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Diabetes in Pregnancy Dr Thomas Paul MD DM (Endo) Dr Thomas Paul MD DM (Endo) Dr. Mathew John MD DM(Endo) Dr. Mathew John MD DM(Endo) Department of Endocrinology.

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Presentation on theme: "Diabetes in Pregnancy Dr Thomas Paul MD DM (Endo) Dr Thomas Paul MD DM (Endo) Dr. Mathew John MD DM(Endo) Dr. Mathew John MD DM(Endo) Department of Endocrinology."— Presentation transcript:

1 Diabetes in Pregnancy Dr Thomas Paul MD DM (Endo) Dr Thomas Paul MD DM (Endo) Dr. Mathew John MD DM(Endo) Dr. Mathew John MD DM(Endo) Department of Endocrinology Department of Endocrinology Christian Medical College Christian Medical College Vellore Vellore

2 Pregnancy may be complicated by diabetes in two distinct forms: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as glucose intolerance of varying severity with onset or first recognition during pregnancy. This subset constitutes 90% of women with pregnancies complicated by diabetes. The most important perinatal concern in this group is macrosomia with resulting birth trauma. More than 50% women ultimately develop diabetes in the ensuing 20 years and this is linked with obesity. Pre-gestational diabetes is diabetes that antedates pregnancy. Pregnancies which are complicated by pre- gestational diabetes, type-1 or type-2, carry an additional risk to both mother and fetus beyond the effects on fetal growth and development in mid and late pregnancy.

3 Classification Pregestational diabetes: A lady with known diabetes who conceives while on treatment with diet, oral hypoglycemic agents or insulin. Type 1 DM, Type 2 DM, Secondary DM Gestational diabetes mellitus is defined as glucose intolerance of variable degree with onset or first recognition during pregnancy. Some patients with fasting hyperglycemia detected early in pregnancy may be missed cases of diabetes that predated pregnancy. Women found early in pregnancy to have gestational diabetes are a high- risk subgroup.

4  GDM varies worldwide and among different racial and ethnic groups within a country.  Variability is partly because of the different criteria and screening regimens  Prevalence : India: 0.56% -6% (Ramachandran A et al 1994; Hill et al., 2005) USA: increased from 2.1–4.1% in the period 1994 to 2002 with significant increases in all racial/ethnic groups (Dabelea et al., 2005). Native Americans, Asians, Hispanics, African-American, Aboriginal women are at higher risk (Ferrara, 2007). Magnitude of problem: GDM Ramachandran A, Snehalatha C, Shymala P, Vijay V, Viswanathan M. Prevalence of diabetes in pregnant women--a study from southern India. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 1994;25: Hill JC, Krisgnaveni GV, Annamma I, Leary SD, Fall CH. Glucose tolerance in pregnancy in South India: relationships to neonatal anthropometry. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2005;84: Dabelea, D, Snell-Bergeon JK, Hartsfield CL, Bischoff KJ, Hamman RF, McDuffie RS. Increasing Prevalence of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) Over Time and by Birth Cohort. Diabetes Care 2005;28: Ferrara A: Increasing prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care 2007;30:S141-S146

5 Risk Factors for gestational diabetes screening 1.Strong family history of diabetes 2.Women who have given birth to large infants (>4 kg; 8 lbs 13 oz) 3.History of recurrent fetal loss 4.Persistent glycosuria 5.Age > 25 years 6.Past history of glucose intolerance or diabetes in a previous pregnancy

6 Risk Factors for gestational diabetes screening 7. Obesity; overweight women (>15% of non-pregnant ideal body weight) 8. Ethnic group with a high prevalence of diabetes (e.g. Pima Indians, Asians, Hispanic) 9. History of stillbirth, unexplained neonatal death, congenital malformations, prematurity. 10. History of pre-eclampsia or polyhydraminos 11. Chronic hypertension 12. Recurrent severe moniliasis or urinary tract infection 13. History of traumatic delivery with an associated neurological disorder in the infant

7 Whom to screen? Risk stratification Low risk: no screening Average risk: at weeks High risk: as soon as possible Screening is ideally initiated between the 24 th and 28 th weeks of pregnancy or earlier if any of the risk factors are present.

8 Age <25 years Weight normal before pregnancy Member of an ethnic group with a low prevalence of GDM No known diabetes in first-degree relatives No history of abnormal glucose tolerance No history of poor obstetric outcome Low risk for GDM

9 High risk for GDM Marked obesity Prior GDM Glycosuria Strong family history Ethnic group with high diabetes prevalence Intermediate risk for GDM Must exhibit one risk factor from the list in slide 5.

10 All Indian women and women of Indian origin should be screened for gestational diabetes mellitus as they belong to a high risk ethnicity

11 Screening test  Glucose Challenge Test (GCT): An excellent screening test for gestational diabetes is the measurement of plasma glucose 1 hour after ingesting 50 g of glucose. A plasma glucose level obtained one hour after a 50 g glucose load administered at any time of the day without regard to the time since the last meal, has become a well validated and widely applied screening procedure for women between 24 and 28 weeks of gestation. Using a cut-off value > 140 mg/dl identifies 80% women with GDM Using a cut-off value > 130 mg/dl identifies 90% women with GDM Women with elevated GCT values require a diagnostic oral glucose tolerance test

12 Screening test Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT): Measurement of plasma glucose after ingesting 100 g of glucose. Timing of measurement National Diabetes Data Group (1979) Carpenter and Coustan (CC) 1982 Fasting 105 mg/dl 95 mg/dl 1 hour 190 mg/dl 180 mg/dl 2 hour 165 mg/dl 155 mg/dl 3 hour 145 mg/dl 140 mg/dl Classification: and diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and other categories of glucose intolerance: National Diabetes Data Group. Diabetes 1979; 28:1039–1057 Carpenter MW, Coustan DR. Criteria for screening tests for gestational diabetes. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1982;144: > 2 values must be abnormal; for at least 3 days prior to the test, the patient should have an unrestricted diet and unlimited physical activity. The patient should fast for 8 hours before the test. The CC criteria detects 54% more women with GDM than the NDDG criteria

13 Urine monitoring Urine glucose monitoring is not useful in gestational diabetes mellitus Urine ketone monitoring may be useful in detecting insufficient caloric or carbohydrate intake in women treated with calorie restriction

14 Congenital abnormalities Neonatal hypoglycemia Macrosmia (big baby syndrome > 4 Kg or >8 lb 13 oz) Jaundice Polycythemia / hyperviscosity syndrome Hypocalcemia, hypomagnesemia Birth trauma (due to macrosmia and shoulder dystocia) Prematurity Hyaline membrane disease Apnea and bradycardia The risk of fetal anomalies is not increased in GDM patients. However, the risks of unexplained still births (during the last 4-8 weeks of gestation) are similar to pre-gestational diabetes. Effects of GDM on the fetus

15 Effects of GDM on neonates Respiratory distress Hypoglycemia Hypocalcemia Hyperbilirubinemia Cardiac Hypertrophy Long term effects on cognitive development

16 Macrosomic infant Macrosomia (large for gestational age or big baby syndrome) (birth weight >90% percentile for gestational age) Macrosomia is a result of persistent maternal hyperglycemia leading to fetal hyperglycemia and prolonged fetal hyperinsulinism. This stimulates excessive somatic growth mediated by insulin-like growth factors (IGFs). Macrosomia affects all organs except the brain.

17 Congenital abnormalities due to GDM Cardiac (most common): transposition of great vessels, Ventricular septal defect, Atrial septal defect Cardiac (most common): transposition of great vessels, Ventricular septal defect, Atrial septal defect Central nervous system (7.2%): spina bifida, Anencephaly, hydrocephalus Central nervous system (7.2%): spina bifida, Anencephaly, hydrocephalus Skeletal: cleft lip/palate, caudal regression syndrome Skeletal: cleft lip/palate, caudal regression syndrome Genitourinary tract: ureteric duplication Genitourinary tract: ureteric duplication Gastrointestinal: anorectal atresia Gastrointestinal: anorectal atresia Renal agenesis, Duplex ureters, Cystic Kidney Renal agenesis, Duplex ureters, Cystic Kidney Situs inversus Situs inversus Poor glycemic control at time of conception: risk factor

18 Caudal regression syndrome (abnormal development of lower spine)

19 Caudal regression syndrome

20 Pre-eclampsia: affects 10-25% of all pregnant women with GDM Infections: high incidence of chorioamnionitis and postpartum endometritis Postpartum bleeding: high incidence caused by exaggerated uterine distension Cesarian section more common due to fetal macrosmia and cephalo-pelvic disproportion Weight gain Hypertension Miscarriages Third trimester fetal deaths Long term risk of type-2 diabetes mellitus Effects of GDM on the mother

21 Effect of pregnancy on diabetes More insulin is necessary to achieve metabolic control Progression of retinopathy: esp. severe proliferative retinopathy Progression of nephropathy: especially if renal failure + Increased risk of Coronary artery disease, and a high risk of maternal death in post MI patients Cardiomyopathy

22 Patient education Cornerstone in GDM management Instruct mother about maternal and fetal complications Instruct mother about maternal and fetal complications Medical Nutrition therapy Medical Nutrition therapy Glycemic monitoring: teach mother about self monitored blood glucose measurement and glycemic targets Glycemic monitoring: teach mother about self monitored blood glucose measurement and glycemic targets Pre-conception counseling Pre-conception counseling Fetal monitoring: ultrasound Fetal monitoring: ultrasound Planning on delivery Planning on delivery Long term risks Long term risks

23 Glycemic control targets Tight glycemic control can reduce fetal risk. But, stringent glycemic control puts the mother at increased risk of hypoglycemic events and the fetus at risk of being small-for-gestational age. American Diabetes Association Recommendations: Fasting whole blood glucose <95 mg/dl 1 hr postprandial blood glucose <140 mg/dl 2 hr postprandial blood glucose <120 mg/dl These are venous plasma targets, not glucometer targets

24 Why these tight glycemic targets? Prospective study in type-1 patients with pregnancy Prospective study in type-1 patients with pregnancy Fasting blood sugar Macrosomia >105 mg/dl 28.6 % % <95 mg/dl 3%

25 Self monitored blood glucose (SBMG) 4 times/day minimum, fasting and 1 to 2 hours after start of meals 4 times/day minimum, fasting and 1 to 2 hours after start of meals Maintain log book Maintain log book Use a memory meter Use a memory meter Calibrate the glucometer frequently Calibrate the glucometer frequently

26 Medical Nutrition and Exercise therapy Current weight in relation to ideal body weight Daily caloric intake (kcal/kg) Recommended pregnancy weight gain (kg) <80-90% % (ideal) % >150% provide necessary nutrients for mother and fetus to ensure adequate gestational weight gain control glucose levels prevent starvation ketosis aerobic exercise, exercise that does not stress the trunk

27 Approximately 30 kcal/kg of ideal body weight Approximately 30 kcal/kg of ideal body weight > 40-45% should be carbohydrates > 40-45% should be carbohydrates 6-7 meals daily (3 meals, 3-4 snacks). Bed time snack to prevent ketosis 6-7 meals daily (3 meals, 3-4 snacks). Bed time snack to prevent ketosis Calories guided by fetal well being/maternal weight gain/blood sugars/ ketones Calories guided by fetal well being/maternal weight gain/blood sugars/ ketones Energy requirements during the first 6 months of lactation require an additional 200 calories above the pregnancy meal plan Energy requirements during the first 6 months of lactation require an additional 200 calories above the pregnancy meal plan Medical nutrition therapy

28 Insulin in GDM Insulin used if fasting blood glucose >105 mg/dl or 1 hr postprandial blood glucose >120 mg / dl on a diet Use basal bolus regime or pre-mixed insulin Short acting insulins (e.g. Lispro and Aspart) can be used to achieve postprandial control Long acting insulins (Glargine and Determir) are NOT licensed in pregnancy Insulin requirements increase by 50% from weeks to weeks, after which insulin needs often stabilize.

29 Oral Hypoglycemic agents Glyburide is a clinically effective alternative to insulin in GDM (Langer et al. 2000) Metformin may be effective in GDM (Ratner et al., 2008; Coustan, 2007) Langer O, Conway DL, Berkus MD, Xenakis EM, Gonzales O. A comparison of glyburide and insulin in women with gestational diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med. 2000;343: Ratner RE, Christophl CA, Metzger BE, Dabalea D, Bennett PH, Pi-Sunyer X, Fowler S, Kahn SE, Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. Prevention of diabetes in women with a history of gestational diabetes: effects of metformin and lifestyle interventions. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008;93: Coustan DR Pharmacological management of gestational diabetes: an overview. Diabetes Care. 2007;30 Suppl 2:S206-8.

30 Preconception counseling All women with pre-existing type-1 or type-2 diabetes, when planning on pregnancy, should receive pre-conception counseling so that they understand the importance of achieving near-normal blood glucose before conception to reduce the risk of congenital malformations and spontaneous abortions. Assess maternal and fetal risk Mother should learn self-administration of insulin and regular monitoring of blood glucose. Target: HbA1c < 7% Emphasize diet and exercise Folic acid supplementation: 5 mg/day Ensure no transmissible diseases: HBsAg, HIV, rubella Try and achieve normal body weight: diet/exercise Stop drugs: oral hypoglycemic drugs, ACE inhibitors, beta blockers and potentially teratogenic drugs

31 Clinical parameters checked at each visit Medications Medications Pre-pregnancy weight Pre-pregnancy weight Weight gain Weight gain Edema Edema Pallor Pallor Thyroid enlargement Thyroid enlargement Blood pressure Blood pressure Fundal height Fundal height

32 Laboratory parameters to be monitored at each visit Hemoglobin Blood Sugar HbA1C (first trimester only) Urine microscopy and albumin Thyroid function (if goiter present)

33 Fetal monitoring Baseline ultrasound : fetal size Baseline ultrasound : fetal size Ultrasound evaluation of neural tube defects and other congenital malformations should begin by weeks of Ultrasound evaluation of neural tube defects and other congenital malformations should begin by weeks of At weeks: fetal anatomic survey, major malformations At weeks: fetal anatomic survey, major malformations At weeks: fetal echocardiogram for cardiac defects At weeks: fetal echocardiogram for cardiac defects At 26 weeks onwards: ultrasound to evaluate fetal growth and amniotic fluid volume At 26 weeks onwards: ultrasound to evaluate fetal growth and amniotic fluid volume Third trimester: Fetal surveillance to reduce risk of still birth: include non-stress test, biophysical profile, maternal monitoring of fetal activity, frequent USG for accelerated growth Third trimester: Fetal surveillance to reduce risk of still birth: include non-stress test, biophysical profile, maternal monitoring of fetal activity, frequent USG for accelerated growth abdominal: head circumference abdominal: head circumference

34 Timing of delivery Small risk of late intra-uterine death even with good glycemic control Small risk of late intra-uterine death even with good glycemic control Delivery usually at 38 weeks Delivery usually at 38 weeks Beyond 38 weeks, increased risk of intrauterine death without an increase in RDS Beyond 38 weeks, increased risk of intrauterine death without an increase in RDS

35 Vaginal delivery: preferred Vaginal delivery: preferred Cesarian section only for routine obstetric indication Cesarian section only for routine obstetric indication GDM alone is not an indication ! > 4.5 Kg fetus: Cesarean delivery may reduce the likelihood of brachial plexus injury in the infant > 4.5 Kg fetus: Cesarean delivery may reduce the likelihood of brachial plexus injury in the infant Unfavorable condition of the cervix is a problem Unfavorable condition of the cervix is a problem Maintain euglycemia during labor Maintain euglycemia during labor Maternal hyperglycemia in labor: fetal hyperinsulinemia and worsen fetal acidosis Maternal hyperglycemia in labor: fetal hyperinsulinemia and worsen fetal acidosis Maintain sugars: mg/dl (capillary: mg/dl ) Maintain sugars: mg/dl (capillary: mg/dl ) Feed patient the routine GDM diet Feed patient the routine GDM diet Maintain basal glucose requirements Maintain basal glucose requirements Monitor sugars 1-4 hrly intervals during labour Monitor sugars 1-4 hrly intervals during labour Give insulin only if blood sugar >120 mg/dl Give insulin only if blood sugar >120 mg/dl Management of labor and delivery

36 Glycemic management during labour Later stages of labour: start dextrose to maintain basal nutritional requirements: ml/hr of 5% dextrose Elective Cesarian section: check fasting blood sugar; if within target range no insulin is needed; start dextrose drip Continue hourly self monitored blood glucose Post delivery keep patients on dextrose-normal saline till fed No insulin unless sugars more than normal ( not GDM targets ! )

37 Check blood sugars before discharge Breast feeding: helps in weight loss Lifestyle modification: exercise, weight reduction Oral glucose tolerance test at 6-12 weeks postpartum: classify patients into normal/impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes Preconception counseling for next pregnancy Increased risk of cardiovascular disease, future diabetes and dyslipidemia Post partum follow up

38 Hypoglycemia: 50 % of macrosomic infants 5–15 % optimally controlled GDM Starts when the cord is clamped Exaggerated insulin release secondary to pancreatic ß-cell hyperplasia Increased risk: blood glucose during labor and delivery exceeds 90 mg/dl Anticipate and treat hypoglycemia in the infant Immediate management of neonate

39 Management of neonate Hypoglycemia <40 mg/dl Encourage early breast feeding If symptomatic give a bolus of 2- 4 ml/kg, IV, 10% dextrose Check after 30 minutes, start feeding IV dextrose : 6-8 mg/kg/min infusion Check for calcium, if seizure/irritability/RDS Examine infant for other congenital abnormalities

40 Long term risk: offspring Increased risk of obesity and abnormal glucose tolerance due to changes in fetal islet cell function Increased risk of obesity and abnormal glucose tolerance due to changes in fetal islet cell function Encourage breast feeding: less chance of obesity in later life Encourage breast feeding: less chance of obesity in later life Lifestyle modification Lifestyle modification

41 Gestational diabetes is a common problem in worldwide Risk stratification and screening is essential in all pregnant women, particularly those from ethnicities with increased risk Tight glycemic targets are required for optimal maternal and fetal outcome Patient education is essential to meet targets Long term follow up of the mother and baby is essential Conclusion

42 17 pound baby born to Brazilian diabetic mother Courtesy: MSNBC News Services Jan. 24, 2005


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