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Early Pregnancy Problems

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Presentation on theme: "Early Pregnancy Problems"— Presentation transcript:

1 Early Pregnancy Problems
Feras Izzat Consultant Gynaecologist – EGU/EPAU Lead University Hospitals Coventry & Warwickshire NHS Trust

2 Introduction Ectopic Pregnancy
Bleeding in early pregnancy and miscarriage Gestational Trophoblastic Disease

3 Ectopic Pregnancy

4 Definition Pregnancy occurring outside uterine cavity
Approx 11/1000 of pregnancies – rate increasing Maternal mortality in 1/2500 ectopic pregnancies (11 deaths in most recent report)

5 Site Tubal Non Tubal Ovary Abdominal cavity Cervix CS Scar
Interstitial 2.4% Isthmic 12% Ampullary 70% Fimbrial 11.1% Non Tubal Ovary Abdominal cavity Cervix CS Scar

6 Risk factors Previous PID Previous ectopic pregnancy
Previous tubal surgery (e.g. sterilisation, reversal) Pregnancy in the presence of IUCD POP ART (IVF)

7 Symptoms Acute Chronic (Atypical)
Low abdominal pain – peritoneal irritation by blood Vaginal bleeding – shedding of decidua Shoulder tip pain – referred from diaphragm Fainting - hypovolaemia Chronic (Atypical) Asymptomatic, gastrointestinal symptoms

8 Signs Abdominal tenderness Adnexal tenderness / mass
Shock – tachycardia, hypotension, pallor None

9 Diagnosis Ultrasound Serum βhCG & Progesterone Laparoscopy
Empty uterus, adnexal mass, free fluid, occasionally live pregnancy outside of uterus Serum βhCG & Progesterone Laparoscopy

10 Ultrasound

11 Ultarsound Trans-Vaginal Ultrasonography
Sensitivity 100%, specificity 98.2%. The positive predictive value 98%, and the negative predictive value was 100% FH seen in 23% Timor-Tritsch et al, 1990 Am J Obstet Gynecol.

12 Left Ectopic on laparoscopy

13 Management Conservative Medical Surgical - Laparoscopy
hCG <1000 , Progesterone < 5 stable, success 70% Medical Methotrexate – hCG <4000 mass < 3cm, success 84%. Susequent IUP 54% recurrent EP 8% Surgical - Laparoscopy Salpingectomy, IUP 38.3%, EP 9.8 Salpingotomy, IUP 61.1%, EP 15.5 Yao et al, Fertility Sterility 1997

14 PUL Pregnancy of unknown location (PUL) - positive pregnancy test with no signs of intra- or extrauterine pregnancy on transvaginal sonography (TVS). 15-20% of all EPAU scans Management should be expectant if stable with an initial serum progesterone (<20) and a hCG ratio 0h/48h of <0.87 Condous et al, Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2006

15 Bleeding in Early Pregnancy & Miscarriage

16 Definitions Threatened miscarriage Vaginal bleeding at < 24 weeks gestation Delayed (silent) miscarriage Gestational sac with/without fetus present (but no FH) Recurrent miscarriage 3 or more consecutive miscarriages (with or without a known cause)

17 Miscarriage Approximately 30% of pregnant women will experience bleeding in early pregnancy At least 50% of women with threatened miscarriage will have continuing pregnancy Miscarriage occurs in 15-20% of clinically diagnosed pregnancies

18 Causes of miscarriage Genetic abnormalities 85%
Maternal illness e.g. diabetes, Thyroid disease Phospholipid / Lupus – 15% recurrent miscarriages Uterine abnormalities ‘Cervical incompetence’ Progesterone deficiency?

19 History LMP When? Amount? Pain? Timing of Pain

20 Examination ABC (vital signs) Abdominal Vaginal (speculum) Cx state
Amount of bleeding

21 Cusc’o speculum Sim’s speculum

22 Investigations Ideally in dedicated ‘Early Pregnancy Assessment Unit’
Ultrasound Measurement of serum βhCG Determination of blood & Rhesus group FBC, G&S and admit if significant bleeding Psychological support

23 Ultrasound Expect to see viable fetus from around 6.5 weeks transabdominally, 5.5 weeks transvaginally Diagnosis can be made on TVS only CRL ≥ 7mm Empty GS with a mean diameter ≥ 25 mm

24 Gestational sac

25 Very early..

26 Normal 8-9 wk pregnancy

27 Empty sac

28 Measurement of βhCG Not necessary if diagnosis unequivocal on scan
Useful as part of investigations to diagnose / exclude extrauterine pregnancy Doubling time approx 2 days in viable pregnancy Halving time 1-2 days in complete miscarriage Should see fetal pole with βhCG of

29 Management of incomplete miscarriage
Conservative 76% success Medical mifipristone & misoprostol – 82% success Nielsen et al, BJOG 1999 Surgical (ERPC) No difference in satisfaction rate than medical – 95% Chipchase et al, BJOG 1995

30 Recurrent miscarriage
Loss of 3 or more consecutive pregnancies Affects 1% of women in reproductive age group Investigations can identify up to 50% with a cause Women aged <=30 years have a subsequent miscarriage rate of 25% which rises to 52% in women aged >=40 years. The risk of a subsequent miscarriage is 29% after 3 miscarriages, this rises to 53% in 6 or more previous miscarriages Clifford et al, Human Reproduction 1997

31 Gestational Trophoblastic Disease

32 GTD The abnormal proliferation of gestational trophoblast tissue
Spectrum of disease Pre-Malignant Partial Molar Pregnancy Complete Molar Pregnancy Malignant Invasive mole Choriocarcinoma Placental site trophoblastic tumours

33 Molar Pregnancy 1 in 1000 live births Partial Complete
Partial moles are triploid with 2 sets of paternal and 1 set of maternal chromosomes An embryo often present that dies at 8-9 weeks 0.5% need chemotherapy for invasive disease Complete No fetal pole, diplod chromosomes paternally derived – androgenetic No embryo Chemo therapy rate 8-20%


35 Presentation Vaginal bleeding Excessive N&V ‘Hyperemesis gravidarum’
Uterus large for dates

36 Diagnosis Ultrasound Histology after surgical evacuation



39 Complete mole at hysterectomy

40 Follow-up Monitor via regional centre – London, Sheffield, Dundee
CM – 8-20% risk of invasive disease PM – 0.5% Choriocarcinoma may follow any subsequent pregnancy – miscarriage, TOP, term delivery Choriocarcinoma is curable Monitor βhCG levels to check resolution – for 6 months to 2 years


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