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Welcome Suspecting and Treating Sepsis in Maternal Medicine

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Presentation on theme: "Welcome Suspecting and Treating Sepsis in Maternal Medicine"— Presentation transcript:

1 Welcome Suspecting and Treating Sepsis in Maternal Medicine

2 Audience Participation
Open your control panel Join audio: Choose “Mic & Speakers” to use computer VoIP Choose “Telephone” and dial using the information provided Submit questions and comments via the Questions panel Note: Today’s presentation is being recorded and will be provided within 45 days. Your Participation

3 Audience Participation
Please continue to submit your text questions and comments using the Questions Panel or Click Raise Hand button to be unmuted for verbal questions. Your Participation

4 Stephen L. Davidow, MBA-HCM, APR
Manager, Quality Implementation Programs Society of Critical Care Medicine Mount Prospect, IL Today’s webcast is funded by a generous grant from the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation

5 Save the Date! The Next Surviving Sepsis Campaign Webcast
September 19, 2013 Topic: Pediatric Guidelines from the Surviving Sepsis Campaign: Considerations for Care Faculty: Margaret M. Parker, MD, FCCM Professor of Pediatrics, Anesthesia, and Medicine, Stony Brook University Learning objectives: Apply the key recommendations of the Surviving Sepsis Campaign to the care of the pediatric sepsis patient Describe the special considerations in the guidelines for care of pediatric sepsis patients and the differences from adult patients Utilize data from central-line placement to benefit the patient’s care

6 Jeanne Sheffield, MD Maternal Fetal Medicine
University of Texas Southwestern Medical School Dallas, TX

7 Brenda Downs, MSN, RN, ACNS-BC
Program Director, Clinical Performance Improvement Dignity Health Gilbert, AZ

8 Septic Shock in the Obstetric Patient
Jeanne S. Sheffield, M.D. Maternal Fetal Medicine University of Texas Southwestern 2013

9 I have no conflict of interest related
to the content of this presentation.

10 The microorganisms that seem to have it in for us. turn out
The microorganisms that seem to have it in for us..turn be rather more like is our response to their presence that makes the disease Lewis Thomas NEJM 1972

11 Concept of Septic Shock in 2013
Early in sepsis there is an increase in inflammatory mediators - then SHIFTS Mid- to late sepsis consistent with immunosuppression loss of delayed hypersensitivity inability to clear infection predisposition to nosocomial infections

12 Why immune suppression which increases mortality?
Shift to anti-inflammatory cytokines CD4 T cells CD4 T cells ? Pathogen Bacterial inoculum Th1 cells Th2 cells Inflammatory cytokines TNF-a IFN-g IL-2 Anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4 IL-10

13 Why immune suppression which increases mortality?
Anergy Non-responsiveness to antigen T cells fail to proliferate and secrete cytokines in response to antigen Death of immune cells Apoptosis (suicide or programmed cell death) Decrease in B cells, CD4 T cells and follicular dendritic cells

14 The normal stress response is activation of anti-inflammatory mechanisms which predominate in sites outside of the affected systems Not the previously believed uncontrolled hyperinflammatory response Survival among patients correlates with recovery of inflammatory responses

15 Definitions Shock: When the functional intravascular blood volume is below that of the capacity of the body’s vascular bed Hypovolemic Hemorrhagic Cardiogenic ( pump failure) Neurogenic ( loss of sympathetic control of resistance vessels)

16 Definitions Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS)
Inflammatory process that can be generated by infection or by non-infectious causes (burns, trauma) Non-pregnant: 2 or more of the following Temperature >38 C or <36 C HR > 90 beats/min RR >20 breaths/min or PaO2 <32 mmHg WBC > 12,000/mm3, < 4,000/mm3 or >10% bands

17 Definitions Sepsis : the systemic inflammatory response syndrome that occurs during infection (Society Critical Care Medicine 2001 consensus statement) Septic shock: vascular collapse secondary to an infectious process Usually components of hypovolemic and cardiogenic shock

18 National Guidelines for the Non-Pregnant Individual
There are several “scoring systems” and national guidelines to help determine admission to the ICU, treatment regimens and predict morbidity and mortality. Modified Early Warning System SIRS Criteria APACHE Unfortunately not validated for the pregnant and non-pregnant woman

19 Maternal Sepsis: Incidence
Septic shock: % of all deliveries % of all septic patients are pregnant Has increased over the last decade Older maternal age at delivery Obesity, diabetes, CHTN, placental abruption and placenta accreta ART and multi-fetal gestation Obesity HTN, DM, Cesarean, cardiopulmonary complications Burton and Sibai 2012

20 Maternal Sepsis Mortality and Morbidity During Hospitalization for Delivery
Bauer et al Anesth Analg 2013 Population based epidemiologic study in the United States Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) Hospitalizations for delivery American College of Chest Physician and Society of Critical care medicine Definitions Severe sepsis: sepsis with acute organ dysfunction, hypotension or hypoperfusion Identified independent associations of severe sepsis

21 Maternal Sepsis Mortality and Morbidity During Hospitalization for Delivery
Bauer et al Anesth Analg 2013 44,999,260 hospitalizations for delivery Sepsis complicated 1:3333 deliveries Severe sepsis 1:10,823 deliveries Sepsis related death 1:105,384 deliveries Overall frequency of sepsis stayed the same during the study period Severe sepsis and death odds increased 10% per year

22 Maternal Sepsis Mortality and Morbidity During Hospitalization for Delivery
Bauer et al Anesth Analg 2013 Independent risk factors for severe sepsis Age >35 Chronic renal failure AA Race HIV infection Medicaid SLE Retained POCs Multiple gestation PROM Cerclage CHF Chronic liver failure

23 Pathophysiology of Septic Shock
Decreased functional intravascular blood volume Decreased BP and tissue perfusion Cellular acidosis and hypoxia End-organ tissue dysfunction and death

24 Bacterial Infections in Obstetrics
Postpartum endometritis Cesarean delivery % Vaginal delivery % Lower tract UTI % Septic abortion % Pyelonephritis % Chorioamnionitis % Necrotizing fasciitis < 1 % Toxic shock syndrome < 1 Creasy, Resnick and Iams 2010

25 Common Bacterial Isolates from OB Patients with Septic Shock
Escherichia coli Group B streptococci Bacteroides spp. Peptostreptococcus Peptococcus spp. Clostridium perfringens Group A streptococci Entercoccus spp. Staphylococcus aureus Listeria monocytogenes Klebsiella pneumoniae Pseudomonas aeruginosa Enterbacter spp. Proteus spp.

26 Maternal Sepsis Mortality and Morbidity During Hospitalization for Delivery
Bauer et al Anesth Analg 2013 1680 Women with severe sepsis had a ICD9 code for a known organism E. coli septicemia 27% Staphylococcal septicemia 22% Streptococcal septicemia 20% Gram negative septicemia 19% Pneumococcal speticemia 4% Pseudomonal septicemia 2.4% Anaerobic septicemia 2%

27 Maternal Sepsis Mortality and Morbidity During Hospitalization for Delivery
Bauer et al Anesth Analg 2013 Concurrent infections in women with severe sepsis Pneumonia 30% GU infections 30% Chorioamnionitis 18% Endometritis 9% Pyelonephritis 6% Wound Infection 5% Endocarditis 2 % Meningitis 1%

28 Lower Mortality in the Obstetric Patient
0-28 % versus 10-81% in the non-pregnant population Factors associated with the decreased mortality Younger age Types of organisms Overall healthy population Pelvis amenable to surgical and medical intervention Transient bacteremia Creasy, Resnick and Iams 2008

29 Clinical Manifestations
Early stages RECOGNITION KEY TO SUCCESSFUL TREATMENT Shaking chills, fever (most common in pregnancy), tachycardia, flushing Warm extremities, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea Subtle changes in mental status May be difficult to diagnose early in pregnant women, particularly in labor

30 Clinical Manifestations
Laboratory findings mild leukopenia or leukocytosis, hyperglycemia early DIC : thrombocytopenia, decreased fibrinogen, increased PTT and PT transient respiratory alkalosis with increasing metabolic acidosis Increased serum lactate Low arterial pH Increased base deficit

31 Courtesy of Dr. Robert S. Munford

32 Clinical Manifestations
Later stages Generalized vasoconstriction - cold extremities oliguria, peripheral cyanosis tachycardia, severe hypotension Depressed cardiac output, low SVR Laboratory findings profound metabolic acidosis electrolyte imbalance generalized DIC Multiple end-organ failure






38 Multiple Organ Effects with Sepsis and Shock
CNS Effects : Confusion, coma,s omnolence, fever Cardiovascular: Hypotension, increased CO, myocardial depression tachyarrhythmia Pulmonary: Hypoxemia, diffuse infiltrates Renal: Hypoperfusion, acute tubular necrosis Hematologic: Thrombocytopenia, leukocytosis, consumptive coagulopathy

39 Laboratory Evaluation
Complete blood count differential and platelets Coagulation profile PT,PTT,FSP,Fibrinogen Electrolytes, glucose Creatinine and blood urea nitrogen Urinalysis and culture Blood culture and gram stain Cultures of infected sites Chest X-ray CT, ultrasound, MRI to localize infectious etiology

40 Why do women die from septic shock?
Myocardial depression : Cardiac output usually maintained due to tachycardia and cardiac dilitation ARDS : death rare from hypoxemia or hypercarbia Renal failure : dialysis will prevent death Liver dysfunction : hepatic encephalopathy rare ???




44 Management of Septic Shock
Overall goals Treat the mother! Resuscitating the mother will resuscitate the fetus Delivery attempts increase maternal and fetal mortality assuming the source is not intrauterine Improve functional intravascular volume Establish and maintain an adequate airway Determine the septic foci Empiric antibiotic therapy : know the most common pathogens Creasy and Resnick 2008

45 Management of Septic Shock
Volume resuscitation Aggressive therapy will optimize afterload, preload and cardiac contractility Normalize mixed venous oxygen saturation, lactate concentrations, base deficit and pH Blood products, colloid, crystalloid Central venous access recommended Pulmonary artery catheter may cause more harm

46 Williams Obstetrics 2010

47 Management of Septic Shock
Oxygenation/Ventilation Mechanical ventilation usually required ARDS : hypoxemia, normal PCWP, diffuse infiltrates and decreased pulmonary compliance PEEP Keep at or above 96% if possible during pregnancy Blood transfusion can increase O2 content : keep Hgb ~ 10 g/dl


49 Management of Septic Shock
Inotropic agents Dopamine hydrochloride (a-adrenergic and b- adrenergic effects) Dobutamine Norepinephrine – now considered first line therapy Increases mean arterial pressure Can reduce uterine artery blood flow Isoproterenol

50 Management of Septic Shock
Empiric antibiotic therapy Find the underlying etiology of the sepsis Start broad spectrum antibiotics immediately after drawing cultures Penicillin (if Staphylococcus aureus suspected, consider Vancomycin) or derivative PLUS aminoglycoside PLUS Clindamycin Vancomycin and Piperacillin/Tazobactam Alter regimen as culture and sensitivity results available

51 Management of Septic Shock
Surgical drainage or removal of infected tissues uterine evacuation, hysterectomy, abscess drainage, etc depending on the etiology Corticosteroids: high doses do not increase survival. Physiologic doses may be beneficial in extremely ill patients (relative adrenal insufficiency)

52 Management of Septic Shock
Activated Protein C First anti-inflammatory agent effective in the treatment of septic shock (NEJM 2001) Inactivates Factors Va and VIIIa, preventing thrombin generation 3.5% risk of serious hemorrhage However, U.S. FDA, based on the PROWESS-SHOCK clinical trial, issued a statement in 2011 that it should not be started in new patients with sepsis because it failed to show a survival benefit

53 Management of Septic Shock
Insulin therapy with a goal of blood sugar <180 mg/dl hyperglycemia impairs phagocytotic effects More aggressive control increases risk of hypoglycemia RBC transfusion: target a Hgb 7.0 g/dL or greater NUTRITION

54 Prevention is Key Controlling chronic disease
Antimicrobial prophylaxis Repeat if case > 4 hours Increase dose in obese patients Obesity epidemic ??? Appropriate vaccination

55 Maternal Sepsis: Call to Action
A standardized approach should be formulated for pregnant women with suspected sepsis Admission disposition protocol e.g. ICU, labor and delivery Early diagnosis procedures Management protocol to include both maternal and fetal evaluation and treatment Prevention strategies

56 Development of a Maternal Sepsis Screening Tool… from Scratch!
Brenda G. Downs RN, MSN, ACNS-BC Program Director, Clinical Performance Improvement Dignity Health

57 I have no conflict of interest related
to the content of this presentation.

58 Background and Significance
We experienced a significant increase in maternal sepsis cases over the year prior to the start of this project, with 4 cases progressing to septic shock in the 4 months prior to the project start date All 4 cases experienced adverse outcomes, including 2 with mortalities In all 4 cases, SIRS/general variables and organ dysfunction were missed

59 What is (or is Not) in the Literature?
Large body of research in the adult population… However, very limited studies in the maternal patient population To date, publications have been either case studies or retrospective, small sample size studies Identified gap: These studies did not identify or discuss a screening tool with maternal specific parameters

60 Steps to Developing a Tool
Formed a Multidisciplinary Team (July 2012) Consulted experts in “both worlds” – OB and Sepsis Defined populations – gestational age >20 weeks Completed a comprehensive literature review and developed a pilot maternal sepsis screening tool (August 2012) Developed a maternal sepsis abstraction tool for collecting data to help determine parameters – HR, RR (August 2012)

61 Tool Development Built on a foundation of literature reviews, expert review, and current resources Retrospective chart audits: 15 random, uncomplicated deliveries 15 high risk diagnosis – (infections) Any patients diagnosed with severe sepsis or septic shock diagnosed over last 2 years Time Points: triage, ante, intra, post partum and within 2 hours of discharge

62 Initial Maternal Screening Tool

63 Initial Maternal Screening Tool

64 Raw Results of Initial Audits
Known Sepsis/ Infection Group Control Group # Patients 35 25 Avg # times patients screened 2.6/pt 3.6/pt # Patients with suspected infection # of patients with 2 > general variables # of patients with severe sepsis 30 (86%) 17 (57%) 13 (43%) 3 (12%) Total # times patients screened Heart rate > 110 Heart rate > 120 Fetal heart rate > 160 Respiratory rate > 20 Altered temperature (> 38.3° or <36° C) WBC > 15K 90 16 11 9 5* 15 91 1 2 4 We did retrospective chart audits to look at screening tool parameters. We reviewed 25 random normal delivery charts – the control group- and 35 known infection cases. We asked that each patient be audited with the tool at the point of entry into the hospital, during labor, post partum and just prior to discharge. For the known sepsis/infectious patients there were 90 audits done amongst the 35 patients and 91 audits among the 25 control group patients. *10 screenings with no RR taken

65 Changes (& Resources) Along the Way…
Barton & Sibai publication, Sept 2012, Severe sepsis and septic shock in pregnancy (Obstet Gynecol, 2012;120: ) Validated our screening parameter selections Guided our HR parameter decision Surviving Sepsis Campaign: International Guidelines for Management of Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock: 2012, 3rd Ed publication (CCM, 2013; 41(2): ) Guidelines updated: added altered mental status; deleted chills/rigors; changed BG to 140

66 Final Screening Tool Is there a suspected or confirmed infection?
Are there 2 or more altered general variables? Temp > 38 C or < 36 C FHR > 160 bpm (gestational age >20wks) Maternal HR >110 bpm RR > 24 bpm WBC >15,000 or <4000 or >10% bands with normal WBC AMS BG > 140 (in absence of DM) If you answer yes to both of these questions – we ask to notify physician and consider ordering a lactate and creatinine and also continue to the 3rd question to assess for acute organ dysfunction

67 Final Screening Tool Is at least one of the following acute organ dysfunctions present? Decreased Cap refill/mottling skin Lactic acid above normal values Bilirubin >2mg/dL Urine output < 0.5ml/kg/hr x2 hrs Serum creatinine > 1.5 mg/dL or increase >0.5mg/dL from baseline INR >1.5 or PTT >60 w/o meds SBP decrease >40mmHg from baseline MAP <65 mmHg Acute lung injury with PaO2/FiO2 ratio <250 (RT can calculate with ABG)

68 Final Screening Tool Last Section has recommendations for Bundle Elements and to call RRT LA within 3 hrs BC drawn prior to Abx Abx within 1 hour for inpt and 3 hours from triage Crystalloids 30ml/kg for hypotension or LA >4

69 Challenges Along the Way…
Providers concerns about the process Misconceptions on screening Who will implement the bundles?

70 Questions? Thank YOU!

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