Presentation on theme: "Chapter 22 Test Review. Astronomers can measure distance by using ____________, which is an object's apparent shift in position when viewed from two different."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 22 Test Review
Astronomers can measure distance by using ____________, which is an object's apparent shift in position when viewed from two different locations. parallax
A ____________ is a unit of measurement often used to describe how far away a star is from Earth. light year
The layers of the sun from the outside in are: corona chromosphere photosphere convective zone radiative zone core
What is a solar flare? A sudden and tremendous eruption in the solar chromosphere.
What is a sunspot? A region of the sun that appears dark because it is colder.
The ____________ consists of ions that stream out from the Sun's corona solar wind
What is happening in the sun's core? Nuclear fusion
What layer of the sun do we see from earth? Photosphere
A ____________________ is a cloud of gas that loops into the corona. They occur where magnetic fields connecting sunspots soar into the outer atmosphere. Prominence
Which layer(s) of the Sun can only be seen during a total solar eclipse? Corona and chromosphere
A _______________ is a bright, violent eruption that can last for minutes or hours. flare
Name this diagram Hertzsprun g-Russell Diagram
What name is given to a new star formed when nuclear fusion takes place in the core of a nebula, causing gas to begin glowing Protostar
Put these star in order from dimmest to brightest: white, orange, red, yellow, blue Red Orange Yellow White Blue
Life Cycle of Stars NebulaMain Sequence Star Red Giant or Supergiant Small Mass Star Higher Mass Stars Planetary Nebula Outer layers blow away White Dwarf Supernova Medium Mass Star High Mass Star Neutron Star Black Hole Complete this graphic organizer
Stars spend the majority of their life as a _________? Main sequence star
Which main sequence star is the hottest? Blue
Which main sequence star is the coldest? Red
Which main sequence star is the brightest or most luminous? Blue
Which main sequence star is the smallest? Red
What do most stars in our galaxy become at the end of their lives after they leave the main sequence? White Dwarfs
Put these main sequence stars in order from hottest to coldest: orange, blue, white, red, yellow Blue White Yellow Orange Red
The stages of most stars life in order are: Protostar, Main Sequence, Red Giant
What is the most massive star called? Red Supergiant
A _______________ is a hot, dense, slowly cooling sphere of carbon. white dwarf
Why does a brown dwarf form? Because the protostar isn't big enough to perform nuclear fusion in its core.
What does a protostar have to do to become a star? Nuclear fusion in its core.
What are the stages a supermassive star like Betelgeuse goes through in its lifetime, in order? Main Sequence, Red Supergiant, Supernova, Black Hole
What are the stages a massive star like Rigel goes through in its lifetime, in order? Main Sequence, Red Supergiant, Supernova, Neutron Star
What happens when the sun runs out of fuel? The core becomes unstable and collapses under its own weight.
How many years ago did the sun form? 4.6 Billion
What is a pulsar? A rotating neutron star.
A neutron star is: an extremely dense, compact star composed primarily of neutrons.
For a neutron star to form, how big must a star be? A star must be 5-10 times larger than the Sun but not as big as Betelgeuse
What stage of a stars life is a neutron star. The end of its life.
What happens to the star material that does not get condensed into the core? The matter from the star gets blasted into space.
What happens when fusion stops in a star's core? The outside of the star swells into a red supergiant while the core condenses.
What happens if the original star was so big that after the supernova, even the neutrons don't survive? A black hole is formed
A supernova is: the explosion of a star.
A collection of millions or billions of stars is known as a galaxy
What are the three shapes galaxies take? spiral, elliptical, irregular
Spiral What type of galaxy is shown in this picture ?
Which type of galaxy contains a bulge in the center containing old stars and younger stars farther out in its disk? Spiral
Which type of galaxy contains dust, gas and young stars? Irregular
What type of galaxy is shown in this picture? irregular
A ____________ is invisible because its gravity is so strong that no form of radiation can escape from it. black hole
What are the very bright centers in distant galaxies? quasars
Which type of galaxy brightest and made of only old stars? elliptical