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Admission Assessment of the Pregnant Woman

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Presentation on theme: "Admission Assessment of the Pregnant Woman"— Presentation transcript:

1 Admission Assessment of the Pregnant Woman
Evelyn M. Hickson, RN, MSN, CNS, WCC

2 Objectives Identify potential complications of pregnancy based on prenatal history, physical assessment and lab values. Discuss the role of the perinatal nurse in screening, identifying, documenting and referring patients with history of domestic violence or substance use during pregnancy. Discuss maternal infections, modes of treatment, and potential impact on the infant. (HIV TB, STDs, Hepatitis, Herpes, GBS)

3 Review of Prenatal Records
Review office reports, including Obstetrical history Personal medical history Family history Social history Note any areas of concern identified by the care provider Family history concerns: cardiac disease, DM, bleeding disorders Examples of pregnancy-related concerns: previous postpartum hemorrhage, previous c-section, previous stillborn, previous preterm labor or birth, elevated blood pressures during pregnancy, gestational diabetes, etc.

4 Prenatal Labs Blood type and antibody screen Rubella immunity
GBS culture HSV HIV Hepatitis B VDRL/RPR Quad screen Glucose tolerance testing

5 OB History: Current Pregnancy
Maternal age EDC Dating criteria How early did she start prenatal care? Gestation Current complications GTPAL Gravidity Term births Preterm (<37 wk) births Abortions (elective, therapeutic or spontaneous) Living children Early prenatal care allows for greater opportunity to identify potential medical or social risks for the patient and fetus and is associated with improved pregnancy outcomes. (Simpson and Creehan, 1996). How many prenatal visits? Every 4 weeks the first 28 weeks of pregnancy, every 2 weeks until 36 weeks, then weekly until delivery. Do they live with you? How old is your youngest child? Occasionally when reviewing these events with patients they will remember pregnancies that they did not report to their care provider. How fresh their memories are for childbirth could be influenced by how many years back was the last baby.

6 OB History: Multiparous Patients
Length of previous labors, infant birth weight, gestational age at delivery History of preterm labor or delivery Previous operative delivery Previous stillbirth History of postpartum hemorrhage or postpartum depression

7 Social History Marital status or available family support
CPS or other alerts Social/economic/educational concerns Physical/mental challenges Referral to social services Language barriers Religious or cultural practices

8 Prioritizing the Patient Interview
Sometimes the urgency of the situation dictates the order in which one proceeds with a patient interview, such as: Imminent delivery Unstable maternal condition (Unconscious, bleeding, seizing, etc) Category 3 fetal tracing Appropriate to gather information from support people that may be present in either of these situations.

9 Patient Interview Note the date and time of patient arrival
Is your baby moving? Are you contracting? If so, when did they start and how often are they occurring? Are you experiencing vaginal bleeding, discharge, or leaking of fluid? Are you in pain? Orient the patient to the pain scale and discuss her plans for pain management. Send them to bathroom for UA. What brings you here? Have you had intercourse in the past 12 to 24 hours? Consider posting crisis card line in bathroom, so that women experiencing domestic violence may discreetly get information.

10 Patient Interview (cont.)
Current medications Dose, route, last taken Allergies and reactions When the patient last ate or drank (including what was eaten or drunk) Recent SVE Complications with current or previous pregnancy

11 Is the patient experiencing…
Nausea or vomiting Frequency or burning with urination Epigastric pain Headaches Visual disturbances

12 Physical Assessment Leopold’s Maneuvers EFM
Orient patient to monitors and basic strip interpretation When you are doing a physical assessment, look for any unusual marks or bruises. Note patient’s demeanor and reactions to procedures. Make sure she understands what you are going to do and why before you proceed. Ask: what are some contraindications to an SVE?

13 Physical Assessment Vital signs (full set) Urine dip
Physical exam including: Edema DTRs and Clonus Breath sounds if patient presents with respiratory symptoms SVE – unless contraindicated

14 Labor Assessment Time contractions started
Frequency, duration, and regularity of contractions Palpation of maternal abdomen during and between contractions Fetal movement Pain assessment, including location and type of pain

15 Herbs/Foods That Increase Uterine Activity
Bitter Melon Castor bean or castor oil Chamomile tea Cinnamon (spice tea) Garlic Ginger Goldenseal Pomegranate Red raspberry leaf tea

16 Suspected Rupture of Membranes
Intercourse in last hours Time possible SROM occurred Color, amount, and smell of fluid Testing of vaginal discharge for presence of amniotic fluid If the patient is between 24 and 34 weeks gestation, sterile speculum exam for testing of ROM and collection of FFN may be indicated.

17 Substance Use and Abuse
Warning signs of drug abuse: Noncompliance with prenatal care – late entry or no prenatal care Poor nutrition –due to adolescence, obesity, low socioeconomic status Current or previous history of encounters with law enforcement Marital & family disputes Intrapartum signs of substance abuse Unexplained IUGR 3rd trimester stillbirth Unexpected preterm birth Placental abruption in a woman without hypertensive disorders. Informed consent for testing Social service consult, CPS, drug treatment Questions need to be non-threatening and non-judgmental. Questions like when have you last used…. Are sometimes helpful.

18 Domestic Violence Majority of abused women continue to be victimized during pregnancy and may escalate. Most estimate rates between 4 –8%. Child abuse occurs in 33 – 77% of families with adult abuse. No single profile of an abused woman: all racial, economic, educational, religious, ethnic and social backgrounds. Where will you find evidence of abuse on the patient’s body? What kind of behavior do you assess in the abused patient and her abuser?

19 Pregnancy and Domestic Violence
Signs of domestic violence in the pregnant patient include: unwanted pregnancy late entry into prenatal care missed appointments substance abuse or use poor weight gain and nutrition multiple, repeated somatic complaints.

20 Domestic Violence Screening
Should be conducted in private, with only the patient present “Because violence against women is so common, I ask all of my patients do you have any reason to feel unsafe at home?” Document patient statements accurately and quote them directly

21 Promptly Notify Care Provider if:
Vaginal bleeding Acute abdominal pain Temperature of F or higher Preterm labor Preterm rupture of membranes Hypertension Non-reassuring fetal heart rate pattern

22 SBAR Communication Best method to speak to providers
Gives you a standard list of things you need to be prepared to discuss with them Be concise and factual Do not use “touchy-feely” language

23 SBAR Communication Situation What is going on with the patient?
Background What is the clinical context? Assessment What do I think the problem is? Recommendation What would I do to correct it? Remember that you may be speaking with a care provider that is not familiar with the patient.

24 SBAR Guideline Prior to calling the provider:
Have I assessed the patient myself? Has the situation been discussed with a resource nurse or preceptor? Have the following available when speaking: Patient chart List of current medications, allergies, whether IV was placed and labs drawn Most recent vital signs Reporting lab results: provide the date and time test was done and results of previous labs for comparison

25 SBAR: Situation What is the situation you are calling about?
Identify self, unit, patient, room number State who the patient’s doctor has been for the pregnancy Briefly state the problem, what is it, when it happened or started, and how severe.

26 SBAR: Background Pertinent background information related to the situation could include: Gestation, GTPAL, age, previously identified risk factors List of current medications, allergies, labs Most recent vital signs Clinical information

27 SBAR: Assessment and Recommendation
What is your assessment of the situation? What is your recommendation or expectation? Admission for labor Patient needs to be seen now Patient needs antibiotics for UTI, etc. Document the care provider notification, orders received, changes in patient condition, and plan.

28 Guidelines for Communication with Physicians Using SBAR
Use the following according to provider preference. Direct page Call service During weekdays, the office directly On weekends and after hours during the week, home phone Cell phone. Wait no longer than 5 minutes between attempts. For emergent situations, use the appropriate chain of command as needed to ensure safe patient care.

29 References Guidelines for Perinatal Care, (6th ed.)/AAP and ACOG, 2005
Lowdermilk, D. and Perry, S. (2007). Maternity and Women’s Health Care (9th ed.). St. Louis, MI: Mosby Elsevier. Mattson, S. and Smith, J. (2004). Core Curriculum for Maternal-Newborn Nursing (3rd ed.). St. Louis, MI: Mosby Elsevier. Simpson, K. and Creehan, P. (2010). Perinatal Nursing (3rd ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott.

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