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Ten Years of Swift John Nousek, Penn State University Neil Gehrels, Scott Barthelmy (GSFC) & Jamie Kennea (PSU) International Workshop on Astronomical.

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Presentation on theme: "Ten Years of Swift John Nousek, Penn State University Neil Gehrels, Scott Barthelmy (GSFC) & Jamie Kennea (PSU) International Workshop on Astronomical."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ten Years of Swift John Nousek, Penn State University Neil Gehrels, Scott Barthelmy (GSFC) & Jamie Kennea (PSU) International Workshop on Astronomical X-ray Optics Prague, Czech Republic 11 December 2014

2 2 Talk Overview Ten years of success *** Swift mission operations *** New Swift science as ‘Time Domain Observatory’ *** New Swift opportunities

3 3  GRBs  >900 GRBs with arcsec positions  Primary GRB mission into the future  Non-GRBs  >1000 TOOs per year  AGN, SNe, novae, CVs, LMXBs, stars, comets,...  First sensitive hard X-ray all sky survey  GI program  > 4 oversubscription, $1.2M, 5Ms time per year Swift – The World's GRB Factory BAT XRT UVOT

4 MOC Facility Has continuously operated Swift successfully from L+80 minutes to now! Located in State College, PA ~ 4 km. from Penn State campus Flight Operations Team (FOT) – responsible for observatory Health & Safety Science Operations Team (SOT) - responsible for scientific operation of Swift New facility from 26 Aug 2014

5  Observatory Science Up-time: 98.3% Except for rare spacecraft or instrument down-time and SAA passage, Swift collects data continuously  Ground Station Status: Nominal Malindi passes since Launch, 98.4% successful USN 2843 passes since Launch, 95.3% successful GN (WPS, AGO, SA2, WS1, SI1) 6671 passes since July 15 th 2010, 99.1% successful TDRSS DAS currently providing 99.3% success rate  Observatory Status: Nominal ACS: executed slews, > 99% within 3’ accuracy All systems functioning properly, except for TARA 3 degradation  Observatory Lifetime: Above prediction Orbital life expected to >2026, no observatory or instrument limits known  Flight Operations Team Response: Excellent On average, there was an FOT after hours response once every four days  Science Operations Team Response: Excellent SOT has prepared observing schedules every day with only two SOT induced errors SOT/BA team has responded to every GRB with prompt (typical 2000 events Swift Observatory Status Swift meets or exceeds all Level 1 requirements ! Statistics as of 31 Oct 2014 – M. Hilliard

6 "Looks like another friendly Senior Review panel."


8  2005: Short burst mystery solution. NS-NS mergers  2005: Flares & bright afterglows in GRBs  2008: Supernova shock breakout from Type Ib SN  2008: Naked-eye GRB from reverse shock in jet  2009: Discovery of GRBs at z>8  2010: Galaxy mergers in hosts of absorbed AGN  2011: Tidal disruption flare of star eaten by BH  2012: SFR and metallicity evolution to z>5  2012: Discovery of very young (2500 year old) SNR  2012; Discovery of ultra-long class of GRB  2013: Anti-glitch in magnetar 1E  2013: Evidence for kilonova/macronova in a short GRB  2014: Evidence for two UV color classes in SNe Ia Swift Game-Changing Discoveries October 29, 2009 "Extraordinarily violent explosion that ended the life of a distant star." April 16, 2011 "Unusual celestial event was black hole swallowing a star." July 19, 2013 "Origin of gold found in rare neutron-star collisions." Yearly breakthroughs with Swift

9 Swift & Transients Gamma Ray Burst Soft Gamma Repeater Tidal Disruption Event Stellar Superflare LMXB Superburst LMXB & HMXB FlareLMXB & HMXB Flare BH Transient & X-ray Nova Microquasar Flare Supernova Shock Breakout Super Fast X-ray Transient ULX Transient Nova Supernova X-Ray Burst Sgr A* flare BAT Trigger XRT "Trigger" TOOs

10 TOOs per year

11 DG CVn Large Stellar Flare Drake, Osten, Page, Oats +  Large X-ray "super-flare"  Brighter than star luminosity  10,000x largest solar flare  Young star at 18 pc DG CVn - April 23, 2014 previous events: EV Lac, II Peg Power source: B field reconnection

12 LMXB Superburst  Large thermonuclear burn  Carbon burning of XRB ashes  Factor 1000 longer and less  frequent than XRBs  Discovered by RXTE  BAT fluence trigger SAX J Sept U Mar-2014 Time Since BAT Trigger (s) XRT Rate (counts / s) SAX J in't Zand, Strohmayer, Power source: Nuclear burning

13 - >30 novae observed - keV emission from shocked ejecta - Super-Soft emission from WD surface - Extensive observations of RS Oph 2006 (~400 ksec) - Earth mass ejected at ~4000 km/s into wind of companion Red Giant RS Oph Nova Outbursts Thermonuclear detonation of accumulated accretion on white dwarf 1.6 kpc Power source: Nuclear burning Osborne+ '11

14 SN 2008D Shock Breakout XRT narrow-field monitoring of SN 2007y Luminous X-ray outburst from SN 2008D Shock breakout. May occur for all SNe Soderberg Jan 2008 Power source: Gravity + E&M

15 Sgr A* Flares Daily XRT monitoring of GC 6 flares seen from Sgr A* + 10 weak candidate flares Sgr A* is not dormant L X ~ erg/s ~ 1 billionth Eddington Degenaar+ 13 Power source: Gravity

16 Swift Transient - Sw J HST Image Center of galaxy at z=0.35 Swift Light Curve 2 days t -4/3 Bloom+, Burrows+, Levan Highly erratic  -ray and X-ray light curve, March 28, 2011 Like a GRB, but lasting 2 days instead of 20 second Tidal disruption event beamed at us E ~ ergs M BH = 10 6 – 10 7 M solar

17 Short vs Long GRBs Long GRB Cnts/s In non-SF and SF galaxies No SNe detected Possible merger model In SF galaxies Accompanied by SNe Collapsar model well supported GRB SAX SF dwarf host GRB Short GRB Cnts/s XRT Chandra GRB Swift elliptical host BH

18 Short GRB Summary Similar to LGRBs: - extragalactic - occur in distant galaxies - collimated jet outflows - produced by gravitational collapse, probably to BHs Dissimilar to LGRBs - not accompanied by SN (but maybe kilonova) - not concentrated in SR regions - lower redshift - weaker afterglows

19 z Look-Back GRB Optical Time (Gyr) Brightness B K = K = 20 ~ A A H ~ K = J = C I = K = R = 21 HST image XRT Lightcurve 183 Crab Long GRBs Seen to High z

20 Swift Science Supernova TOO program Magnetars BAT survey AGN monitoring – NGC 5548 Blazar campaigns Comets / asteroids ULXs UVOT galaxy surveys BH / NS outbursts Joint observations (NuSTAR, Fermi, MAXI, INTEGRAL, iPTF, Kepler, ACTs, experiments, LIGO/Virgo)

21 Towards a “Smoking Gun” Short Burst Progenitor: -Coordinate observations with aLIGO/Virgo -Confirm r-process “kilonovae” Probing the Epoch of Reionization: -Use new NIR spectrometers to study z>7 GRBs Supernovae and Cosmology: -Construct the first large sample of UV light curves for SNe Ia -Use Swift data to improve SNe Ia standardization Serendipitous Time-Domain Discoveries: -Increase the likelihood of unanticipated discoveries through new mission initiatives and partnerships with wide-field optical and radio transient surveys New Science Themes

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