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Ten Years of Swift John Nousek,

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Presentation on theme: "Ten Years of Swift John Nousek,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Ten Years of Swift John Nousek,
Penn State University Neil Gehrels, Scott Barthelmy (GSFC) & Jamie Kennea (PSU) International Workshop on Astronomical X-ray Optics Prague, Czech Republic 11 December 2014

2 Talk Overview Ten years of success *** Swift mission operations
New Swift science as ‘Time Domain Observatory’ New Swift opportunities

3 Swift – The World's GRB Factory
GRBs >900 GRBs with arcsec positions Primary GRB mission into the future Non-GRBs >1000 TOOs per year AGN, SNe, novae, CVs, LMXBs, stars, comets, ... First sensitive hard X-ray all sky survey GI program > 4 oversubscription, $1.2M, 5Ms time per year BAT XRT UVOT

4 MOC Facility Located in State College, PA ~ 4 km. from Penn State campus Flight Operations Team (FOT) – responsible for observatory Health & Safety Science Operations Team (SOT) - responsible for scientific operation of Swift New facility from 26 Aug 2014 Has continuously operated Swift successfully from L+80 minutes to now!

5 Swift Observatory Status
Swift meets or exceeds all Level 1 requirements ! Observatory Science Up-time: 98.3% Except for rare spacecraft or instrument down-time and SAA passage, Swift collects data continuously Ground Station Status: Nominal Malindi passes since Launch, 98.4% successful USN 2843 passes since Launch, 95.3% successful GN (WPS, AGO, SA2, WS1, SI1) 6671 passes since July 15th 2010, 99.1% successful TDRSS DAS currently providing 99.3% success rate Observatory Status: Nominal ACS: executed slews, > 99% within 3’ accuracy All systems functioning properly, except for TARA 3 degradation Observatory Lifetime: Above prediction Orbital life expected to >2026, no observatory or instrument limits known Flight Operations Team Response: Excellent On average, there was an FOT after hours response once every four days Science Operations Team Response: Excellent SOT has prepared observing schedules every day with only two SOT induced errors SOT/BA team has responded to every GRB with prompt (typical < 1 hour) data analysis and preparation of GCN circulars, ATELs, etc for > 2000 events Statistics as of 31 Oct 2014 – M. Hilliard

6 "Looks like another friendly Senior Review panel."


8 Swift Game-Changing Discoveries
2005: Short burst mystery solution. NS-NS mergers 2005: Flares & bright afterglows in GRBs 2008: Supernova shock breakout from Type Ib SN 2008: Naked-eye GRB from reverse shock in jet 2009: Discovery of GRBs at z>8 2010: Galaxy mergers in hosts of absorbed AGN 2011: Tidal disruption flare of star eaten by BH 2012: SFR and metallicity evolution to z>5 2012: Discovery of very young (2500 year old) SNR 2012; Discovery of ultra-long class of GRB 2013: Anti-glitch in magnetar 1E 2013: Evidence for kilonova/macronova in a short GRB 2014: Evidence for two UV color classes in SNe Ia October 29, 2009 "Extraordinarily violent explosion that ended the life of a distant star." April 16, 2011 "Unusual celestial event was black hole swallowing a star." July 19, 2013 "Origin of gold found in rare neutron-star collisions." Yearly breakthroughs with Swift

9 Swift & Transients BAT Trigger XRT "Trigger" TOOs LMXB Superburst
Gamma Ray Burst X-Ray Burst Soft Gamma Repeater LMXB & HMXB Flare Sgr A* flare Tidal Disruption Event BH Transient & X-ray Nova Nova Supernova Shock Breakout Super Fast X-ray Transient Stellar Superflare ULX Transient Supernova Microquasar Flare

10 TOOs per year

11 DG CVn Large Stellar Flare
DG CVn April 23, 2014 Large X-ray "super-flare" Brighter than star luminosity 10,000x largest solar flare Young star at 18 pc previous events: EV Lac, II Peg Power source: B field reconnection Drake, Osten, Page, Oats +

12 LMXB Superburst SAX J1712.6-3739 XRT Rate (counts / s)
SAX J Sept-2011 4U Mar-2014 Time Since BAT Trigger (s) XRT Rate (counts / s) SAX J Large thermonuclear burn Carbon burning of XRB ashes Factor 1000 longer and less frequent than XRBs Discovered by RXTE BAT fluence trigger Power source: Nuclear burning in't Zand, Strohmayer,

13 Thermonuclear detonation of accumulated accretion on white dwarf
Nova Outbursts Thermonuclear detonation of accumulated accretion on white dwarf - >30 novae observed - keV emission from shocked ejecta - Super-Soft emission from WD surface - Extensive observations of RS Oph 2006 (~400 ksec) - Earth mass ejected at ~4000 km/s into wind of companion Red Giant 1.6 kpc RS Oph Power source: Nuclear burning Osborne+ '11 13

14 SN 2008D Shock Breakout 9 Jan 2008 Soderberg+ 08
XRT narrow-field monitoring of SN 2007y Luminous X-ray outburst from SN 2008D Shock breakout. May occur for all SNe Power source: Gravity + E&M

15 Sgr A* Flares Degenaar+ 13 Daily XRT monitoring of GC
6 flares seen from Sgr A* + 10 weak candidate flares Sgr A* is not dormant LX ~ erg/s ~ 1 billionth Eddington Degenaar+ 13 Power source: Gravity

16 Swift Transient - Sw J Highly erratic g-ray and X-ray light curve, March 28, 2011 Like a GRB, but lasting 2 days instead of 20 second Tidal disruption event beamed at us E ~ 1051 ergs MBH = 106 – 107 Msolar Swift Light Curve 2 days t-4/3 HST Image Center of galaxy at z=0.35 Bloom+, Burrows+, Levan

17 Collapsar model well supported
Short vs Long GRBs Short GRB Cnts/s Long GRB Cnts/s XRT Chandra GRB Swift elliptical host GRB SAX SF dwarf host GRB In SF galaxies Accompanied by SNe Collapsar model well supported In non-SF and SF galaxies No SNe detected Possible merger model BH

18 Short GRB Summary - extragalactic - occur in distant galaxies
Similar to LGRBs: - extragalactic - occur in distant galaxies - collimated jet outflows - produced by gravitational collapse, probably to BHs Dissimilar to LGRBs - not accompanied by SN (but maybe kilonova) - not concentrated in SR regions - lower redshift - weaker afterglows

19 Long GRBs Seen to High z XRT Lightcurve HST image
183 Crab z Look-Back GRB Optical Time (Gyr) Brightness B K = 19 K = 20 ~ A A H ~ 19 K = 19 J = 18 C I = 16 K = 18 R = 21 HST image

20 Swift Science Supernova TOO program Magnetars BAT survey
AGN monitoring – NGC 5548 Blazar campaigns Comets / asteroids ULXs UVOT galaxy surveys BH / NS outbursts Joint observations (NuSTAR, Fermi, MAXI, INTEGRAL, iPTF, Kepler, ACTs, n experiments, LIGO/Virgo)

21 New Science Themes Coordinate observations with aLIGO/Virgo
Towards a “Smoking Gun” Short Burst Progenitor: Coordinate observations with aLIGO/Virgo Confirm r-process “kilonovae” Probing the Epoch of Reionization: Use new NIR spectrometers to study z>7 GRBs Supernovae and Cosmology: Construct the first large sample of UV light curves for SNe Ia Use Swift data to improve SNe Ia standardization Serendipitous Time-Domain Discoveries: Increase the likelihood of unanticipated discoveries through new mission initiatives and partnerships with wide-field optical and radio transient surveys

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