Presentation on theme: "Pre-meeting training course IAIA ’11 Puebla, Mexico"— Presentation transcript:
1 Pre-meeting training course IAIA ’11 Puebla, Mexico
2 (Source: http://www.unmillenniumproject.org/index.htm) What are MDGsThe Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are the world's time-bound and quantified targets for addressing extreme poverty.The MDGs are drawn from the actions and targets contained in the Millennium Declaration that was adopted by 189 nations and signed by 147 heads of states and governments during the UN Millennium Summit in September 2000.The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are eight goals to be achieved by 2015 that respond to the world's main development challenges.(Source:
3 (Source: http://www.unmillenniumproject.org/index.htm) What are MDGs…The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are the world's time-bound and quantified targets for addressing extreme poverty.The MDGs are drawn from the actions and targets contained in the Millennium Declaration that was adopted by 189 nations and signed by 147 heads of states and governments during the UN Millennium Summit in September 2000.(Source:
4 8 goals, 18 targets, 48 indicators MDG: Goals & Targets8 goals, targets, indicatorsProgress in achieving goals defined in terms of targetsMonitoring progress through target-specific indicatorsBaseline Year= 1990Target Year= 2015
6 Goal 1 - TargetsHalve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people whose income is less than $1 a dayHalve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hungerAn estimated 82 million people in the developing world affected by chronic hunger in 2003.Source: THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS REPORT 2010
7 Goal 2 - TargetsEnsure that, by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schoolingGlobally, more than one in five girls of primary-school age are not in school, compared to about one in six boys.Gender gap is most evident in Oceania, Western Asia and SouthernUK is providing bilateral support to education programmes in over 30 developing countries in sub-Saharan Africa and South and West Asia.EU’s Education For All and Sweden’s Fast Track Initiative are aimed at providing universal primary education
8 Goal 3 - TargetsEliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education preferably by 2005 and in all levels of education no later than 2015Source:Women in parliamentary seatsA one-year increase in the schooling of all adult females in a country is associated with:$700 increase in GDP per capita, 1.4 percent reduction in children’s labor force participation, 3.7 percent increase in access to safe water and 5.4 percent to sanitation.(Source: World Bank)Swedish Government launched a special gender equality (2006) initiative focuses on gender mainstreaming, health, and reproductive healthDFID’s Gender Equality Action Plan (2007) sets out to development assistance programmes more effectively for women and girls.Improvement of the status of women and promotion of gender equality as a human right are two key objectives identified by the EU
9 Goal 4 - TargetsReduce, by two-thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the under-five mortality rate20% of child deaths in developing countries are caused by preventable acute respiratory infections. Source:A World Fit for Children, adopted at the Special Session of the UNGeneral Assembly on Children in May 2002.Via the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation Sweden is directly contributing to the reduction of child mortality due to most common forms of disease.
10 Goal 5 - TargetsReduce by three-quarters, between 1990 and 2015, the maternal mortality ratioDeaths attributable to environmental causes (1.5 million people per year worldwideIndoor smoke from solid fuelsUrban air pollutionUnsafe water, sanitation and hygiene(Source: WHO World Health Report 2002)Male FemaleUN is promoting Safe Motherhood and National Maternal Health programmes,
11 Goal 6 - Targets Stop and reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS Stop and reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases by 2015Tuberculosis is the leading infectious killer of adults and kills almost 2 million people a year; malaria kills more than 1 million people a year.Source:Source: MDG report, 2010The EU (EC and Member States) is the main contributor to the Global Fund to fight HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria
12 Goal 7 - TargetsIntegrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programs and reverse the loss of environmental resourcesHalve, by 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking waterSix to seven billion tons of carbon dioxide produced by human activity is released into the atmosphere each year.Total forest land shrank by 94 million hectares (232 million acres) in the last decade and now covers only about 30% of all land.2.4 billion people lack access to improved sanitation.Source:Sweden and China are currently engaged in a joint project entitled The Sustainable City – aiming for sustainable urban developmentDFID will support at least 30 million more people with improved sanitation in South Asia by 2011 and additionally provide £30 million over next three years to improve water management in Asia and Africa, in response to impacts of climate change.
13 Goal 8 - TargetsDevelop an open, rule-based, predictable, non-discriminatory trading and financial system ( for good governance development and poverty reduction)Address the special needs of the least developed countriesAddress special needs of landlocked countries and small island statesDeal comprehensively with the debt problems of developing countries through national and international measuresMake available the benefits of new technologies, especially information and communications technologiesThe Department for International Development (DFID) has made the MDGs the main focus of all its work.Sweden is one of the first countries in the world to formulate policy for development in December 2003 with the explicit objective of contributing to equitable and sustainable global development
15 MDGs: Why do they matter? They are the first set of quantitative and time-bound goals shared by developing and developed countries.They offer an integrated, goal-oriented framework for poverty reduction.They form the basis on which to mobilize resources for investing in human development.At the country level they provide a platform for discussion and advocacy.
16 What do MDGs offer ?An unparalleled opportunity to make the world a better place.A formal recognition that poverty can be solved when both the rich and poor work together.A practical and achievable set of targets for human development up to 2015.“a once-in-a generation chance to bring about historic, fundamental change...”Kofi Annan,Secretary-General United Nations
17 Relating the MDGs to:Human DevelopmentEnvironmentBiodiversity
18 Human development and MDGs Measures and conceptsTwo aspects-Process of widening people’s choices-Level of their achieved well-beingTwo sides-Capabilities: Formation of human capabilities-Opportunities: Use of the acquired capabilitiesHuman beings are the participants in the development process (concept of human development) and not just …beneficiaries (human welfare approach)DimensionsLong and healthy lifeKnowledgeDecent standard of livingParticipation or exclusion
19 Environment & the MDGs Environmental sustainability Development cannot be sustained for long at the cost of environmental degradationOne specifically stated goal that cuts across all goalsEssential ingredient for achieving all the other MDGs
20 How biodiversity can contribute to the MDGs Dimensions of povertyDevelopment goalsExample of biodiversity factorsElements of well-beingEnhanced livelihood securityReduced health riskReduced vulnerabilityEradicate extreme poverty and hungerAchieve universal primary educationPromote gender equalityReduce child mortalityImprove maternal healthCombat major diseasesGlobal partnership for development(Source: IIED, 2004)Ensure environment sustainabilityEcological integrityEcosystem approach to conservationAccess to resourcesBenefit sharingIn-situ conservationSustainable useEnvironmental managementVulnerability to biodiversity loss (incl. food and nutritional securities)Access to income and resourcesLife insurance policy for lifeHealth, sanitation, energy, water and governanceFood security
21 Linking biodiversity, poverty and the MDGs Millennium Development Goals are targeted to eradicate extreme povertyPoverty is about deprivation in human well-beingHuman well-being is“Freedom of choice and action based on improved security, health, good social relations, and basic material for a good life” (Source: Ash and Jenkins, 2007)Biodiversity is the foundation for human well-beingMDGs contribute in improvingeconomic capabilitieshuman capabilitiespolitical capabilities (rights, influence and freedom),socio-cultural capabilities (status and dignity),protective capabilities (to address security, risk and vulnerability).
22 Degradation of biodiversity resources How environment and poverty nexus affect biodiversity?Environmental degradationDegradation of biodiversity resourcesPovertyDegraded resource pool limits choices (affecting resource availability, nutrition, income and vulnerability)Poverty forces over exploitation of natural resources (accelerating the process of ecological degradation)
24 GoalPoor people’s livelihoods, food and health security often depend on ecosystems goods and diversity of services they provideIntensive use of ecosystems can erode ecosystems through soil degradation, water depletion, contamination, collapse of fisheries, or biodiversity loss.Investments in ecosystem service maintenance and restoration can enhance rural livelihoods and be a stepping stone out of poverty/assets/images/africans.jpgsitemaker.umich.edu/356.cho/files/hunger.jpg
25 GoalIncreased dependence on biodiversity for sustenance leads to increased physical burden.Decline in biodiversity resources limits options of livelihood for the poor.Natural disasters linked to biodiversity loss and impairment of ecosystem services reduce children’s available time and access to education opportunities.Education will improve the human resources capital, encourage alternative income options and thereby reduce dependence on biodiversity resource based subsistence
26 GoalThe increased time spent in attending to household chores limits their opportunities for education, literacy and income generating activities.Impacts of environmental degradation often fall more on women and girls who are more exposed to indoor air pollution from burning of fuel wood and other biomass and carry heavy loads of fuel wood and waterIn Chad and Nigeria, children of educated mothers are two to four times more likely to be vaccinated than children of uneducated mothersHigher household incomes and education for mothers doubles child survivalSecuring women’s rights and access to natural resources, giving a fair share of the benefits from their knowledge and providing them with capacity-building support can help empowering women
27 An average household spends 1 hour and 40 minutes each day for collecting water in Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania.. (Source: IIED 2002).Average time spent on collecting fuelwood and fodder by women in the hill areas in India is about 4 to 6 hours per day respectively. (Source: Saksena et al., 1995).Percentage of the population who must travel more than 30 minutes to fetch water(Source: WHO World Data Table)
28 GoalMany diseases (e.g. malaria) are known to flare up in ecological systems which have their regulation component altered by irrigation projects ,dams, construction sites, standing water and poorly drained areas.Saudi Arabia, the Gulf States, Jordan and Tunisia are the highest-ranking countries, where approx.90 mothers die per live births.New biodiversity-derived medicines hold promise for fighting major diseases!flickr.com/photos/mickyates/ /
29 GoalEcosystem services such as food production, water purification, and disease regulation are vital in reducing child mortality.Degradation of ecosystems can influence the abundance of human pathogens resulting in outbreaks of diseases such as malaria and cholera, and the emergence of new diseases.Scientists have identified more than 2,000 tropical plants as having anti-cancer properties (GEF).Some 80 per cent of the world’s people rely on traditional health care systems that use 50,000 of the world’s plant species for traditional medicines (Source; WHO 2005).As the strongest link between people and nature is for medicinal plants, these resources need to be carefully managed
30 GoalBiodiversity buffers humans from organisms and agents that cause disease.By diluting the pool of virus targets and hosts, biodiversity reduces their impact on humans and provides a form of global health insurance.At the same time, intrusion into the world’s areas of high biodiversity disturbs these biological reservoirs and exposes people to new forms of more virulent disease organisms including SARS, Ebola, malaria, and the HIV pandemic.Prevalence of HIV (%population age 15-49) Source: The World Bank Group ( 2004)Preventing emerging diseases through biodiversity conservation is far more cost effective than developing vaccines to combat them later.
31 GoalBiodiversity and healthy ecosystem services increase resilience to economic shocks and environmental changes and provide a natural defenses against environmental disasters.Ecosystem depletion and species extinction reduce the capacity to respond to future environmental stresses including water scarcity and climate change.South America continues to show the largest net losses of forests among all regions, 4 million hectares per year over the periodDrought-resistant crops are known to reduce the likelihood of famines triggered by lack of rainfall.Mangroves provide shelter against an increasing number of typhoons and floods.
32 GoalThe complex interactions between human well-being, ecosystem services and biodiversity requires an integrated approach including partnerships between rich and poor countries.Conserving habitats which support biodiversity is necessary for strengthening the capacity of governments to eradicate poverty, improve maternal health, and reduce child mortality.In 2009, only half of the world’s 821 terrestrial eco-regions—large areas with characteristic combinations of habitats, species, soils and landforms—had more than 10 per cent of their area protected.Under the Convention on Biological Diversity, one tenth of the areas of all these ecoregions should have been under protection by 2010.
33 GoalProgress by goalEcuadorCameroonBrazilMexicoRussia FederationEradicate extreme poverty and hungerAchieve universal primary educationPromote gender equality and empower womenReduce child mortalityImprove maternal healthCombat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseasesEnsure environmental sustainabilityDevelop a global partnership for development- Achieved- Very likely to be achieved, on track- Possible to achieve if some changes are made- Off track- Insufficient information
34 Looking ahead…“For everyone on Earth, the Millennium Development Goals are a linchpin in the quest for a more secure and peaceful world...”Jeffrey D. Sachs, Director Millennium ProjectPROMOTE upstreaming of biodiversity in development actions for economically and environmentally secure and peaceful world.USE MDGs as an opportunity to translate the recognition of the importance of biodiversity into tangible and visible outcome for sustainable development.CONTRIBUTE to the capacity building efforts to identify critical links between biodiversity and human actions to harmonize development goals with the human well being.