Other Hazardous Materials Sulfur Hydrofluoric Acid (HF) Sulfuric Acid (H 2 SO 4 ) Ammonia (NH 3 ) Sodium Hypochlorite Radioactive Materials Chlorine Amines MEK Sulfur Dioxide (SO 2 ) Heavy Metal Catalysts Sour Water Caustic (fresh/spent) Alcohol Asbestos
What’s All this Stuff?
What Goes on at a Refinery...? Separation of components by distillation, e.g.: Atmospheric Vacuum Hydrotreating (uses excess hydrogen) Breaking apart molecules to make smaller ones, e.g.: catalytic cracking hydrocracking Joining molecules to make bigger ones, e.g.: Reforming - alkylation that lengthens the hydrocarbon chain Reforming - cyclic that generates hydrogen
Physical Hazards High Pressure/Temperature Steam Oil/Gas-Fired Furnaces Acoustic High Voltage (4160V, 480V, 13.2 kV) Falling Hazards Confined Space Hazards Cranes/Lifting Hazards Hot Work Hazards Acid Exposure Toxic Vapors Radiation Flammability Hazards
Common PPE Requirements Hardhat Hardsoled / Hardtoe Shoes Safety Glasses with Side Protection Safety Goggles or Faceshield Fire-Resistant Clothing
Process Hazards Emergency Flare Atmospheric Pressure Relief High Temperature (up to 2000 o F) Low Temperature (e.g., Brittle Fracture) High Pressure (up to 3000 psig) Low Pressure (e.g., vacuum)