Presentation on theme: "Cairo University Faculty of Engineering Petrochemicals Engineering Plant Layout May 2010."— Presentation transcript:
Cairo University Faculty of Engineering Petrochemicals Engineering Plant Layout May 2010
Plant Layout It is the challenge to make the best use of the site based on process needs, capital costs, life cycle costs, safety, health, security and environmental considerations. Steps for new projects or modification to existing facilities: 1.Consider the site environment and its surroundings. 2.Arrange the major blocks: process, utilities, off-sites and buildings. 3.Perform the detailed layout and spacing within the specific plants and units.
Topography Detailed topographical maps will be required (streams, slopes, buildings, elevation changes…). Locate open flames (units with heaters, direct fired utility equipment) at higher elevation than bulk quantities of flammables (storage tanks). Storage tanks at elevations higher than process area (reduces the protection measures such as: drainage systems, dikes,…) Flare is a unique piece (flare plume modeling)
Weather In many locations there is not a prevailing wind direction The combination of all other wind parameters (direction, speed, time of changes..) are combined into a wind rose.
Block Layout Methodology Grouping large blocks of like characteristics (process area, tankage, utilities, office, administration buildings) Determine the details of intra-unit spacing within each block
Atmospheric Tankage 300 x 600 ft. Low Hazard Process Areas 600 x 500 ft. Parking Maintenance Warehouse 200 x 600 ft. Utilities 200 x 300 ft. Flare 200 x 300 ft. Offices 200 x 200 ft. 200 ft. NM 200 ft. 100 ft. Spacing around flare based on radiant heat calculations Spacing based on local building codes Property Line Total Land Area = 45 acres 1300 ft ft. NM 100 ft. Entrance
Utilities Cooling Tower: – Air is loaded with water vapour fog and clouds icing conditions and reduce visibility inside and outside the site locate cooling tower downwind from roadways, pipe ways, process equipment. Flare: – Locate flares upwind from process units. – Elevated flares should have an exclusion zone (152m). – Consider the risk of windblown embers from the flare tip. Do not locate flares near flammable and combustible containing equipments.
Process Layout Process units are grouped together and separated from low hazard areas to minimize fire and explosion exposure. Ex.: reactors, vessels, heat exchangers, and rotating equipment. The unit battery limits: outer boundary limits that contains the process equipments. Typically process units are located outside except: toxic release, odor control, quality control….
Process layout (cont.) Emergency access: – To all areas from at least two directions without requiring crossing of a process unit. – Provide access way 6 m wide every 61 m at least. Maintenance access: – should allow the use of mobile equipment. – Consider over head clearance under pipeways and supports – Consider adequate crane access to minimize the amount of lifts.
Process layout (cont.) Process unit spacing – Large units (high cost) should be separated to minimize potential financial loss. – Typical separation distances between elements are listed in tables. – These distances are based on historical and previous experiences. – Separate by 30 m from equipment handling flammables if shut down will not affect other equipments. – Separate by 15 m if equipments will shut down at the same time. – Separate the process-unit battery limit by 15 m from a roadway with unrestricted access.
Storage Tanks Locate tanks downwind of potential ignition sources. Separate process units from atmospheric storage tanks and LPG and LFG storage tanks to minimize the risk of release, ignition, tank damage in case of fire or explosion. Separation distances between tanks depends on tank size, type, insulation, contents.. (check intratank spacing tables)
Atmospheric Tankage 300 x 600 ft. Low Hazard Process Areas 600 x 500 ft. Parking Maintenance Warehouse 200 x 600 ft. Utilities 200 x 300 ft. Flare 200 x 300 ft. Offices 200 x 200 ft. 200 ft. NM 200 ft. 100 ft. Spacing around flare based on radiant heat calculations Spacing based on local building codes Property Line Total Land Area = 45 acres 1300 ft ft. NM 100 ft.