Presentation on theme: "Turkish painters Prepared by Merve ÖZÇEL İ K. The Groups of Turkish painters ◦ 1. Mid-19th century to early 20th century 1. Mid-19th century to early."— Presentation transcript:
The Groups of Turkish painters ◦ 1. Mid-19th century to early 20th century 1. Mid-19th century to early 20th century ◦ 2. The "1914 Generation" 2. The "1914 Generation" ◦ 3. Müstakiller (The Independents) 3. Müstakiller (The Independents) ◦ 4. "The Group D" 4. "The Group D" ◦ 5. "Yeniler Grubu" (The Newcomers Group) late 1930s 5. "Yeniler Grubu" (The Newcomers Group) late 1930s ◦ 6. "On'lar Grubu" (The Group Ten) 1947 6. "On'lar Grubu" (The Group Ten) 1947 ◦ 7. "Yeni Dal Grubu" (The New Branch Group) 1959 7. "Yeni Dal Grubu" (The New Branch Group) 1959 ◦ 8. "Siyah Kalem Grubu" (The Black Pen Group) 1961 8. "Siyah Kalem Grubu" (The Black Pen Group) 1961
Mid-19th century to early 20th century Osman Hamdi Bey (1842–1910) Osman Hamdi Bey Şeker Ahmet Paşa (1841–1907) Şeker Ahmet Paşa Hasan Rıza (1857 − 1913) Hasan Rıza Halil Paşa (1860–1939) Halil Paşa Hoca Ali Riza (1864–1939) Hoca Ali Riza The very first painting lessons were scheduled at "Mühendishane-i Berri-i Humayun" (Military School of Engineering) in 1793 mostly for technical purposes. Artists who formed the 19th century art milieu were often from the military schools. Additionally, Christian and "Levantine" artists as well as foreign painters lived and contributed to the art milieu in Istanbul. Some Turkish artists of military background like Osman Hamdi Bey, Şeker Ahmet Paşa, Süleyman Seyyid, Halil Paşa were educated in arts abroad. Others, such as Hüseyin Zekai Paşa, Hoca Ali Riza, and Ahmet Ziya Akbulut were educated within the country.ChristianLevantine IstanbulOsman Hamdi BeyŞeker Ahmet PaşaSüleyman SeyyidHalil PaşaHüseyin Zekai PaşaHoca Ali RizaAhmet Ziya Akbulut "Sanayi-i Nefise Mektebi" (School of Fine Arts) was established with Osman Hamdi's attempts in 1883. A new era was beginning in painting with the return of the artists from the West. Human figure in the western sense was being established in Turkish painting especially with Osman Hamdi Bey. Impressionism, among the contemporary trends, appeared later on with Halil Paşa.Impressionism The "Ottoman Painters' Society" was formed in 1909. The society started exhibitions in 1916 continuing till 1952 on a regular basis that would be remembered as "Galatasaray Exhibitions".
The "1914 Generation" Nazmi Ziya Guran (1881–1937) Nazmi Ziya Guran Contemporary trends that emphasize figure start to appear gradually in Turkey with the "1914 Generation". Figure and composition entered the Turkish painting for the first time in the western sense with this generation. "Inas Sanayi-i Nefise Mektebi" (School of Fine Arts for Girls) was founded for young women in 1914. Mihri Müşfik Hanim, Omer Adil, Feyhaman Duran were the first instructors.Mihri Müşfik HanimOmer Adil Feyhaman Duran A studio was built with army support in Şişli, a district of Istanbul, with Arseven's attempt in 1917. Lifij's "Progress" and "War Allegory", Çallı's "Cannon Carrier", Mehmet Ruhi's "Stone Breakers" were the first examples of multi figured and large dimensional compositions realised prior to and following this period. Right after the Şişli Studio, the Vienna Exhibition was held in 1918, the first exhibition abroad.ŞişliLifijÇallıMehmet Ruhi
Müstakiller (The Independents) The young Turkish artists sent to Europe in 1926 came back inspired by contemporary trends such as Fauvism, Cubism and even Expressionism, still very influential in Europe, and they took a stand against the "1914 Generation" members. The important goals of this new group were, though not very absolute, pictorial design structure and linear foundation rather than impressionist colorism. The activities of the group under the name of "Independent Painters and Sculptors' Association", expanded with the participation of new artists in 1929. The association's founders were paintersFauvismCubismExpressionism The question of how the new styles that Çelebi and Kocamemi formed, would fit into the realities of the country had been answered by Turgut Zaim (1904–1974). Zaim had given an original meaning to the structure of figure. The style the artist developed opposing to the new and comprehensive content which artists brought, had become a choice western trends.Turgut Zaim
"The Group D" While the "Müstakiller" (the Independents) opened the doors of contemporary trends in Turkey, we see a newly founding group which would give a greater support to these efforts and of which their effectiveness lasted until the 1950s: "Group D". These artists introduced some trends that had lasted in the West for thirty, forty years. Group members were: Abidin Dino (1913–1993) Abidin Dino The most significant distinction of "Group D" from the "Independents" was perhaps that they had gathered around a certain aesthetics with solidarity in determination to defend the new trends they wanted to bring in. "Group D" had not been representative of any particular view. They were open to anything new except Impressionism. The star of the Çallı generation faded away gradually after the "Independents" and "Group D" members had started to work at the Academy. Bedri Rahmi Eyubo ğ lu (1911–1975) Bedri Rahmi Eyubo ğ lu Besides all this progress, from the beginning there had also been independent artists. Among these Fikret Mualla can be counted.
Later on Adnan Coker (born 1927) Adnan Coker Fahrunissa Zeid (1901–1991) Fahrunissa Zeid Burhan Do ğ ançay (1929-2013) Burhan Do ğ ançay took place in this trend. When we look at the formation that starts in the 1940s and materialized in the 1950s in Turkish painting, rather than particular groups or trends individual styles come forward while the existence of some groups could still be observed. It can be said that during the 1940s, the notion that first came forward was originality, regionalism and nationalism.
"Yeniler Grubu" (The Newcomers Group) late 1930s formed by those who had a social realist understanding. After they opening of their "Harbour Paintings Exhibition", they had been remembered as the "Harbour Painters". Avni Arbaş (1919–2003) Avni Arbaş
"On'lar Grubu" (The Group Ten) 1947 formed by the students of Bedri Rahmi who started working basically by adding folkloric ornaments in their works and added a freshness to the art milieu
"Yeni Dal Grubu" (The New Branch Group) 1959 focusing on social reality.
"Siyah Kalem Grubu" (The Black Pen Group) 1961 The Siyah Kalem Grubu was centered around Cemal Bingöl's studio.