Presentation on theme: "What is psychology? The discipline concerned with behavior and mental processes and how they are affected by an organism’s physical state, mental state,"— Presentation transcript:
1 What is psychology?The discipline concerned with behavior and mental processes and how they are affected by an organism’s physical state, mental state, and external environment. [p4]EmpiricalRelying on evidence gathered by careful observation, experimentation, or measurement [p4]
2 Pick Your Favorite Dessert Angel food cakeBrowniesLemon meringueVanilla with chocolate icingStrawberry shortcakeChocolate on chocolateIce creamCarrot cake
3 Angel food cakeSweet, loving, cuddly. You love all warm and fuzzy items. A little nutty at times. Sometimes you need an ice cream cone at the end of the day. Others perceive you as being childlike and immature at times.
4 BrowniesYou are adventurous, love new ideas, are a champion of underdogs and a slayer of dragons. When tempers flare up, you whip out your saber. You are always the oddball with a unique sense of humor and direction. You tend to be very loyal.
5 Ice creamYou like sports, whether it be baseball, football, basketball, or soccer. If you could, you would like to participate, but you enjoy watching sports. You don’t like to give up the remote control. You tend to be self-centered and high maintenance.
6 Chocolate on chocolate Sexy, always ready to give and receive. Very creative, adventurous, ambitious, and passionate. You have a cold exterior but are warm on the inside. Not afraid to take chances. Will not settle for anything average in life. Love to laugh.
7 Lemon meringueSmooth, sexy, and articulate with your hands, you are an excellent after-dinner speaker and a good teacher. But don’t try to walk and chew gum at the same time. A bit of a diva at times, but you have many friends.
8 Vanilla with chocolate icing Fun-loving, sassy, humorous. Not very grounded in life; very indecisive and lack motivation. Everyone enjoys being around you, but you are a practical joker. Others should be cautious in making you mad. However, you are a friend for life.
9 Strawberry shortcakeRomantic, warm, loving. You care about other people and can be counted on in a pinch. You tend to melt. You can be overly emotional and annoying at times.
10 Carrot cakeYou are a very fun-loving person who likes to laugh. You are fun to be with. People like to hang out with you. You are a very warm-hearted person and a little quirky at times. You have many loyal friends.
11 Psychology, pseudoscience, and common sense Psychobabble and psychologyNot just common sense
12 The birth of modern psychology: A brief history
14 Natural Sciences Charles Darwin Natural selection: Organisms best adapted to their world are most likely to survive, reproduce, and pass on characteristics to their offspring [see evolutionary psychology, p6]
15 PhilosophyWilliam JamesFunctionalismEarly approach that emphasized the function or purpose of behavior and consciousness [p6]
16 Psychology Wilhelm Wundt 1st psych laboratory Trained introspection: A process by which individuals were taught to carefully observe, analyze, and describe their own sensations, mental images, and emotional reactions [p6]
17 Psychology Sigmund Freud Psychoanalysis: A theory of personality and a method of psychotherapy, originally formulated by Sigmund FreudEmphasizes unconscious motives and conflicts [p6]
19 Major psychological perspectives Biological perspectiveLearning perspectiveCognitive perspectiveSociocultural perspectivePsychodynamic perspective
20 The biological perspective Psychological approach that focuses on how bodily events affect behavior, feelings, and thoughts [p6]This perspective involvesHormonesBrain chemistryHeredityEvolutionary influences
21 The learning perspective Emphasizes how the environment and experiences affect the behavior of any organism [p7]This perspective involvesBehaviorismSocial cognitive learning theory
22 The cognitive perspective Psychological approach that emphasizes what goes on in people’s heads [p7]This perspective involvesProblem solvingPerceptionAttentionRememberingThinking
23 The sociocultural perspective Psychological approach that emphasizes social and cultural forces outside the individual[p8]This perspective involvesSocial psychology or the study of rules, roles, groups, and relationshipsCultural psychology or the study of cultural norms, values, and expectations
24 The psychodynamic perspective chapter 1The psychodynamic perspectivePsychological approach that emphasizes unconscious dynamics within the individual, such as inner forces, conflicts, or the movement of instinctual energy [p8]This perspective involvesUnconscious thoughts, desires, conflicts
25 Eclectic psychologyPsychological approach that selects the best features of each approach, depending on the problem at hand.
27 Research and teaching Examples: Experimental psychologists chapter 1Research and teachingExamples:Experimental psychologistsEducational psychologistsDevelopmental psychologistsIndustrial/organizational psychologistsPsychometric psychologists
28 Health and mental health services chapter 1Health and mental health servicesCounseling psychologists help people deal with problems associated with everyday life.School psychologists work with parents, teachers, and students to enhance student performance.Clinical psychologists diagnose, treat, and study mental or emotional problems.
29 Psychologists in other settings SportsConsumer issuesAdvertisingOrganizational problemsEnvironmental issuesPublic policyOpinion pollsMilitary trainingAnimal behaviorLegal issues
32 Critical thinking guidelines Ask questions Define your terms Examine the evidence Analyze assumptions and biases Avoid emotional reasoning Don’t oversimplify Consider other interpretations Tolerate uncertainty
33 Ask questions; be willing to wonder Theory: an organized system of assumptions and principles that tries to explain a certain set of phenomena and their interrelationships [p15]Example: “Boys are rougher than girls”
34 Define your termsHypothesis: a statement that attempts to predict or account for a set of phenomena. [p13]Example: “Toys that are played with by boys will show more signs of wear than toys that are played with by girls”Operational definition: a precise definition of a term in a hypothesis [p13]
41 Observational studies [p19] Researchers carefully and systematically observe and record behavior without interfering with behaviorNaturalistic observationPurpose is to observe how people or animals behave in their natural environments.Laboratory observationPurpose is to observe how people or animals behave in a more controlled setting.
42 chapter 1Descriptive methodsMethods that yield descriptions of behavior, but not necessarily causal explanations [p18]IncludeObservational studiesCase studiesPsychological testsSurveys
43 Case studiesA detailed description of a particular individual being studied or treated, which may be used to formulate broader research hypotheses [p18]Most commonly used by clinicians; occasionally used by researchers
44 SurveysQuestionnaires and interviews that ask people about experiences, attitudes, or opinions [p20]Social desirability: the tendency of participants to respond in a way they think is socially acceptable or desirable rather than how they truly feel or think
45 Psychological testsProcedures used to measure and evaluate personality traits, emotional states, aptitudes, interests, abilities, and values [p19]
46 StandardizationThe test is constructed to include uniform procedures for giving and scoring the test.In order to score tests in a standardized way, an individual’s outcome or score is compared to norms.[p20]
47 Correlational studyA descriptive study that looks for a consistent relationship between two phenomena [p22]CorrelationA statistical measure of how strongly two variables are related to one another. [p22]Correlational coefficients can range from -1.0 to +1.0.
48 Direction of correlations [pp22-23] Positive correlationsAn association between increases in one variable and increases in another, or decreases in one variable and decreases in the other.Negative correlationsAn association between increases in one variable and decreases in another.
49 Explaining correlations Correlations show patterns, not causes.
50 Experimental research Allows psychologists to determine the cause of a behavior [p24]
52 An experimentA controlled test of a hypothesis in which the researcher manipulates one variable to discover its effect on another. [p24]
53 Variables of interest [pp24-25] Independent variablesVariables the experimenter manipulatesDependent variables Variables the experimenter predicts will be affected by manipulations of the independent variable(s)
56 Representative sample A subgroup that accurately reflects the population about which the researcher wishes to draw conclusions [p17]
57 Experimental condition [p25] Group that is exposed to the variable of interest
58 Control condition [p25]In an experiment, a comparison condition in which subjects are not exposed to the same treatment as in the experimental condition.
59 Random assignmentEach individual participating in the study has the same probability as any other of being assigned to a given group. [p26]
60 Experimenter effects [p26] Unintended changes in subjects’ behavior due to cues inadvertently given by the experimenter.Strategies for preventing experimenter effects include single- and double-blind studies.
61 Placebo effectOccurs when participant expectations, rather than the experimental treatment, produce the desired outcome.Placebo: an inactive substance or fake treatment. [p26]
63 Descriptive statistics Statistical procedures that organize and summarize research data [p29]
64 Inferential statistics Statistical procedures that allow researchers to draw inferences about how statistically meaningful a study’s results are. [p29]The most commonly used inferential statistics are significance tests.Statistical tests that show how likely it is that a study’s results occurred merely by chance [p29]