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Orange County Fire Authority

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Presentation on theme: "Orange County Fire Authority"— Presentation transcript:

1 Orange County Fire Authority
Refinery Basics John Kulluk Ph.D. Torrance Fire Department & Robert Distaso PE – 714/ Orange County Fire Authority

2 Refining Means. . . 1. To reduce to a pure state, to remove impurities
2. To improve or perfect

3 Refinery Process Flow Chart
Sulfur Gas Plant Fuel Gas Isom Distilling Splitter Gasoline Reformer Jet Fuel Hydrotreating Distillate Fuel Hydrotreating Alky CCU Flasher Residual Fuel Visbreaker Leffler, 1985


5 Other Refinery Units Steam Generation Wastewater Treatment
Hydrogen Generation Power Generation (e.g., cogen) Air Separation Plant Loading/Unloading - Railcar, Trucks, etc. Storage (high pressure hydrocarbon, crude oil, intermediates) Floating-Roof Tanks - 150‘ diameter is common Spherical Tanks - 50‘ are common Horton Spheroid (refrigerated) Steam-Heated Tanks for “Heavier” Products Self-Contained Firewater Supply Firewater Pumps



8 What is Crude Oil? Mixture of organic carbon chain molecules
Impurities include sulfur and nitrogen compounds Some metals and salts too


10 Components such as . . . Straight-Chain Hydrocarbons Olefins
Cyclic H/C Aromatics (Benzene, toluene, xylenes) Mercaptans Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) Greases Propane LPG

11 Other Hazardous Materials
Sulfur Hydrofluoric Acid (HF) Sulfuric Acid (H2SO4) Ammonia (NH3) Sodium Hypochlorite Radioactive Materials Chlorine Amines MEK Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Heavy Metal Catalysts Sour Water Caustic (fresh/spent) Alcohol Asbestos


13 What’s All this Stuff?

14 What Goes on at a Refinery. . .?
Separation of components by distillation, e.g.: Atmospheric Vacuum Hydrotreating (uses excess hydrogen) Breaking apart molecules to make smaller ones, e.g.: catalytic cracking hydrocracking Joining molecules to make bigger ones, e.g.: Reforming - alkylation that lengthens the hydrocarbon chain Reforming - cyclic that generates hydrogen

15 Physical Hazards High Pressure/Temperature Steam
Oil/Gas-Fired Furnaces Acoustic High Voltage (4160V, 480V, 13.2 kV) Falling Hazards Confined Space Hazards Cranes/Lifting Hazards Hot Work Hazards Acid Exposure Toxic Vapors Radiation Flammability Hazards


17 Common PPE Requirements
Hardhat Hardsoled / Hardtoe Shoes Safety Glasses with Side Protection Safety Goggles or Faceshield Fire-Resistant Clothing

18 Process Hazards Emergency Flare Atmospheric Pressure Relief
High Temperature (up to 2000oF) Low Temperature (e.g., Brittle Fracture) High Pressure (up to 3000 psig) Low Pressure (e.g., vacuum)



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