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Refinery Basics John Kulluk Ph.D. Torrance Fire Department & Robert Distaso PE – 714/573-6253 Orange County Fire Authority.

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Presentation on theme: "Refinery Basics John Kulluk Ph.D. Torrance Fire Department & Robert Distaso PE – 714/573-6253 Orange County Fire Authority."— Presentation transcript:

1 Refinery Basics John Kulluk Ph.D. Torrance Fire Department & Robert Distaso PE – 714/ Orange County Fire Authority

2 Refining Means... 1.To reduce to a pure state, to remove impurities 2.To improve or perfect

3 Refinery Process Flow Chart Distilling Flasher Visbreaker CCU Alky Splitter Hydrotreating Isom Reformer Gas Plant Sulfur Fuel Gas Gasoline Jet Fuel Distillate Fuel Residual Fuel Leffler, 1985

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5 Other Refinery Units Steam Generation Wastewater Treatment Hydrogen Generation Power Generation (e.g., cogen) Air Separation Plant Loading/Unloading - Railcar, Trucks, etc. Storage (high pressure hydrocarbon, crude oil, intermediates)  Floating-Roof Tanks - 150‘ diameter is common  Spherical Tanks - 50‘ are common  Horton Spheroid (refrigerated)  Steam-Heated Tanks for “Heavier” Products Self-Contained Firewater Supply Firewater Pumps

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8 What is Crude Oil? Mixture of organic carbon chain molecules Impurities include sulfur and nitrogen compounds Some metals and salts too

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10 Components such as... Straight-Chain Hydrocarbons Olefins Cyclic H/C Aromatics (Benzene, toluene, xylenes) Mercaptans Hydrogen Sulfide (H 2 S) Greases Propane LPG

11 Other Hazardous Materials Sulfur Hydrofluoric Acid (HF) Sulfuric Acid (H 2 SO 4 ) Ammonia (NH 3 ) Sodium Hypochlorite Radioactive Materials Chlorine Amines MEK Sulfur Dioxide (SO 2 ) Heavy Metal Catalysts Sour Water Caustic (fresh/spent) Alcohol Asbestos

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13 What’s All this Stuff?

14 What Goes on at a Refinery...? Separation of components by distillation, e.g.:  Atmospheric  Vacuum  Hydrotreating (uses excess hydrogen) Breaking apart molecules to make smaller ones, e.g.:  catalytic cracking  hydrocracking Joining molecules to make bigger ones, e.g.:  Reforming - alkylation that lengthens the hydrocarbon chain  Reforming - cyclic that generates hydrogen

15 Physical Hazards High Pressure/Temperature Steam Oil/Gas-Fired Furnaces Acoustic High Voltage (4160V, 480V, 13.2 kV) Falling Hazards Confined Space Hazards Cranes/Lifting Hazards Hot Work Hazards Acid Exposure Toxic Vapors Radiation Flammability Hazards

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17 Common PPE Requirements Hardhat Hardsoled / Hardtoe Shoes Safety Glasses with Side Protection Safety Goggles or Faceshield Fire-Resistant Clothing

18 Process Hazards Emergency Flare Atmospheric Pressure Relief High Temperature (up to 2000 o F) Low Temperature (e.g., Brittle Fracture) High Pressure (up to 3000 psig) Low Pressure (e.g., vacuum)

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20 QUESTIONS ?


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