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CHEN 313 Group 04 Connor Armstrong Katheryn Drake Keith Sager Breanna King.

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1 CHEN 313 Group 04 Connor Armstrong Katheryn Drake Keith Sager Breanna King

2 Methane Ethane Propane Butane http://baftechnologies.com/cng/natural-gas-from-well-to- consumer / www.oilempire.us geology.com Natural gas tanker holding gas after it was taken from a deposit underwater Natural Gas World Production Map in2006 Flare of natural gas at a production

3  19 th century-Natural gas was either released into the atmosphere or collected where demand was high  Bunson burner was invented in 1885  During the early 20 th century natural gases were burned off as flares or harvested in areas of high demand  Now natural gas has a wide variety of uses, and flares are becoming less and less prevalent. www.naturalgas.org A Reconstruction of 'Colonel' Drake's First Natural Gas Well in Titusville, Pa Bunsen Burner using Butane

4  Methane-  Ethane-  Propane-  Butane- BP: -162 °C BP: -89 °C BP: -42 °C BP: 0 °C 1-4 carbon chains

5  19 th century-Natural gases were used as light sources  Early 20 th century-Natural gases were used for cooking and heating  Presently-Natural gases are used for ◦ vehicles ◦ electricity generation ◦ heating and cooling www.petrostrategies.org lenpenzo.com www.fossil.energy.gov Natural gas Propane light Natural Gas Methane Burner

6  Dry natural gas consists of almost all methane and natural gas liquids consist of ethane, propane, and butane  Impurities and other hydrocarbons must be removed  Usually accomplished through distillation or separation methods in plants www.pentagonpost.com Naturalgas.org Natural gas processing plants Rig Natural Gas Flare

7  Uses depend on: ◦ energy efficiency ◦ cost ◦ compression  Perform in appliances for heating, cooking, or drying.  Order of energy efficiency: Methane { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "ImageObject", "contentUrl": "http://images.slideplayer.com/13/4073624/slides/slide_7.jpg", "name": " Uses depend on: ◦ energy efficiency ◦ cost ◦ compression  Perform in appliances for heating, cooking, or drying.", "description": " Order of energy efficiency: Methane

8 www.sciencedirect.com- Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering, Vol. 10, by Yangjun Zhang Pressure VS Temperature Graph for Various Natural Gases Notice the heavier natural gasses have a higher rate of pressure increase with temperature. This determines what conditions they are used in.

9 randysidescartoons.wordpress.com

10  Gasoline is a natural by product in the distillation of kerosene.  19 th century-First automotive combustion engines, Otto engines, were developed  The need for less volatile fuels that were economical to distill increased as combustion engines were being invented and the answer was gasoline www.allposters.com Spindletop field in the Southern part of Beaumont, TX http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Page: Popular_Science_Monthly_Volume_1 8.djvu/500 Otto Engine

11  Hydrocarbon chains containing between five and ten carbons ◦ Pentanes, hexanes, heptanes, octanes, nonanes, and decanes  Liquid at room temperatures  Easy to store, unlike natural gases Pentane BP: 36.1 °C Decane BP: 175 °C

12  Higher the octane number, the more compression the fuel can withstand before detonating.  Octane rating is a measure of how likely a gasoline or liquid petroleum fuel is to self ignite.  Defined by comparison of iso-octane and heptane, which has the same anti-knocking capacity as the fuel under test  The percentage, by volume, of 2,2,4-trimethylpentane in that mixture is the octane number of the fuel. www.pedrosgarage.com

13 http://forum.equis.com/forums/thread/36685.aspx World Gasoline Consumption by region as of 2005. North America used nearly half of the gas consumed in the world.

14 www.scientificamerican.com www.ehow.com Fighter Jet Shell gas tanker transporting Jet Fuel

15  All turbine and jet based aircraft use jet fuel  Hydrocarbon chains from 8 to 16 carbons  Kerosene based fuel  Lower flash point than other fuels, therefore safer to transport and burn Hexadecane MP: 18 °C BP: 287 °C Octane MP:-57 °C BP:125 °C

16 Jet A-1Jet A Flash point (°C/°F)42 / 10851.1 / 124.0 Autoignition temperature (°C/°F) 210 / 410 Freezing point (°C/°F) −47 / −53−40 / −40 Open air burning temperatures (°C/°F) 260–315 / 500–599 Density at 15 °C /59 °F (kg/L).804.820 Specific energy (MJ/kg) 43.1543.02 Energy density (MJ/L) 34.735.3 "Handbook of Products". Air BP."Handbook of Products"

17  Separation processes: ◦ Separated based on boiling point ◦ Does not change the feedstock ◦ Example: distillation.  Upgrading processes: ◦ Improve material quality by removing impurities ◦ Examples: sweetening, hydro-treating, and clay treatment  Conversion processes: ◦ Changes feedstock by “cracking” large molecules into small ones ◦ Examples: catalytic cracking and hydro-cracking http://gas2.org/2011/03/30/bo eing-gets-busy-slick-new- planes-wild-new-patents/ 747 commercial plane

18  World War II and the oil crises of the 1970’s saw brief interest in using vegetable oils to fuel diesel engines.  1937-Belgian inventor proposed transesterification to convert vegetable oils into fatty acid alkyl esters  Early 1990s-Europe and South Africa began developing biodiesel fuel industry The first car run on modern BioDiesel- the Citroen Rosalie http://www.firstcarnow.com/first- biofuel-car.htm

19  BioDiesel chain- Blue ester functional group  BioDiesel is essentially diesel with an ester added to one end. ◦ Done by transesterification reaction  Small molecules that don’t gel like vegetable oil at low temperatures.  Only modification need for a diesel engine is replacing rubber tubing due to ester reactivity

20  Because BioDiesel is so natural, it is fairly easy and inexpensive to manufacture. ◦ Goshen College’s BioDiesel Lab Experimental BioDiesel plant schematic First Tank-WVO (Waste Vegetable Oil) Dryer Second Tank-Reactor Third Tank-Wash Tank Methanol removed from reactor Fourth Tank-Drying Tank Final Product-BioDiesel http://www.goshen.edu/chemistry/biodiesel/processor/All pictures courtesy of

21  Pure BioDiesel (B100) is produced from renewable feedstocks such as vegetable oils ◦ Does not diminish food supplies  Doesn’t require major modification to be used in a diesel engine  Reduced exhaust emissions and toxicity compaired to petroluem diesel. B100 produces no soot compared to diesel, undergoing more complete combustion. http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfu els/facts/m/2006_fcvt_fotw449.html Comparison of B100 and petroluem diesel (B20) emissions http://agtheory.blogspot.com/2008/07/die sel-vs-biodiesel.html

22  1890s - First diesel engines created ◦ Inventor envisioned vegetable oil as the fuel source  1900 World’s Fair - First demonstration of vegetable oil based diesel ◦ Diesel Engine used peanut oil  Coconut, peanut, WVO (waste vegetable oil) and pure plant vegetable oil have all been used http://www.jsme.or.jp/tsd/ICBTT/conferen ce02/MasanoriOGATA.html Engine displayed at the 1900 World’s Fair

23  Structure of typical vegetable oil  3 times the size of typical diesel fuel  Higher kinematic viscosity than regular diesel ◦ A heat exchanger is added to the engine to prevent clogging ◦ Larger proportion of esters increases incomplete combustion if not heated properly before use http://www.vegoilmotoring.com/eng/why-veg-oil/vegoil-vs-biodiesel This flow diagram shows that SVO (straight vegetable oil) has greater carbon neutrality than conventional diesel

24  Use as a fuel in vehicles would drastically reduce CO 2 and greenhouse gas emissions ‣ With slight modifications, can be used as a substitute in residential furnaces and boilers ‣ Using filtered WVO would have considerable savings ‣ According to Vegawatt®, WVO is 35% more efficient than traditional oils. Typical heating usage is 40%. That means using WVO could save you 14% on your electricity bill each month. http://www.sa.gov.au/subject/Water,+energy+and+environme nt/Energy/Energy+efficiency/Home+energy+efficiency/How+e nergy+is+used+in+the+home http://biodieselnc.org/page/2/ Fuel system set up for an engine that used SVO (Straight Vegetable Oil)

25  Methanol  Ethanol  BioButanol www.motorauthority.com http://www.resilience.org/stories/2013-04-11/perils- and-promise-of-turning-plants-into-gasoline Corn Crop that will be turned into Ethanol E85 Ethanol Gas Tank

26  Alcohol-based fuels consist entirely of alcohol or up to 15% mixtures for conventional vehicles.  Methanol:  Ethanol: BP: 78.37 °C BP: 64.7 °C

27 Methanol combustion: 2CH 3 OH + 3O 2 → 2CO 2 + 4H 2 O + heat Ethanol combustion: C 2 H 5 OH + 3O 2 → 2CO 2 + 3H 2 O + heat  Cleaner burning compared to long hydrocarbons since less CO2 is produced by the smaller hydrocarbons

28  Alcohol-based fuels (ethanol in particular) is produced from waste products, grain and corn 1. Enzymes convert corn meal to simple sugars 2. Ammonia is added to control pH and as a nutrient for the yeast 3. Yeast converts sugar into ethanol and carbon dioxide 4. Cooled in fermenters 5. Distillation www1.eere.energy.gov

29  Pros ◦ Renewable ◦ Environmentally friendly  Cons ◦ Higher Production costs ◦ Increased cost of food supplies such as corn ◦ Controversial http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Combine_harvester Combine Corn Harvester for Ethanol production

30 http://www.southwestclimatechange.org/feature-articles/biofuels Based on U.S. Department of Agriculture's long-term projections, biofuel production is expected to increase dramatically before leveling off at the end of the decade as motor vehicle blending requirements approach maximum limits.

31  History ◦ Made from anaerobic bacteria fermentation since 1851. ◦ 1912-Chad Weizmann isolates a bacteria species that produces more butanol per biomass. ◦ 1960s-butanol as a fuel source began using primarily Clostridium pasteurianum bacterium. Flow diagram showing how BioButanol is produced from fermentation. http://www.biobutanol.com/Biobutanol-feedstocks-include-sugars,- starches-and-even-wastes.html

32 N-butanolSec-butanolIsobutanolTert-butanol ‣ n-butanol and isobutanol are most common in BioButanol ‣ Covalent bonding ‣ Volatile and flammable because of weak intermolecular forces ‣ Miscible in water because of size, even though its nonpolar

33  Higher energy density and lower volatility than ethanol  Doesn’t affect food supply ◦ Made from non-edible feedstocks such as algae and crop waste  Less corrosive than ethanol ◦ Can be used in vehicles without modifications FeedstockFermentation (years) Sugarcane Juice, Corn Kernels (Sugar source) 0-2 Sugar beet, Sorgum (complex sugar) 0-2 Miscanthus, Switchgrass (cellulosic technology) 2-4 Wood waste, Crop waste, Poplar tree 2-4 Algae biomass 2-4 Food processing waste, household waste 4-6 This table shows BioButanol production from various feedstocks-years to commercialization http://www.biobutanol.com/Biobutanol-feedstocks-include-sugars,-starches- and-even-wastes.html

34 Flash Powder Black Powder Smokeless Gun Powder Wood

35  1887-Germany used as flash lamps for cameras ◦ Mixture of magnesium, potassium chlorate and antimony sulfide  Since 20th century chemical formula has been refined to make it simpler and safer to use  Historians date to Sui and Tang dynasties (~600-900 A.D.) in China, as precursor to gunpowder  Currently used to fuel fireworks around the world http://photo.tutsplus.com/articles/history/ a-brief-history-of-photographic-flash/

36  Mixture of oxidizer and metallic fuel ◦ Potassium Nitrate (oxidizer) - Saltpepter 2 KNO 3 + Heat → 2 K 2 O + N 2 + O 2  Structure of a Firecracker ◦ Layers of paper tubing. ◦ Plugged at both ends with a dry clay-like substance ◦ Flash powder in the middle.  Fuse ignites the flash powder, creating a large volume of gas in a short period of time. ◦ Pressure blasts the tube open Potassium Nitrate http://scienceforyou.net/pyr otechnic- supplies/oxidizers/potassiu m-nitrate/ http://www.pyrouniverse.com/show/consumer/1. 4Ginfo.htm Layout of a typical fire cracker

37  1830s-Pyrotechnicians added a metallic salt to color fireworks ◦ RedStrontium ◦ GreenBarium ◦ BlueCopper  Colors caused by atomic or molecular emission ◦ Electrons take on energy and “jump” to a higher energy state ◦ Electrons “relax” back down to ground state, passing extra energy in the form of light of a specific wavelength ◦ Colors depend on frequency distribution of transmitted and reemitted light beams  Materials absorb photons with energies greater than their band gap  We see the colors that are not absorbed http://munsell.com/color-blog/chemistry-fireworks-colors/ o WhiteMagnesium o OrangeCalcium o YellowSodium Graphic illustration of electrons jumping energy levels Light Spectrum

38  Only explosive until mid 1800s  Discovered in 7 th century China ◦ Alchemists searching for elixir of immortality  Spread to Europe by the Mongols in 1241  Constant burn rate regardless of containment http://www.militaryheritage.com/muskets.htm Black Powder Muskets

39  Potassium Nitrate (Saltpetre) ◦ Oxidizer  Charcoal ◦ fuel  Sulfur ◦ Fuel ◦ Ignition temperature http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Black_Powder_Close_Up.jpg Black Powder granules with quarter for size comparison

40 Simplified formula: 10 KNO 3 + 3 S + 8 C → 2 K 2 CO 3 + 3 K 2 SO 4 + 6CO 2 + 5 N 2. Replacing C with Charcoal C 7 H 4 O: 4 KNO 3 + C 7 H 4 O + 2 S —> 2 K 2 S + 4 CO 2 + 3 CO + 2 H 2 O + 2 N 2

41  Sulfur –free ◦ Removes smoke and soot Variable burn rate Example: Cordite http://www.cascity.com/forumhall/index.php?topic=35624.25 Cut away view of a colt 45 round

42  Nitroguanidine  Nitroglycerin  Nitrocellulose ◦ Guncotton Guncotton Nitroglycerin Nitroguanidine http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nitroglycerin http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nitroguanidine http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gun_cotton

43 6 KNO 3 + C 7 H 8 O → 3 K 2 CO 3 + 4 CO 2 + 2 H 2 O+ 3 N 2 http://images.yourdictionary.com/gunpowder Gunpowder from open bullet

44  Oldest fuels  Heating, cooking, steam engines, recreation  Categorized as Hard and Soft http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/media/109341/Log- burning-in-a-fire

45  Water  Cellulose (40% - 50%) ◦ Crystal polymer ◦ Strong in tension  Hemicellulose (15% - 25%) ◦ Irregular five-carbon sugar  Lignin (15% - 30%) ◦ Aromatic Rings give hydrophobic properties ◦ Resists compression  Interwoven Structure ◦ Covalent links between lignin and hemicellulose Cellulose Hemicellulose Lignin http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lignin http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cellulose http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hemicellulose

46  Measured using Janka hardness test ◦ Australian Buloke – 5060lbf ◦ Balsa – 100lbf  Chemical derivation of lignin ◦ Hard wood: sinaply alcohol and coniferyl alcohol ◦ Soft wood: coniferyl alcoholof  Burning ◦ Hardwood: radiant heat over long period of time ◦ Softwood: Burns faster, produces less heat, more flames ◦ Uses: Hardwood for cooking, Softwood for fire-starting Sinaply Alcohol http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sinapyl_alcohol Coniferyl Alcohol http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coniferyl_alcohol http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Janka_hardness_test

47 6 C 10 H 15 O 7 + Heat —> C 50 H 10 O + 10 CH 2 O (wood) + Heat —> (Char) + (volatile gas) CH 2 O + O 2 —> H 2 O + CO 2 + C + N 2 http://www.mayang.com/textures/Wood/images/Other%20Wood/ burnt_wood_with_sand_7090596.JPG Charred Wood after partial burning

48  Lipinsky,E.P. Fuels from Biomass:Integration with Food and Materials Systems. 1978. Science Magazine Online Journal.  http://chemistry.about.com/od/howthingswork/a/fireworks.htm http://chemistry.about.com/od/howthingswork/a/fireworks.htm  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rocket_candy http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rocket_candy  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gunpowder http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gunpowder  http://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/earth/geophysics/fire1.htm http://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/earth/geophysics/fire1.htm  http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/media/109341/Log-burning-in-a-fire http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/media/109341/Log-burning-in-a-fire  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rocket_candy http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rocket_candy  http://greenliving.nationalgeographic.com/hard-vs-soft-wood-fuel-efficiency-20321.html http://greenliving.nationalgeographic.com/hard-vs-soft-wood-fuel-efficiency-20321.html  http://firewoodresource.com/faq/hardwood-vs-softwood/ http://firewoodresource.com/faq/hardwood-vs-softwood/  http://baftechnologies.com/cng/natural-gas-from-well-to-consumer/ http://baftechnologies.com/cng/natural-gas-from-well-to-consumer/  www.oilempire.us www.oilempire.us  www.naturalgas.org www.naturalgas.org  theuticashale.com  www.fossil.energy.gov www.fossil.energy.gov  www.petrostrategies.org www.petrostrategies.org  www.pentagonpost.com www.pentagonpost.com  www.bizjournals.com www.bizjournals.com  www.sciencedirect.com www.sciencedirect.com

49  www.motorauthority.com www.motorauthority.com  www.scientificamerican.com www.scientificamerican.com  http://www.biobutanol.com/Resources.html http://www.biobutanol.com/Resources.html  http://www.biodiesel.com/index.php/biodiesel/history_of_biodiesel_fuel http://www.biodiesel.com/index.php/biodiesel/history_of_biodiesel_fuel  http://www.goshen.edu/chemistry/biodiesel/chemistry-of/ http://www.goshen.edu/chemistry/biodiesel/chemistry-of/  http://www.vegawatt.com/2013bmc/2013bmc.php http://www.vegawatt.com/2013bmc/2013bmc.php  Http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vegetable_oil_fuel Http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vegetable_oil_fuel  http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/209575/flash-powder http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/209575/flash-powder  http://photo.tutsplus.com/articles/history/a-brief-history-of-photographic-flash/ http://photo.tutsplus.com/articles/history/a-brief-history-of-photographic-flash/  http://www.pyrouniverse.com http://www.pyrouniverse.com  http://chemistry.about.com/od/howthingswork/a/fireworks.htm http://chemistry.about.com/od/howthingswork/a/fireworks.htm  http://munsell.com/color-blog/chemistry-fireworks-colors/ http://munsell.com/color-blog/chemistry-fireworks-colors/  http://www.fireflyfans.net/mthread.aspx?tid=54164 http://www.cascity.com/forumhall/index.php?topic=35624.25 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cordite#Uses_in_popular_culture http://www.fireflyfans.net/mthread.aspx?tid=54164 http://www.cascity.com/forumhall/index.php?topic=35624.25 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cordite#Uses_in_popular_culture  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wood_fuel http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wood_fuel  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wood http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wood


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