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IKI 10100: Data Structures & Algorithms Ruli Manurung (acknowledgments to Denny & Ade Azurat) 1 Fasilkom UI Ruli Manurung (Fasilkom UI)IKI10100: Lecture Red Black Tree

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2 Ruli Manurung (Fasilkom UI)IKI10100: Lecture Red-Black Trees Motivation Definition Operation Outline

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3 Ruli Manurung (Fasilkom UI)IKI10100: Lecture Binary Search Trees should be balanced. AVL Trees need 2 passes: top-down insertion/deletion and bottom-up rebalancing Need recursive implementation Red-Black Trees need 1 pass: top-down rebalancing and insertion/deletion Can be implemented iteratively, faster Red-Black Trees have slightly weaker balance restrictions Less effort to maintain In practice, worst case is similar to AVL Trees Motivation

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4 Ruli Manurung (Fasilkom UI)IKI10100: Lecture Red-Black Trees: Definition Rules of Red-Black Trees: 1. Every node is colored either red or black 2. The root is black 3. If a node is red, its children must be black consecutive red nodes are disallowed 4. Every path from a node to a null reference must contain the same number of black nodes Convention: null nodes are black

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5 Ruli Manurung (Fasilkom UI)IKI10100: Lecture Red-Black Trees The insertion sequence is 10, 85, 15, 70, 20, 60, 30, 50, 65, 80, 90, 40, 5, 55

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6 Ruli Manurung (Fasilkom UI)IKI10100: Lecture Red-Black Trees: Properties Each path must contain the same number of black nodes. (Rule #4) Consecutive red nodes are not allowed. (Rule #3) The longest path is at most twice the length of the shortest path

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7 Ruli Manurung (Fasilkom UI)IKI10100: Lecture Red-Black Trees: Properties B = total black nodes from root to leaf N = total all nodes H = height All operations guaranteed logarithmic!

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8 Ruli Manurung (Fasilkom UI)IKI10100: Lecture Insertion A new node must be colored red Why? A new item is always inserted as a leaf in the tree If we color a new item black, then the number of black nodes from root would be different (violate property #4) If the parent is black, no problem. If the parent is red, we create two consecutive red nodes (violate property #3) Thus, we have to do some rotating/recolouring… Remember convention: null nodes are black

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9 Ruli Manurung (Fasilkom UI)IKI10100: Lecture AB G X S P C DE AB G X S P C DE Single Rotation X: new node P: parent S: sibling G: Grandparent Case after insertion: Consecutive red (P & X) Sibling of parent (S) is black X is “outer node” (left-left or right-right)

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10 Ruli Manurung (Fasilkom UI)IKI10100: Lecture BC G X S P A DE AB G P S X C DE Double Rotation X: new node P: parent S: sibling G: Grandparent Case after insertion: Consecutive red (P & X) Sibling of parent (S) is black X is “inner node” (left-right or left)

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11 Ruli Manurung (Fasilkom UI)IKI10100: Lecture Single Rotation (bottom-up) Case after insertion: Consecutive red Sibling of parent is red Outer node (left-left or right-right) AB G X SP C DE AB G X S P C DE But what if P’s parent is red? We have to keep going up the tree all the way to the root

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12 Ruli Manurung (Fasilkom UI)IKI10100: Lecture Top-Down Insertion The solution: prevent S from ever being red! Starting from the root (searching for insertion point) Never allow 2 red siblings If we see a node X with 2 red children, do a colour flip. X C2C1 X C2

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13 Ruli Manurung (Fasilkom UI)IKI10100: Lecture Color Flip Maintains property #4 Possible violation of #3: if X’s parent is red! Do single or double rotation X’s parent’s sibling can never be red! Set the root to black (to maintain property #2) X C2C1 X C2

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14 Ruli Manurung (Fasilkom UI)IKI10100: Lecture AB G X SP C DE Color Flip (2) AB G X SP C DE If we do the colour flipping on the way down to the insertion point, we will never reach a condition where P & S are red!

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15 Ruli Manurung (Fasilkom UI)IKI10100: Lecture Example: Insert 18 18

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16 Ruli Manurung (Fasilkom UI)IKI10100: Lecture Example: Insert

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17 Ruli Manurung (Fasilkom UI)IKI10100: Lecture Example: Insert

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18 Ruli Manurung (Fasilkom UI)IKI10100: Lecture Example: Insert 45 (Illustration)

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19 Ruli Manurung (Fasilkom UI)IKI10100: Lecture Example: Insert 45 (Top-Down Color Flip) Color-flip!

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20 Ruli Manurung (Fasilkom UI)IKI10100: Lecture Example: Insert 45 (Top-Down Color Flip) Color-flip!

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21 Ruli Manurung (Fasilkom UI)IKI10100: Lecture Example: Insert 45 (Single Rotate)

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22 Ruli Manurung (Fasilkom UI)IKI10100: Lecture Example: Insert 45 (Single Rotate)

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23 Ruli Manurung (Fasilkom UI)IKI10100: Lecture Red-Black Tree Insertion: Exercise The insertion sequence is 10, 85, 15, 70, 20, 60, 30, 50, 65, 80, 90, 40, 5, 55

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24 Ruli Manurung (Fasilkom UI)IKI10100: Lecture Red-Black Tree: Deletion Deletion in BST: only leaf nodes or nodes with one child are really deleted (Why?) If the deleted node is red: no problem (all properties maintained). Leaf nodes: Single child nodes:

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25 Ruli Manurung (Fasilkom UI)IKI10100: Lecture Top-Down Deletion If node to be deleted is black violate property #4 Always ensure that the node to be deleted is red. Top-down traversal from root (looking for node to be deleted): X: visited node P: parent S: sibling B P S X A CD Idea: make sure that X is red!

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26 Ruli Manurung (Fasilkom UI)IKI10100: Lecture Possible cases P is red (inductive invariant) X and S are black (result of property #3) 2 cases: 1. Both X’s children (A & B) are black 2. X has at least one red child (A, B, or both) B P S X A CD

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27 Ruli Manurung (Fasilkom UI)IKI10100: Lecture Case 1: Both X’s children are black Depends on children of S (C & D): Both C & D are black: simply colour-flip: B P S X A C D B P S X A C D

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28 Ruli Manurung (Fasilkom UI)IKI10100: Lecture Case 1: Both X’s children are black Outer child of S (C) is Red: do a single rotation and recolour B P S X A C D C S D P B X A

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29 Ruli Manurung (Fasilkom UI)IKI10100: Lecture Case 1: Both X’s children are black Inner child of S (C) is Red: do a double rotation and recolour B P S X A D C C S P B X A D

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30 Ruli Manurung (Fasilkom UI)IKI10100: Lecture Case 2: One/Both of X’s children is red Recurse down to X’s child If we land on a red node, fine. If we land on a black node, rotate sibling and parent: B P S X A C C S P B X A D D

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31 Ruli Manurung (Fasilkom UI)IKI10100: Lecture Red-Black trees use color as balancing information instead of height in AVL trees. An insertion may cause a local perturbation (two consecutive red nodes) The pertubation is either resolved locally (rotations), or propagated to a higher level in the tree by recoloring (color flip) O(1) for a rotation or color flip At most one restructuring per insertion. O(log n) color flips Total time: O(log n) Summary

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32 Ruli Manurung (Fasilkom UI)IKI10100: Lecture 00/resources/animation/data- structure/redblack/redblack.html (mirror from RedBlack/redblack.html ) 00/resources/animation/data- structure/redblack/redblack.html Chapter 19.5 Further Reading

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