2AdolescencePubertyBurst of hormones activate maturation of the gonads: ovariesBegins: 8-13 yrs of ageAbnormally early = precocious pubertyDelayed =Primary Amenorrhea
3Function of Female Reproductive System Produce sex hormonesProduce functioning gamates [ova]Support & protect developing embryo
4General Physical Changes Axillary & pubic hair growthChanges in body conformation [widening of hips, development of breasts]Onset of first menstrual period [menarche]Mental changes
5Data from the 1998 Canadian GSS. Students living at home aged 15-19. Our analyses show that adolescent girls in the 15 to 19 age group may be more emotionally vulnerable today than they were in the 1980s. Girls surveyed in 1998 reported higher levels of time pressure and stress, and were less satisfied with their life, self-esteem, and the way they spent time than boys.they assessed their health lower than the boys, and reported having more difficulty falling asleep.The most surprising finding is, that girls' levels of life satisfaction and satisfaction with their self-esteem were in 1998 lower than those reported by adult employed women, who face considerably greater work challenges and time pressures.Source: Zuzanek, J. (2000). The effects of time use and time pressure on child-parent relationships. Waterloo: Otium PublicationsData from the 1998 Canadian GSS. Students living at home aged
6THE EMOTIONAL HEALTH OF ADOLESCENT GIRLS A CONCERN Our analyses show that adolescent girls in the 15 to 19 age group may be more emotionally vulnerable today than they were in the 1980s. Girls surveyed in 1998 reported higher levels of time pressure and stress, and were less satisfied with their life, self-esteem, and the way they spent time than boys.they assessed their health lower than the boys, and reported having more difficulty falling asleep.The most surprising finding is, that girls' levels of life satisfaction and satisfaction with their self-esteem were in 1998 lower than those reported by adult employed women, who face considerably greater work challenges and time pressures.Source: Zuzanek, J. (2000). The effects of time use and time pressure on child-parent relationships. Waterloo: Otium Publications.
8month in fertile women. .ovariesEach ovary is about the size and shape of an almond. In young women the ovaries are about 1½ - 2 inches long, 1 inch wide & 1/3 inch thick. After menopause they tend to shrink.they produce eggs (also called ova) every female is born with a lifetime supply of eggsthey also produce hormones:Estrogen & ProgesteroneMale Homolog = testesThey are among the first organs to be formed as a female baby develops in the uterus. At the 20-week mark, the structures that will become the ovaries house roughly 6 to 7 million potential egg cells. From that point on, the number begins to decrease rapidly. A newborn infant has between 1 million to 2 million egg cells. By puberty the number has plummeted to 300,000. For every egg that matures and undergoes ovulation, roughly a thousand will fail, so that by menopause, only a few thousand remain. During the course of an average reproductive lifespan, roughly 300 mature eggs are produced for potential conception.The ovaries produce these hormones throughout the fertile period of a woman's life. It is the hormones that control the menstrual cycle. As you get older and menopause approaches, the ovaries make less and less of these hormones and the periods eventually stop altogether.So the normal ovaries cannot usually be felt in a clinical examination except in young, thin women.The ovaries are the main source of female hormones (estrogen and progesterone). These hormones control the development of female body characteristics, such as the breasts, body shape, and body hair. They also regulate the menstrual cycle and pregnancy.What is estrogen?Estrogen is a group of female sex hormones that stimulate the appearance of secondary female sex characteristics in girls at puberty. Estrogen controls controls the growth of the lining of the uterus during the first part of the menstrual cycle, cause breast development in pregnancy and regulates various metabolic processes.
10During Spermatogenesis & Mitosis During OogenesisDuring Spermatogenesis & MitosisDuring Oogenesisoogenesiswhen the girl becomes sexually mature, the primary oocytes recommence their development, usually one at a time and once a month.The primary oocyte grows much larger and completes the meiosis I, forming a large secondary oocyte and a small polar body that receives little more than one set of chromosomes.Which chromosomes end up in the egg and which in the polar body is entirely a matter of chance.
11oogenesisIn humans (and most vertebrates), the first polar body does not go on to meiosis II, but the secondary oocyte does proceed as far as metaphase of meiosis II and then stops.Only if fertilization occurs will meiosis II ever be completed. Entry of the sperm restarts the cell cycle
12fallopian tubes [uterine tubes] stretch from the uterus to the ovaries and measure about 8 to 13 cm in length.range in width from about one inch at the end next to the ovary, to the diameter of a strand of thin spaghetti.The ends of the fallopian tubes lying next to the ovaries feather into ends called fimbriaMillions of tiny hair-like cilia line the fimbria and interior of the fallopian tubes. The cilia beat in waves hundreds of times a second catching the egg at ovulation and moving it through the tube to the uterine cavity.Fertilization typically occurs in the fallopian tube(4 to 6 inches) = lengthcalled fimbria (Latin for "fringes" or "fingers").each tube has about about 20 to 25Millions of tiny hair-like cilia line the fimbria and interior of the fallopian tubes. The cilia beat in waves hundreds of times a second catching the egg at ovulation and moving it through the tube to the uterine cavity. Other cells in the tube's inner lining or endothelium nourish the egg and lubricate it's path during its stay inside the fallopian tube. Once inside the fallopian tube, the egg and sperm meet and the egg is fertilized. If an egg doesn't become fertilized within 24 to 36 hours after ovulation, it will deteriorate and be removed by the body's immune system like any other dead cell in the body.
14uteruspear-shaped muscular organ in the upper female reproductive tract.The fundus is the upper portion of the uterus where pregnancy occurs.The cervix is the lower portion of the uterus that connects with the vagina and serves as a sphincter to keep the uterus closed during pregnancy until it is time to deliver a baby.the uterus expands considerably during the reproductive process. the organ grows to from 10 to 20 times its normal size during pregnancy.Size = 3 in long x2 inch diameterWeighs about ozPregnancy – watermelon sized
15uterusThe main body consists of a firm outer coat of muscle (myometrium) and an inner lining of vascular, glandular material (endometrium).The endometrium thickens during the menstrual cycle to allow implantation of a fertilized egg.Pregnancy occurs when the fertilized egg implants successfully into the endometrial lining. If fertilization does not occur, the endometrium sloughs off and is expelled as menstrual flow.Endometrium is about 10% of uterus mass – myometrium almost 90% - thin outer coat called perimetriumThis cyclic process – the menstrual cycle – results from the interaction between the female reproductive organs and the endocrine system.
16Each month the uterus goes through a cyclical change, first building up its endometrium or inner lining to receive a fertilized egg, then, if conception does not occur, shedding the unused tissue through the vagina in the monthly process called menstruation
17endometriumFunctional zone – layer closest to the cavity – contains majority of glands. Thicker portion – undergoes changes with monthly cycleBasal zone – layer just under myometrium, attaches functional layer to myometrial tissue, has terminal ends of glands. Remains constant
18Uterine arteries Arcuate arteries - encircle endometrium Radial arteries – connect arcuate to straightStraight arteries – deliver blood to basilar zoneSpiral arteries – deliver blood to functional zone
19The Cervix the lower portion or neck of the uterus. The cervix is lined with mucus, the quality and quantity of which is governed by monthly fluctuations in the levels of the estrogen and progesterone.When estrogen levels are low, the mucus tends to be thick and sparse, hindering sperm from reaching the fallopian tubes. But when an egg is ready for fertilization, estrogen levels are high, the mucus then becomes thin and slippery, offering a “friendly environment” to spermat the end of pregnancy, the cervix acts as the passage through which the baby exits the uterus into the vagina. The cervical canal expands to roughly 50 times its normal width in order to accommodate the passage of the baby during birthThe vagina ends at the cervix,(cervical mucus changes: employed by birth control pills, shots and implants. One of the ways they prevent conception is to render the cervical mucus thick, sparse, and hostile to sperm.)
20The Vagina vagin = sheath a muscular, ridged sheath connecting the external genitals to the uterus.functions as a two-way street, accepting the penis and sperm during intercourse and roughly nine months later, serving as the avenue of birth through which the new baby enters the world
23External genetaliavulva—which runs from the pubic area downward to the rectum.Mons pubis or "mound of Venus" is the V-shaped area covered with hairLabia majora or "greater lips" are the part around the vagina containing two glands (Bartholin’s glands)which helps lubrication during intercourse. Male Homolog = scrotumLabia minora or "lesser lips" are the thin hairless ridges at the entrance of the vagina, which joins behind and in front. In front they split to enclose the clitorisThe clitoris is a small pea-shaped structure (equivalent to penis in males ) It plays an important part in sexual excitement in females. Male Homolog = penis
24External genetaliaThe urethral orifice or external urinary opening is below the clitoris on the upper wall of the vagina and is the passage for urineThe introitus or opening of the vagina is separate from the urinary opening (unlike males) and located below it.The hymen is a thin cresentic fold of tissue which partially covers the opening of the vagina. medically it is no longer considered to be a 100% proof of female virginity.It was thought to be proof of virginity as it is broken after the first sexual intercourse. However it is stretchable, and may break due to vigorous exercises, cycling, gymnastics or tampon use.Therefore
26Mammary Glands [ breasts] Present in both sexes - normally only functional in femalesDevelopmentally they are derived from sweat glandsContained within a rounded skin-covered breast anterior to the pectoral muscles of the thoraxSlightly below center of each breast is a ring of pigmented skin, the areola - this surrounds a central protruding nippleInternally - they consist of 15 to 25 lobes that radiate around and open at the nippleEach lobe is composed of smaller lobules- these contain alveoli that produce milk when a women is lactatingnon-pregnant women - glandular structure is undeveloped - hence breast size is largely due to the amount of fat depositsLarge sebaceous glands in the areola make it slightly bumpy & produce sebum that reduces chapping and cracking of the skin of the nippleAutonomic NS controls smooth muscle fibers in the areola and nipple cause the nipple to become erect when stimulated by tactile or sexual stimuli & when exposed to the coldLobes are padded & separated from each other by fibrous connective tissue and fatThe connective tissue forms suspensory ligaments that attach the breast to the underlying muscle fascia
28glandsLesser Vestibular (Paraurethral, Skene's) Male Homolog = prostate located on the upper wall of the vagina, around the lower end of the urethra. They drain into the urethra and near the urethral opening Function - mucus production to aid lubrication during intercourseGreater Vestibular (Bartholin's) Male Homolog = bulbourethral glands located slightly below and to the left and right of the opening of the vagina. They secrete mucus to provide lubrication, especially when the woman is sexually aroused
31E1, a type of estrogen, is the most active estrogen in the nonpregnant female. E3 (estriol) is the major estrogen in the pregnant female. It is produced in the placenta.Estrogen controls controls the growth of the lining of the uterus during the first part of the menstrual cycle, cause breast development in pregnancy and regulates various metabolic processes.
33Table 1. Production Rate of Sex Steroids in Women at Different Stages of the Menstrual Cycle DAILY PRODUCTION RATESEX STEROIDS*Early Follicular Preovulatory MidlutealProgesterone (mg)142517-Hydroxyprogesterone (mg)0.5 4 Dehydroepiandrosterone (mg)77 Androstenedione (mg)22.214.171.124Testosterone (mg)144 171 126 Estrone (mg)50 350 250 Estradiol (mg)36380250From Baird DT. Fraser IS. Blood production and ovarian secretion rates of esuadiol-17b and estrone in women throughout the menstrual cycle. J Clin Endocri-nol Metab 38: l The Endocrine Society.*Values are expressed in milligrams or micrograms per 24 hours.
34Hormones and the menstrual cycle The female hormones that control the cyclic growth and shedding of the endometrium are estrogen and progesterone.Estrogen and progesterone are produced by the ovaries. Estrogen causes the growth or proliferation of the endometrium during the first 2 weeks of the menstrual cycle.After ovulation, the ovary produces progesterone.Progesterone causes the endometrial glands to secrete nutritive substances required by the embryo and to allow it to implant into the endometrial lining.If fertilization and implantation do not occur, the progesterone falls and the endometrial lining is sloughed off - resulting in menstrual bleeding. If fertilization and implantation do occur, then the ovary continues producing progesterone and the endometrium remains intact to support embryo development and pregnancy. After ovulation, in the space where the egg used to be, a second small cystic area known as the corpus luteum develops and begins to secrete progesterone. The corpus luteum eventually gets reabsorbed by the ovary.
36When does ovulation occur? The timing of ovulation varies with the length of a woman's menstrual cycle.In the average 28 day menstrual cycle, the LH surge usually occurs between cycle days and ovulation follows about hours later, on or close to cycle day 14.Women with shorter menstrual cycle lengths tend to ovulate earlier and women with longer cycle lengths tend to ovulate later than cycle day 14.Despite the variations in menstrual cycle length, the time from ovulation to the onset of the next menstrual period is usually constant (2 weeks). This principle is the basis for the use of ovulation calendars that take into account an individual's shortest and longest cycle lengths.(It is the mid-cycle surge of the hormone LH that causes the dominant follicle to rupture and release the mature egg.)
38Once a mature egg has begun its trip through the fallopian tube, remnants of the winning follicle form the corpus luteum, or “yellow body.” Progesterone from the corpus luteum halts development of the remaining follicles and brings the lining of the uterus to peak preparedness.Meanwhile, the follicle that held the egg still has a critical role to play. First it shrinks markedly, then begins to accumulate fatty substances, or lipids, that give it a yellowish tinge. The resulting structure, now called the corpus luteum (yellow body), produces progesterone and estradiol, two of the hormones critical to reproduction.In a non-pregnant woman, the corpus luteum lasts for about 14 days, after which it shrinks and dries up, eventually becoming a speck of fibrous scar tissue. If conception occurs, however, a hormone from the developing placenta, which surrounds the baby in the uterus, stimulates the corpus luteum to maintain its production of progesterone during the first trimester of pregnancy