Parts of the Sun Core: enormous pressure & high temperatures cause the fusion of hydrogen into helium (15 million ºC) Radiation Zone: energy from the core moves through the radiative zone in the form of electromagnetic radiation (2-7 million ºC) Convective Zone: hot gasses move outward, cool, contract, sink, repeat (2 million ºC) Photosphere: innermost layer of atmosphere – VISIBLE LIGHT (6 thousand ºC) Chromosphere: gives off redish light from Hydrogen (4- 50 thousand ºC) Corona: very hot, creates solar wind, only visible during a solar eclipse (1 million ºC)
Solar Activity (not part of your notes) The sun is in constant motion.The sun is in constant motion. Parts of the sun rotate faster than others.Parts of the sun rotate faster than others. The equator moves the fastest, the poles the slowest.The equator moves the fastest, the poles the slowest. It takes an average of 27 days for the sun to make one rotation.It takes an average of 27 days for the sun to make one rotation.
Solar Activity (Ejections) Affected by the sunspot cycleAffected by the sunspot cycle Solar Ejections are when the sun emits atomic particles:Solar Ejections are when the sun emits atomic particles: –Prominences –Solar Flares –Coronal Mass Ejections (CME’s)
Dark areas of the photosphere of the sun, that are cooler than the surrounding areas, and have a strong magnetic field. Caused by magnetic fields created through the movement of gasses (rotation and convection). The sunspot cycle lasts 11 years.
Prominences Huge arches of glowing gasses that connect areas (in the sun’s atmosphere) that have positive magnetic energy to areas with negative magnetic energy. Caused by the same magnetic fields that create sunspots.
Coronal Mass Ejection Particles (or parts of the corona) are thrown off the sun. Strike Earth’s magnetosphere creating disturbances called geomagnetic storms. Geomagnetic storms can disturb radio communication, damage satellites and cause auroras.
Earth’s Magnetosphere A magnetic field surrounding the earth – affected by solar wind and the magnetic fields of other space objects. Protects the majority of the Earth from the solar wind. Solar wind is a stream of electrically charged particles (protons & electrons) flowing from the sun.
Geomagnetic Storm Effects Radiation Hazards to humans – especially those in space Migratory animals less able to navigate (esp. homing pigeons) Communication Disruptions: ground-to -air, ship-to-shore, shortwave, broadcast, and amateur radio.
Geomagnetic Storm Effects GPS & Loran navigation disruptions Satellite hardware damage Power Grid Outages – 1989 Quebec & NE US was out for 9 hours (affecting 6 million people)