Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

An Introduction to Radiofrequency Radiation. What is Radiofrequency Radiation (RF)? Part of the electromagnetic spectrum Part of the electromagnetic spectrum.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "An Introduction to Radiofrequency Radiation. What is Radiofrequency Radiation (RF)? Part of the electromagnetic spectrum Part of the electromagnetic spectrum."— Presentation transcript:

1 An Introduction to Radiofrequency Radiation

2 What is Radiofrequency Radiation (RF)? Part of the electromagnetic spectrum Part of the electromagnetic spectrum Electromagnetic radiation consists of waves of electric and magnetic energy that travel together at the speed of light Electromagnetic radiation consists of waves of electric and magnetic energy that travel together at the speed of light EM radiation is characterized by a wavelength and a frequency EM radiation is characterized by a wavelength and a frequency Wavelength: distance covered by one complete wave cycle Wavelength: distance covered by one complete wave cycle Frequency: number of waves passing a given point in one second. Frequency: number of waves passing a given point in one second. The frequency of an RF signal is measured in units called the hertz (Hz). One Hz equals one cycle per second. The frequency of an RF signal is measured in units called the hertz (Hz). One Hz equals one cycle per second. RF generally refers to electromagnetic waves with frequencies between about 3 kilohertz (3 kHz) and 300 gigahertz (300 GHz). RF generally refers to electromagnetic waves with frequencies between about 3 kilohertz (3 kHz) and 300 gigahertz (300 GHz).

3 The Electromagnetic Spectrum

4 Common Sources of RF Pollution

5 Federal Guidelines Safety Code 6 Safety Code 6 Canada’s official document specifying the requirements for the safe use of radiation emitting devices Canada’s official document specifying the requirements for the safe use of radiation emitting devices

6 Safety Code 6 According to Health Canada, as long as the radiation emitted doesn't raise the body temperature by 1 degree celsius in six minutes, it's considered safe According to Health Canada, as long as the radiation emitted doesn't raise the body temperature by 1 degree celsius in six minutes, it's considered safe Problems: Problems: Based on short term thermal effects Based on short term thermal effects Does not consider long term effects of continual exposure over 20 or more years Does not consider long term effects of continual exposure over 20 or more years

7 Safety Code 6 An ancient document that has not been updated since 1999 An ancient document that has not been updated since 1999 Unacceptable in as rapidly expanding a field as wireless communication Unacceptable in as rapidly expanding a field as wireless communication 86.1 million cell phones in use worldwide in million cell phones in use worldwide in 1999 According to the World Almanac and Book of Facts. 2001: 571. According to the World Almanac and Book of Facts. 2001: BILLION cell phones in use worldwide today! 3 BILLION cell phones in use worldwide today! Publicly announced on June 27, 2007 by Reuters Publicly announced on June 27, 2007 by Reuters

8 Safety Code 6 compared to guidelines from other countries Power Density uW/cm2

9 Are radio frequencies at levels below Safety Code 6 harmful to health? Yes

10 Scientific Evidence Epidemiological studies In vivo studies In vitro studies

11 Exposed-Unexposed Studies:Exposed-Unexposed Studies: Examines two similar groups of people - one exposed to a risk factor, the other not - and compares the frequency of disease between the two groups. Epidemiological Studies Often based on self-reported symptoms assessed via a questionnaire Sometimes involves individual testing (i.e. neurological examination assessing visuomotor speed, problem solving, attention and memory)

12 Increase in adult and childhood leukemias was found in residents living close to radio and TV broadcast antennas Epidemiological Studies Dolk et al. (1997) Hocking et al. (1996) Michelozzi et al. (2002) Michelozzi et al. (1998) Park et al. (2004)

13 People who lived and worked near radio antennae and radar installations showed deficits in psychological and short-term memory tests. Chiang et al. (1989) Epidemiological Studies

14 Sperm counts of Danish military personnel, who operated mobile ground- to-air missile units that use several RFR emitting radar systems (maximal mean exposure 10 microW/cm2), were significantly low compared to references Hjollund et al. (1997)

15 Blood cells from cows from a farm close and in front of radar showed significantly higher level of severe genetic damage Balode (1996) Epidemiological Studies

16 School children who lived in front of a radio station had less developed memory and attention, their reaction time was slower, and their neuromuscular apparatus endurance was decreased Kolodynski and Kolodynska (1996) Epidemiological Studies

17 ncrease in complaint frequencies for tiredness, headache, sleep disturbance, discomfort, irritability, depression, loss of memory, dizziness, libido decrease, in people who lived within 300 m of mobile phone base stations. Increase in complaint frequencies for tiredness, headache, sleep disturbance, discomfort, irritability, depression, loss of memory, dizziness, libido decrease, in people who lived within 300 m of mobile phone base stations. Santini et al. (2002) Epidemiological Studies

18 Operators of satellite station exposed to low dose of RFR over a 24-hr shift showed an increased secretion of stress hormones et al. (2002) Vangelova et al. (2002) Epidemiological Studies

19 In Vivo Studies Increases in: Tumours (Novoselova et al., 2004) Sterility (Magras & Xenos, 1999) Nerve damage (Salford et al., 2003) Stress reactions (Pomerai et al., 2000, 2002) Altered brain waves (Lebedeva et al., 2000)

20 In Vivo Studies Effects on: Immune system (Fesenko et al., 1999) Brain-blood barrier (Persson et al, 1997)

21 In Vivo Studies Effects on the production of Testosterone (Navakatikian & Tamashevskaya, 1994) Calcium (Wolke et al, 1996) Cortisol (Mann et al., 1998)

22 In Vitro Studies 13 studies showing: Cell division (tumours) Genetic changes Calcium-heart Immune system Stress proteins Brain function (memory)

23 Children Because of their growing bodies and rapidly multiplying cells, children may be 10 times more vulnerable to health effects from exposure to mobile phone microwave radiation than adults (US Environmental Protection Agency). Because of their growing bodies and rapidly multiplying cells, children may be 10 times more vulnerable to health effects from exposure to mobile phone microwave radiation than adults (US Environmental Protection Agency). The county of Palm Beach, FL, the state of California, the Vancouver School Board and the countries of New Zealand and Greece have all prohibited cellular antennas near schools due to safety concerns. The county of Palm Beach, FL, the state of California, the Vancouver School Board and the countries of New Zealand and Greece have all prohibited cellular antennas near schools due to safety concerns.

24 Mobile Telecommunications and Health: A Review Commissioned in 2000 by Cellular industry giant T-Mobile Commissioned in 2000 by Cellular industry giant T-Mobile Conducted by an independent research institute: ECOLOG Institute Conducted by an independent research institute: ECOLOG Institute Reviewed 220 peer-reviewed and published papers which dealt with the health risks from mobile telecommunications Reviewed 220 peer-reviewed and published papers which dealt with the health risks from mobile telecommunications

25 What the report said Cancer Cancer “Given the results of the present epidemiological studies, it can be concluded that electromagnetic fields with frequencies in the mobile telecommunications range do play a role in the development of cancer” (p.33) “Given the results of the present epidemiological studies, it can be concluded that electromagnetic fields with frequencies in the mobile telecommunications range do play a role in the development of cancer” (p.33) Infertility Infertility Birth defects Birth defects Loss of memory and cognitive function Loss of memory and cognitive function Immune system disruptions Immune system disruptions

26 Permeability of the blood-brain barrier Permeability of the blood-brain barrier Stress reactions Stress reactions Decreased melatonin production Decreased melatonin production

27 Bio Initiative Report Bio Initiative Report Written by 14 (fourteen) scientists, public health and public policy experts to document the scientific evidence on electromagnetic fields. Another dozen outside reviewers have looked at and refined the Report. August 2007 Report available online at:

28 Purpose To assess scientific evidence on health impacts from electromagnetic radiation below current public exposure limits and evaluate what changes in these limits are warranted now to reduce possible public health risks in the future.

29 Bio Initiative Report Conclusions Bio Initiative Report Conclusions “People who have used a cell phone for ten years or more have higher rates of malignant brain tumor and acoustic neuromas. It is worse if the cell phone has been used primarily on one side of the head.”

30 Bio Initiative Report Conclusions Bio Initiative Report Conclusions “People who have used a cordless phone for ten years or more have higher rates of malignant brain tumor and acoustic neuromas. It is worse if the cordless phone has been used primarily on one side of the head.”

31 Bio Initiative Report Conclusions Bio Initiative Report Conclusions “The current standard for exposure to the emissions of cell phones and cordless phones is not safe considering studies reporting long- term brain tumor and acoustic neuroma risks.”

32 Bio Initiative Report Conclusions Bio Initiative Report Conclusions “RF can cause inflammatory reactions, allergy reactions and change normal immune function at levels allowed by current public safety standards.”

33 Bio Initiative Report Conclusions Bio Initiative Report Conclusions “ The scientific evidence is substantial enough to warrant preventative actions for RF.”

34 Bio Initiative Report Conclusions Bio Initiative Report Conclusions “The effects of long-term exposure to wireless technologies including emissions from cell phones and other personal devices, and from whole-body exposure to RF transmissions from cell towers and antennas is simply not known yet with certainty. However, the body of evidence at hand suggests that bioeffects and health impacts can and do occur at exquisitely low exposure levels that can be thousands of times below public safety limits.”

35 References Balode, Z, Assessment of radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation by the micronucleus test in bovine peripheral erythrocytes. Sci Total Environ 180(1):81-85, Balode, Z, Assessment of radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation by the micronucleus test in bovine peripheral erythrocytes. Sci Total Environ 180(1):81-85, Chiang H, Yao GD, Fang QS, Wang KQ, Lu DZ, Zhou YK, Health effects of environmental electromagnetic fields. J. Bioelectricity 8: , Chiang H, Yao GD, Fang QS, Wang KQ, Lu DZ, Zhou YK, Health effects of environmental electromagnetic fields. J. Bioelectricity 8: , de Pomerai D, Daniells C, David H, Allan J, Duce I, Mutwakil M, Thomas D, Sewell P, Tattersall J,Jones D, Candido P, Non-thermal heat-shock response to microwaves, Nature 405: , de Pomerai D, Daniells C, David H, Allan J, Duce I, Mutwakil M, Thomas D, Sewell P, Tattersall J,Jones D, Candido P, Non-thermal heat-shock response to microwaves, Nature 405: , de Pomerai DI, Dawe A, Djerbib L, Allan, Brunt G, Daniells C. Growth and maturation of thenematode Caenorhabditis elegans following exposure to weak microwave fields. Enzyme Microbial Tech30:73-79, de Pomerai DI, Dawe A, Djerbib L, Allan, Brunt G, Daniells C. Growth and maturation of thenematode Caenorhabditis elegans following exposure to weak microwave fields. Enzyme Microbial Tech30:73-79, Dolk H, Shaddick G, Walls P, Grundy C, Thakrar B, Kleinschmidt I, Elliott P, Cancer incidence nearradio and television transmitters in Great Britain. I. Sutton Coldfield transmitter. Am J Epidemiol 145(1):1-9, Dolk H, Shaddick G, Walls P, Grundy C, Thakrar B, Kleinschmidt I, Elliott P, Cancer incidence nearradio and television transmitters in Great Britain. I. Sutton Coldfield transmitter. Am J Epidemiol 145(1):1-9, Fesenko, EE, Makar, VR, Novoselova, EG, Sadovnikov, VB, Microwaves and cellular immunity. I.Effect of whole body microwave irradiation on tumor necrosis factor production in mouse cells.Bioelectrochem Bioenerg 49(1):29-35, 1999 Fesenko, EE, Makar, VR, Novoselova, EG, Sadovnikov, VB, Microwaves and cellular immunity. I.Effect of whole body microwave irradiation on tumor necrosis factor production in mouse cells.Bioelectrochem Bioenerg 49(1):29-35, 1999

36 Havas, Magda. Analysis of Health and Environmental Effects of Proposed San Francisco Earthlink Wi-Fi Network Havas, Magda. Analysis of Health and Environmental Effects of Proposed San Francisco Earthlink Wi-Fi Network Hjollund NH, Bonde JP, Skotte J, Semen analysis of personnel operating military radar equipment.Reprod Toxicol 11(6):897, Hjollund NH, Bonde JP, Skotte J, Semen analysis of personnel operating military radar equipment.Reprod Toxicol 11(6):897, Hocking B, Gordon IR, Grain HL, Hatfield GE, Cancer incidence and mortality and proximity to TVtowers. Med J Aust 165(11-12): , (Published erratum appears in Med J Aust 166(2):80, 1997.) Hocking B, Gordon IR, Grain HL, Hatfield GE, Cancer incidence and mortality and proximity to TVtowers. Med J Aust 165(11-12): , (Published erratum appears in Med J Aust 166(2):80, 1997.) Kolodynski AA, Kolodynska VV, Motor and psychological functions of school children living in thearea of the Skrunda Radio Location Station in Latvia. Sci Total Environ 180(1):87-93, Kolodynski AA, Kolodynska VV, Motor and psychological functions of school children living in thearea of the Skrunda Radio Location Station in Latvia. Sci Total Environ 180(1):87-93, Lebedeva NN, Sulimov AV, Sulimova OP, Kotrovskaya TI, Gailus T, Cellular phone electromagneticfield effects on bioelectric activity of human brain. Crit Rev Biomed Eng 28(1-2): , Lebedeva NN, Sulimov AV, Sulimova OP, Kotrovskaya TI, Gailus T, Cellular phone electromagneticfield effects on bioelectric activity of human brain. Crit Rev Biomed Eng 28(1-2): , Magras, IN, Xenos, TD, RF radiation-induced changes in the prenatal development of mice.Bioelectromagnetics 18(6): , Magras, IN, Xenos, TD, RF radiation-induced changes in the prenatal development of mice.Bioelectromagnetics 18(6): , Mann, K, Wagner, P, Brunn, G, Hassan, F, Hiemke, C, Roschke, J, Effects of pulsed high-frequencyelectromagnetic fields on the neuroendocrine system. Neuroendocrinology 67(2): , Mann, K, Wagner, P, Brunn, G, Hassan, F, Hiemke, C, Roschke, J, Effects of pulsed high-frequencyelectromagnetic fields on the neuroendocrine system. Neuroendocrinology 67(2): , Michelozzi P, Ancona C, Fusco D, Forastiere F, Perucci CA, Risk of leukemia and residence near aradio transmitter in Italy. Epidemiology 9 (Suppl) 354p, Michelozzi P, Ancona C, Fusco D, Forastiere F, Perucci CA, Risk of leukemia and residence near aradio transmitter in Italy. Epidemiology 9 (Suppl) 354p, 1998.

37 Michelozzi P, Capon A, Kirchmayer U, Forastiere F, Biggeri A, Barca A, Perucci CA. Adult andchildhood leukemia near a high-power radio station in Rome, Italy. Am J Epidemiol 155(12): ,2002. Michelozzi P, Capon A, Kirchmayer U, Forastiere F, Biggeri A, Barca A, Perucci CA. Adult andchildhood leukemia near a high-power radio station in Rome, Italy. Am J Epidemiol 155(12): ,2002. Navakatikian MA, Tomashevskaya LA, Phasic behavioral and endocrine effects of microwaves ofnonthermal intensity. In “Biological Effects of Electric and Magnetic Fields, Volume 1," D.O. Carpenter(ed) Academic Press, San Diego, CA, 1994, pp Navakatikian MA, Tomashevskaya LA, Phasic behavioral and endocrine effects of microwaves ofnonthermal intensity. In “Biological Effects of Electric and Magnetic Fields, Volume 1," D.O. Carpenter(ed) Academic Press, San Diego, CA, 1994, pp Novoselova EG, Ogay VB, Sorokina OV, Glushkova OV, Sinotova OA, Fesenko EE. The productionof tumor necrosis factor in cells of tumor- bearing mice after total-body microwave irradiation andantioxidant diet. Electromag. Biol. Med. 23: , Novoselova EG, Ogay VB, Sorokina OV, Glushkova OV, Sinotova OA, Fesenko EE. The productionof tumor necrosis factor in cells of tumor- bearing mice after total-body microwave irradiation andantioxidant diet. Electromag. Biol. Med. 23: , Park SK, Ha M, Im H-J. Ecological study on residences in the vicinity of AM radio broadcastingtowers and cancer death: preliminary observations in Korea. International Archives of Occupational andEnvironmental Health 77(6): , Park SK, Ha M, Im H-J. Ecological study on residences in the vicinity of AM radio broadcastingtowers and cancer death: preliminary observations in Korea. International Archives of Occupational andEnvironmental Health 77(6): , Persson BRR, Salford LG, Brun A, Blood-brain barrier permeability in rats exposed to electromagneticfields used in wireless communication. Wireless Network 3: , Persson BRR, Salford LG, Brun A, Blood-brain barrier permeability in rats exposed to electromagneticfields used in wireless communication. Wireless Network 3: , Salford LG, Brun AR, Eberhardt JL, Malmgren L, Persson BRR, Nerve cell damage in mammalianbrain after exposure to microwaves from GSM mobile phones. Environ Health Persp Online January 29,2003. Salford LG, Brun AR, Eberhardt JL, Malmgren L, Persson BRR, Nerve cell damage in mammalianbrain after exposure to microwaves from GSM mobile phones. Environ Health Persp Online January 29,2003. Santini R, Santini P, Danze JM, Le Ruz P, Seigne M.Study of the health of people living in the vicinityof mobile phone base stations: I. Influence of distance and sex. Pathol Biol (Paris) 50(6): , 2002 Santini R, Santini P, Danze JM, Le Ruz P, Seigne M.Study of the health of people living in the vicinityof mobile phone base stations: I. Influence of distance and sex. Pathol Biol (Paris) 50(6): , 2002

38 Vangelova K, Israel M, Mihaylov S. The effect of low level radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation on the excretion rates of stress hormones in operators during 24-hour shifts. Cent Eur J Public Health 10(1-2):24-28, Vangelova K, Israel M, Mihaylov S. The effect of low level radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation on the excretion rates of stress hormones in operators during 24-hour shifts. Cent Eur J Public Health 10(1-2):24-28, Wolke S, Neibig U, Elsner R, Gollnick F, Meyer R, Calcium homeostasis of isolated heart muscle cells exposed to pulsed high-frequency electromagnetic fields. Bioelectromagnetics 17(2): , Wolke S, Neibig U, Elsner R, Gollnick F, Meyer R, Calcium homeostasis of isolated heart muscle cells exposed to pulsed high-frequency electromagnetic fields. Bioelectromagnetics 17(2): , Ecolog Report - Mobile Telecommunications and Health - Review of the Current Scientific Research in view of Precautionary Health Protection, Ecolog-Institute April sponsored by T-Mobil (Translated from German into English by Andrea Klein 2007) –Retrieved from uk/en/niemr/ecologsum.php Ecolog Report - Mobile Telecommunications and Health - Review of the Current Scientific Research in view of Precautionary Health Protection, Ecolog-Institute April sponsored by T-Mobil (Translated from German into English by Andrea Klein 2007) –Retrieved from uk/en/niemr/ecologsum.php uk/en/niemr/ecologsum.php uk/en/niemr/ecologsum.php


Download ppt "An Introduction to Radiofrequency Radiation. What is Radiofrequency Radiation (RF)? Part of the electromagnetic spectrum Part of the electromagnetic spectrum."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google