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Avoiding Hard Landings

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Presentation on theme: "Avoiding Hard Landings"— Presentation transcript:

1 Avoiding Hard Landings
Presented by: Capt. Marc PARISIS Head of Flight and Cabin Crew Training Avoiding Hard Landings

2 Content Hard Landings definition, detection, classification
Avoiding Hard Landings Avoiding Hard Landings - 15th Performance & Operations conference April 2007

3 Content Hard Landings definition, detection, classification
Avoiding Hard Landings Avoiding Hard Landings - 15th Performance & Operations conference April 2007

4 Definition of Hard Landing : Pilot’s point of view
Pilots judge subjectively and comparatively the landings as being: Soft – Normal – Firm – Hard Subjectively = modified or affected by personal views, experience, or background Comparatively = In a relative manner; by comparison to something else “Hard landing suspected”: when the pilot decide that a structural examination is necessary Avoiding Hard Landings - 15th Performance & Operations conference April 2007

5 Hard Landing information : Maintenance’s side
Maintenance uses objective data to classify the landings Recorded vertical acceleration at aircraft CG Recorded vertical speed using Radio Altimeter data VERT ACC (g) VERT Speed Normal Landing Hard Landing Severe Hard Landing Limit values will depend of: aircraft types and standards Quality of recorded parameters Avoiding Hard Landings - 15th Performance & Operations conference April 2007

6 Load Report LOAD REPORT <15>
Avoiding Hard Landings - 15th Performance & Operations conference April 2007

7 Classification of the landing by maintenance
After a suspected hard landing: Classification of the landing using the Load Report Normal landing = no actions required Hard landing confirmed = perform inspection Severe Hard Landing confirmed = AOG contact Airbus Load Report not available = perform inspection Avoiding Hard Landings - 15th Performance & Operations conference April 2007

8 Hard Landing confirmed: Maintenance inspection
Inspection is divided in different phases Phase 1: general inspection for primary damage and indication of remote damage (mainly external) If damage = perform further inspection (phase 2) and required maintenance actions. If no damage = end of inspection No damage = Aircraft can temporarily return to service Grace period (e.g. 30 days or cycles) Waiting for further elaborated analysis of the event by Airbus Required structural strength is maintained Risk is only stress corrosion (e.g. gear not achieving full life) stress corrosion Avoiding Hard Landings - 15th Performance & Operations conference April 2007

9 Identification of Hard Landing
Pilot: Subjective judgment Maintenance: Objective but incomplete data Maintenance system only covers straightforward hard landing events Rebounds, drift landing, landing with roll and high derotation on nose landing gear are not addressed by the current logic Pilot should provide additional information on landing conditions Cockpit instrument indications, aircraft weight, quantity of fuel in each tank If the touchdown was on main gears or on main and nose gears, or fast derotation of the nose gear. If the landing was straight, drifting, unsymmetrical, bounced, If the crew heard a noise possibly related to a structural failure Avoiding Hard Landings - 15th Performance & Operations conference April 2007

10 Identification of Hard Landing: New problem
The pilots’ perception judgment and reporting has proven to be effective However, the perception of the severity of the landing is not so obvious for: Long aircraft Flexible aircraft Complex landing gear system Avoiding Hard Landings - 15th Performance & Operations conference April 2007

11 Future: Hard Landing Detector
Design of new automatic self-reliant system with specific sensors and adapted high synchronized sampling rate This future system should Provide a rapid and direct “Go” OR “No Go and inspect” decision for all circumstances Indicate which part of the aircraft has been impacted and to which level Medium term (during development of this self-reliant system) Use selected data from this system to enhance the pilots’ conventional evaluation and reporting of the landings (data should be provided in a suitable way to be used directly by the pilots) Avoiding Hard Landings - 15th Performance & Operations conference April 2007

12 Today situation The primary source of identifying a suspected hard landing is the flight crew It is flight crew’s duty to detect and report a suspected hard landing Airbus recommends the active use of the Load Report15 Avoiding Hard Landings - 15th Performance & Operations conference April 2007

13 Content Hard Landings definition, detection, classification
Avoiding Hard Landings Avoiding Hard Landings - 15th Performance & Operations conference April 2007

14 Main sources of Hard Landings
Hard landings usually result directly from: Non-stabilized approaches Inappropriate approach speed Destabilization of the approach in the last 100 ft Incorrect flare techniques Incorrect derotation techniques (nose landing gear) And subsequently from: Reluctance to perform a go-around Dual sidestick inputs Bounce at landing incorrect recovery techniques Contributing conditions are: Crosswind, Windshear or downburst Limited runway Avoiding Hard Landings - 15th Performance & Operations conference April 2007

15 Flying stabilized approaches
Rushed and non-stabilized approaches are one of the main sources of hard landings Refer to the Flight Operations Briefing Notes “Flying Stabilized Approaches” “Aircraft Energy Management during Approach” If the aircraft is not stabilized at: 1000 feet in IMC, or 500 feet in VMC, or as restricted by Operator policy/regulations, a go-around must be initiated. Avoiding Hard Landings - 15th Performance & Operations conference April 2007

16 Flying stabilized approaches
Avoiding Hard Landings - 15th Performance & Operations conference April 2007

17 Approach speed Determination of approach speed
In most cases, the FMGS provides valuable VAPP on MCDU PERF APPR page once tower wind and landing configuration has been inserted The flight crew can insert a higher VAPP in case of strong suspected downburst, or gusty crosswind greater than 20 knots but this increment is limited to 15 kt above VLS Managed speed should be used Managed speed provides Ground Speed mini (GS mini) guidance, even when the VAPP has been manually inserted “Ground Speed mini” function will keep the aircraft energy level above a minimum value, whatever the wind variations or gusts. Avoiding Hard Landings - 15th Performance & Operations conference April 2007

18 Destabilization of the approach in the last 100 ft
Common errors Descending below the final path ("duck under") Reducing the drift too early Autopilot disconnection Pilot should disconnect the AP early enough to resume manual control of the aircraft and to evaluate the drift before flare. High sink rate avoidance In the very late stages of the approach, priority should be given to attitude and sink rate. If normal touchdown distance is not possible perform a go-around Avoiding Hard Landings - 15th Performance & Operations conference April 2007

19 Flare techniques Flare height varies with different parameters such as weight, rate of descent, wind variations, … Avoid under flaring. The rate of descent must be controlled prior to the initiation of the flare (rate not increasing) Start the flare with positive backpressure on the sidestick and holding as necessary Avoid forward stick movement once flare initiated (releasing back-pressure is acceptable) Retard thrust levers when best adapted Avoiding Hard Landings - 15th Performance & Operations conference April 2007

20 Derotation techniques – Fly the nose down
When the aircraft is on the ground, pitch and roll control operates in Direct Law. Derotation is conventional Fly the nose down smoothly, but with no delay Avoiding Hard Landings - 15th Performance & Operations conference April 2007

21 Reluctance to perform a go-around
Go-around is possible at anytime until the selection of the reverse Even if a late go-around will not avoid the contact with the runway it should soften it and could avoid a hard touch Once the go-around has been initiated it must be completed Reversing a go-around decision is hazardous e.g. F/o initiating a late go-around; Captain overriding and trying to land the aircraft Avoiding Hard Landings - 15th Performance & Operations conference April 2007

22 Dual sidestick inputs The basic task sharing principle for any aircraft operation is that one pilot is PF at a time If the PNF feels he must intervene, he should press the Priority P/B while calling “I have controls” “Instinctive” Dual Input: instinctive reactions on the sidestick by the PNF surprised by the development of a dynamic situation In prolonged “Dual Input” situation : both PF and PNF will be aware of the dual input situation by the light and aural indicators. it is to the Captain to take over by pressing the Priority P/B while saying “I have controls” Avoiding Hard Landings - 15th Performance & Operations conference April 2007

23 Bounce at landing Avoiding Hard Landings - 15th Performance & Operations conference April 2007

24 Flight Operations Briefing Notes “Bounce Recovery - Rejected Landing”
Bounce at landing Flight Operations Briefing Notes “Bounce Recovery - Rejected Landing” Bounce at landing Maintain pitch attitude (freeze and control the pitch) Keep thrust idle Do not increase pitch (tail strike) Complete the landing Strong bounce → Go Around Go around maintaining pitch attitude Keep flaps ; keep landing gear Only when positive climb is properly established Flaps one step and Landing Gear up Avoiding Hard Landings - 15th Performance & Operations conference April 2007

25 Crosswind landings Avoiding Hard Landings - 15th Performance & Operations conference April 2007

26 Crosswind landings Flight Operations Briefing Notes “Landing Techniques – Crosswind landings” Final approach with crosswind drift correction with wings level (crabbed-approach) During the flare, rudder should be applied as required to align the aircraft with the runway. Any tendency to drift downwind should be counteracted by an appropriate roll input on the sidestick In case of very strong crosswind, combination of the partial de-crab and wing down techniques may be required Aircraft can be landed with a residual drift (max 5°) to prevent an excessive bank (max 5°) Avoiding Hard Landings - 15th Performance & Operations conference April 2007

27 Windshear – Down burst: Apply FCOM procedures
Delay landing, or divert to another airport, until conditions are more favorable Select the most favorable runway, in conjunction with the most appropriate runway approach aid Select Flaps 3 Use managed speed in approach phase Recovery techniques Set thrust levers to TOGA. If the autopilot is engaged, use it (be aware that automatic disengagement may occur) Follow SRS orders. Do not change configuration Closely monitor the flight path and speed Avoiding Hard Landings - 15th Performance & Operations conference April 2007

28 Avoiding Hard Landing – Airbus documentation
Airbus Operational and Training documentation FCOM – FCTM FCOM Bulletin N°819 “Avoiding Hard Landings” for LR Additional documentation Flight Operations Briefing Notes An e-briefing for pilots dedicated to hard landing prevention is available: Specific presentations Specific videos Operational and Training documentation references Avoiding Hard Landings - 15th Performance & Operations conference April 2007

29 Conclusion It is pilot’s duty to detect and report a suspected Hard Landing Hard landings usually result directly from: Non-stabilized approaches Inappropriate approach speed Destabilization of the approach in the last 100 ft Incorrect flare techniques Incorrect derotation techniques (nose landing gear) And subsequently from: Reluctance to perform a go-around Dual sidestick inputs Bounce at landing incorrect recovery techniques Avoiding Hard Landings - 15th Performance & Operations conference April 2007

30 Proprietary document. By taking delivery of this Presentation (hereafter “Presentation”), you accept on behalf of your company to comply with the following. No other property rights are granted by the delivery of this Presentation than the right to read it, for the sole purpose of information. This Presentation, its content, illustrations and photos shall not be modified nor reproduced without prior written consent of Airbus S.A.S. This Presentation and the materials it contains shall not, in whole or in part, be sold, rented, or licensed to any third party subject to payment or not. This Presentation may contain market-sensitive or other information that is correct at the time of going to press. This information involves a number of factors which could change over time, affecting the true public representation. Airbus assumes no obligation to update any information contained in this document or with respect to the information described herein. The statements made herein do not constitute an offer or form part of any contract. They are based on Airbus information and are expressed in good faith but no warranty or representation is given as to their accuracy. When additional information is required, Airbus S.A.S can be contacted to provide further details. Airbus S.A.S shall assume no liability for any damage in connection with the use of this Presentation and the materials it contains, even if Airbus S.A.S has been advised of the likelihood of such damages. This licence is governed by French law and exclusive jurisdiction is given to the courts and tribunals of Toulouse (France) without prejudice to the right of Airbus to bring proceedings for infringement of copyright or any other intellectual property right in any other court of competent jurisdiction.


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