## Presentation on theme: "An Introduction to Radiofrequency Radiation. What is Radiofrequency Radiation (RF)? Part of the electromagnetic spectrum Part of the electromagnetic spectrum."— Presentation transcript:

What is Radiofrequency Radiation (RF)? Part of the electromagnetic spectrum Part of the electromagnetic spectrum Electromagnetic radiation consists of waves of electric and magnetic energy that travel together at the speed of light Electromagnetic radiation consists of waves of electric and magnetic energy that travel together at the speed of light EM radiation is characterized by a wavelength and a frequency EM radiation is characterized by a wavelength and a frequency Wavelength: distance covered by one complete wave cycle Wavelength: distance covered by one complete wave cycle Frequency: number of waves passing a given point in one second. Frequency: number of waves passing a given point in one second. The frequency of an RF signal is measured in units called the hertz (Hz). One Hz equals one cycle per second. The frequency of an RF signal is measured in units called the hertz (Hz). One Hz equals one cycle per second. RF generally refers to electromagnetic waves with frequencies between about 3 kilohertz (3 kHz) and 300 gigahertz (300 GHz). RF generally refers to electromagnetic waves with frequencies between about 3 kilohertz (3 kHz) and 300 gigahertz (300 GHz).

The Electromagnetic Spectrum

Common Sources of RF Pollution

Federal Guidelines Safety Code 6 Safety Code 6 Canada’s official document specifying the requirements for the safe use of radiation emitting devices Canada’s official document specifying the requirements for the safe use of radiation emitting devices

Safety Code 6 According to Health Canada, as long as the radiation emitted doesn't raise the body temperature by 1 degree celsius in six minutes, it's considered safe According to Health Canada, as long as the radiation emitted doesn't raise the body temperature by 1 degree celsius in six minutes, it's considered safe Problems: Problems: Based on short term thermal effects Based on short term thermal effects Does not consider long term effects of continual exposure over 20 or more years Does not consider long term effects of continual exposure over 20 or more years

Safety Code 6 An ancient document that has not been updated since 1999 An ancient document that has not been updated since 1999 Unacceptable in as rapidly expanding a field as wireless communication Unacceptable in as rapidly expanding a field as wireless communication 86.1 million cell phones in use worldwide in 1999 86.1 million cell phones in use worldwide in 1999 According to the World Almanac and Book of Facts. 2001: 571. According to the World Almanac and Book of Facts. 2001: 571. 3 BILLION cell phones in use worldwide today! 3 BILLION cell phones in use worldwide today! Publicly announced on June 27, 2007 by Reuters Publicly announced on June 27, 2007 by Reuters

Safety Code 6 compared to guidelines from other countries Power Density uW/cm2

Are radio frequencies at levels below Safety Code 6 harmful to health? Yes

Scientific Evidence Epidemiological studies In vivo studies In vitro studies

Exposed-Unexposed Studies:Exposed-Unexposed Studies: Examines two similar groups of people - one exposed to a risk factor, the other not - and compares the frequency of disease between the two groups. Epidemiological Studies Often based on self-reported symptoms assessed via a questionnaire Sometimes involves individual testing (i.e. neurological examination assessing visuomotor speed, problem solving, attention and memory)

Increase in adult and childhood leukemias was found in residents living close to radio and TV broadcast antennas Epidemiological Studies Dolk et al. (1997) Hocking et al. (1996) Michelozzi et al. (2002) Michelozzi et al. (1998) Park et al. (2004)

People who lived and worked near radio antennae and radar installations showed deficits in psychological and short-term memory tests. Chiang et al. (1989) Epidemiological Studies

Sperm counts of Danish military personnel, who operated mobile ground- to-air missile units that use several RFR emitting radar systems (maximal mean exposure 10 microW/cm2), were significantly low compared to references Hjollund et al. (1997)

Blood cells from cows from a farm close and in front of radar showed significantly higher level of severe genetic damage Balode (1996) Epidemiological Studies

School children who lived in front of a radio station had less developed memory and attention, their reaction time was slower, and their neuromuscular apparatus endurance was decreased Kolodynski and Kolodynska (1996) Epidemiological Studies

ncrease in complaint frequencies for tiredness, headache, sleep disturbance, discomfort, irritability, depression, loss of memory, dizziness, libido decrease, in people who lived within 300 m of mobile phone base stations. Increase in complaint frequencies for tiredness, headache, sleep disturbance, discomfort, irritability, depression, loss of memory, dizziness, libido decrease, in people who lived within 300 m of mobile phone base stations. Santini et al. (2002) Epidemiological Studies

Operators of satellite station exposed to low dose of RFR over a 24-hr shift showed an increased secretion of stress hormones et al. (2002) Vangelova et al. (2002) Epidemiological Studies

In Vivo Studies Increases in: Tumours (Novoselova et al., 2004) Sterility (Magras & Xenos, 1999) Nerve damage (Salford et al., 2003) Stress reactions (Pomerai et al., 2000, 2002) Altered brain waves (Lebedeva et al., 2000)

In Vivo Studies Effects on: Immune system (Fesenko et al., 1999) Brain-blood barrier (Persson et al, 1997)

In Vivo Studies Effects on the production of Testosterone (Navakatikian & Tamashevskaya, 1994) Calcium (Wolke et al, 1996) Cortisol (Mann et al., 1998)

In Vitro Studies 13 studies showing: Cell division (tumours) Genetic changes Calcium-heart Immune system Stress proteins Brain function (memory)

Children Because of their growing bodies and rapidly multiplying cells, children may be 10 times more vulnerable to health effects from exposure to mobile phone microwave radiation than adults (US Environmental Protection Agency). Because of their growing bodies and rapidly multiplying cells, children may be 10 times more vulnerable to health effects from exposure to mobile phone microwave radiation than adults (US Environmental Protection Agency). The county of Palm Beach, FL, the state of California, the Vancouver School Board and the countries of New Zealand and Greece have all prohibited cellular antennas near schools due to safety concerns. The county of Palm Beach, FL, the state of California, the Vancouver School Board and the countries of New Zealand and Greece have all prohibited cellular antennas near schools due to safety concerns.

Mobile Telecommunications and Health: A Review Commissioned in 2000 by Cellular industry giant T-Mobile Commissioned in 2000 by Cellular industry giant T-Mobile Conducted by an independent research institute: ECOLOG Institute Conducted by an independent research institute: ECOLOG Institute Reviewed 220 peer-reviewed and published papers which dealt with the health risks from mobile telecommunications Reviewed 220 peer-reviewed and published papers which dealt with the health risks from mobile telecommunications

What the report said Cancer Cancer “Given the results of the present epidemiological studies, it can be concluded that electromagnetic fields with frequencies in the mobile telecommunications range do play a role in the development of cancer” (p.33) “Given the results of the present epidemiological studies, it can be concluded that electromagnetic fields with frequencies in the mobile telecommunications range do play a role in the development of cancer” (p.33) Infertility Infertility Birth defects Birth defects Loss of memory and cognitive function Loss of memory and cognitive function Immune system disruptions Immune system disruptions

Permeability of the blood-brain barrier Permeability of the blood-brain barrier Stress reactions Stress reactions Decreased melatonin production Decreased melatonin production

Bio Initiative Report Bio Initiative Report Written by 14 (fourteen) scientists, public health and public policy experts to document the scientific evidence on electromagnetic fields. Another dozen outside reviewers have looked at and refined the Report. August 2007 Report available online at: www.bioinitiative.org

Purpose To assess scientific evidence on health impacts from electromagnetic radiation below current public exposure limits and evaluate what changes in these limits are warranted now to reduce possible public health risks in the future.

Bio Initiative Report Conclusions Bio Initiative Report Conclusions “People who have used a cell phone for ten years or more have higher rates of malignant brain tumor and acoustic neuromas. It is worse if the cell phone has been used primarily on one side of the head.”

Bio Initiative Report Conclusions Bio Initiative Report Conclusions “People who have used a cordless phone for ten years or more have higher rates of malignant brain tumor and acoustic neuromas. It is worse if the cordless phone has been used primarily on one side of the head.”

Bio Initiative Report Conclusions Bio Initiative Report Conclusions “The current standard for exposure to the emissions of cell phones and cordless phones is not safe considering studies reporting long- term brain tumor and acoustic neuroma risks.”

Bio Initiative Report Conclusions Bio Initiative Report Conclusions “RF can cause inflammatory reactions, allergy reactions and change normal immune function at levels allowed by current public safety standards.”

Bio Initiative Report Conclusions Bio Initiative Report Conclusions “ The scientific evidence is substantial enough to warrant preventative actions for RF.”

Bio Initiative Report Conclusions Bio Initiative Report Conclusions “The effects of long-term exposure to wireless technologies including emissions from cell phones and other personal devices, and from whole-body exposure to RF transmissions from cell towers and antennas is simply not known yet with certainty. However, the body of evidence at hand suggests that bioeffects and health impacts can and do occur at exquisitely low exposure levels that can be thousands of times below public safety limits.”

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