Presentation on theme: "Human Sexuality November 28, 2012 Chapter 15: Sexually Transmitted Infections St. Bart’s Pathology Museum in London."— Presentation transcript:
1 Human Sexuality November 28, 2012 Chapter 15: Sexually Transmitted Infections St. Bart’s Pathology Museum in London
2 What is an STI?Sexually transmitted infection: an infection that can be transmitted through sexual interaction (not just intercourse!)Some STIs can be cured, and others cannotCan cause embarrassment, compromised health, pain, infertility, and even death!Half of all STIs in the U.S. are believed to occur among 15- to 24-year-oldsMost STIs can be prevented!
3 Factors contributing to STIs Multiple sexual partnersHaving sex without a condomIncreased use of oral contraceptives (?)Lack of information about STIs in young people and their health care providersMany STIs do not have obvious symptoms!Mr. Marcus adult film star, had syphilis and spread it to many partners
4 Most STIs are bacterial or viral Bacteria larger than viruses; are cells, easier to kill
5 Bacterial infections are easier to treat than viral ones Bacterial infections can be treated with antibiotic drugs, such as penicillin; these drugs have NO EFFECT on viruses!
7 Chlamydia Most common bacterial STI in the U.S. Rates of infection are highest among teenagers, especially girlsTransmitted primarily through vaginal, anal, or oral sexual contact; can also be spread by fingers to other parts of the body, like the eyes
8 Chlamydia symptoms in women Chlamydia usually affects women in one of two ways:Infection of the lower reproductive tract can cause inflammation of the urethra or infection of the cervix; this form usually causes few or no symptomsInfection of the upper reproductive tract causes pelvic inflammatory disease (PID): (also caused by gonorrhea infection) infection of the uterus, fallopian tubes, or ovaries, and can cause disrupted menstruation, chronic pelvic pain, lower back pain, fever, nausea, vomiting, and headachesPID can also leave scar tissue that can result in ectopic pregnancy or infertility
9 Chlamydia symptoms in men Chlamydia symptoms in men may include:Discharge from the penisA burning sensation during urinationItching around the opening of the penisPain & swelling of the testicles (less common)About half of men have minimal symptoms
10 Trachoma: a complication of chlamydia Trachoma: an eye infection caused by the chlamydia bacteriumWorld’s leading cause of preventable blindnessCan be spread from infected moms to newborns as shown hereChlamydia can also cause pneumonia in babies or premature deliveryThe CDC recommends chlamydia testing for all pregnant women
11 The good news: Chlamydia is very curable 7 days of treatment with the antibiotic azithromycin can knock out most cases of uncomplicated chlamydiaAll sexual partners of an infected person should be tested!
12 Gonorrhea Caused by bacterial infection Also known as “the clap” Second in prevalence only to chlamydia in the U.S.Highest incidence among lower socioeconomic groupsTransmitted by penile-vaginal, oral-genital, oral-anal, or genital-anal contactTraditionally the most common STD
13 Symptoms and complications in females In females, most gonorrhea infections occur in the cervix, and may not cause any symptomsMay experience painful or burning sensation during urination, or increased vaginal dischargeComplications: can spread to the upper reproductive tract and cause PID
14 Symptoms and complications in males Symptoms in men typically appear 2-5 days after contact with an infected personMost common signs are a bad-smelling cloudy discharge from the penis and burning during urinationSymptoms may clear up on their own, which may or may not mean the immune system has defeated the bacteria!Complications: untreated infection may spread to other organs, causing fever, painful bowel movements, discomfort, and eventually infertility
15 Other complications in both sexes In 2% of cases, the bacteria can enter the bloodstream and spread throughout the body, causing widespread symptoms including possibly permanent joint damageGonorrhea can also cause eye infections in infants, similar to chlamydia; adults can also transmit this infection to their own eyes with their handsGonorrhea spread through non-vaginal-penile sex can result in infection of the throat or anus. This is most often asymptomatic
16 Gonorrhea can also be treated with antibiotics Since 1976, strains of gonorrhea have emerged that are resistant to the common antibiotics penicillin & tetracyclineStrains are increasingly also becoming resistant to the antibiotic fluoroquinolone, used subsequentlyA new class of antibiotics, called cephalosporins, are now used to treat gonorrhea; also treats chlamydia, which frequently co-occursTalk about antibiotic resistance
17 Nongonococcal urethritis Nongonococcal urethritis: any inflammation of the urethra that is NOT caused by gonorrhea infectionKnown to be caused by 3 different bacteriaCommon among men—actually more common than gonorrhea in the U.S.Symptoms include discharge from the penis and burning during urinationTreatable with antibiotics
18 Syphilis Caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum Rates have been rising in recent years, especially among men who have sex with menTransmitted primarily from open lesions to mucous membranes of the vagina, mouth, or anus or to cuts in the skinCan be transmitted by penile-vaginal, oral-genital, oral-anal, or genital-anal contactsAl Capone, Scott Joplin died of syphilisNapoleon, Hitler suspected
19 Untreated syphilis progresses in 4 stages Primary stage of syphilis is characterized by the appearance of a painless sore called a chancreUsually appears ~3 weeks after initial infectionUsually occurs on the penis, vagina, or cervix, but can be elsewhere on the genitals or in the mouth or rectumGenerally heals without treatment within 3–6 weeksSHANG-kurBecause not painful, may not notice if is on cervix or elsewhere not visibleHaving sores increases your risk of getting HIV!
20 Secondary stage of syphilis Usually occurs 2–8 weeks after exposureSkin rash appears on the body, most often on palms of hands and soles of feetTypically does not hurt or itchCan also have flulike symptoms
21 Latent syphilisThe latent phase of syphilis infection is characterized by no observable symptomsCan last for years!After 1 year in the latent stage, infected individuals are typically no longer able to transmit the infection to partners, although pregnant women can transfer it to their babies
22 Tertiary syphilisAbout 15% of individuals who do not receive effective treatment for syphilis will enter the tertiary stageUsually occurs 10–20 years after initial infectionSymptoms include heart failure, blindness, paralysis, skin ulcers, liver damage, and severe mental disturbanceMay be treatable in some cases
23 Treatment of syphilisSyphilis can usually be treated by antibiotic injections, most commonly penicillinMay need greater number of treatments for later-stage syphilispicture: Mercury used to treat syphilis in England
25 Herpes Caused by the herpes simplex virus 8 different but related herpes viruses can infect humans, HSV-1 and HSV-2 are commonly transmitted sexuallyHSV-1: usually results in lesions around the mouth (cold sores)HSV-2: usually results in genital lesionsBUT, you can have oral-genital transmission of both of these
26 PrevalenceMore than 100 million Americans have oral herpes and at least 45 million have genital herpesGenital herpes is more common in women than in men (~1 out of 4 adult women and ~1 out of 8 adult men in the U.S. have genital herpes)fake ad for valtrex!
27 Preventing transmission of herpes Genital herpes is spread through penile-vaginal, oral-genital, genital-anal, or oral-anal contactCondoms can prevent transmission from a man who only has lesions on his penis, but vaginal secretions containing the virus can still come in contact with a man’s scrotumSexual contact should be avoided when herpes lesions are presentBUT, herpes can be transmitted even when lesions are not present, so condoms should always be used!You can also spread herpes from one part of your own body to another with your hands
28 Genital herpes (HSV-2) symptoms Incubation period is 2-14 days and symptoms usually last 2 to 4 weeks; small painful blisters full of virus particlescan also have flu-like symptoms
29 Recurrence of herpes symptoms Herpes cannot be cured; typically the virus will live in the nervous system and can “flare up”Flare ups can be caused by emotional stress, anxiety, depression, acidic food, ultraviolet light, fever, menstruation, being run-down, poor nutrition, and injury to the affected skin region
30 So I have herpes, so what?Herpes is merely irritating for most people who have it; however, complications can occur in women:HSV-2 may contribute to cancer of the cervixPregnant women can transmit HSV-2 to babies passing through the birth canal; such an infection can cause severe illness and even death in babies. Luckily this is rare!Transmission of HSV-2 to the eye can cause eye damage
31 Treatment No cure for herpes! Two basic treatment strategies: Suppressive therapy: drugs are given all the time to prevent flare-upsReduces transmissibility of the virus between flare-upsEpisodic treatment: drugs are given when flare-ups occur
32 Low-Cost reproductive health care options in the East Bay Planned Parenthood (Oakland)Asian Health Services (Oakland)Native American Health Center (Oakland)La Clinica de la Raza (Oakland)Berkeley Free Clinic (Berkeley)STD community hotline