtypical agents: No data except for Olanzapine which has a small amount of data.
87Approach to Reducing exposures in Postnatal illness. (1) Newport (2002). Document all psychiatric illness exposures (impaired maternal care, alcohol cigarettes drugs etc,)If evidence of severe maternal impairment, err towards medication exposure.Consider non-medication modalities according to their availability.
88Approach to Reducing exposures in Postnatal illness. (2) Exposure in breastfeeding is much less than the exposure in utero.Hence stick to same medication that the infant has already been exposed to.If infant has not yet been exposed, use a medication of previous response for the mother. i.e. Don’t experiment with new medications.Use a medication with data.If you change medications the infant is now exposed to two different medications rather than just one.
89Approach to Reducing exposures in Postnatal illness. (3) Avoid poly-pharmacy. Monotherapy at any dose is preferable to 2 or more medications.Reduce infant exposure with pump and dump at hours.Monitor the infant for side-effects.discontinue breastfeeding or discontinue the medication depending on the circumstances.
90Partners and others in family Support partners as well, they are neither expendable or always durable.Are they for or against management suggestions?If against, find out why.doesn’t believe in depressionhas never experienced her depressiondoesn’t want her “addicted” to medication
91Summary.Goal is to balance the reduction of exposures from both illness and medicationThe severity of the illness tends to determine the options.Use a medication of prior response and,Use a medication of prior infant exposure.Use a medication with data.Try to use monotherapy.