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CEC – Natural Gas Public Interest Research Program Large Industrial/Commercial Equipment Gas Quality Stakeholders’ Technical Committee Meeting Gas Company.

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Presentation on theme: "CEC – Natural Gas Public Interest Research Program Large Industrial/Commercial Equipment Gas Quality Stakeholders’ Technical Committee Meeting Gas Company."— Presentation transcript:

1 CEC – Natural Gas Public Interest Research Program Large Industrial/Commercial Equipment Gas Quality Stakeholders’ Technical Committee Meeting Gas Company Tower Los Angeles, CA January 10, 2006

2 Industrial / Commercial Burners >Area with least interchangeability data >GTI is conducting a survey with California focus for 11-member sponsor group of –Work is currently underway –Expected completion of Jan. 31, 2006 –Data to be input into CEC project >CEC Project planned for 2006 –GTI – industrial burner interchangeability testing –LBNL – appliance air quality

3 Task 1 – Industrial Burners >Burners –Classification –Applications –Physical types –manufacturers >California industrial gas use by industry >California burner population >Burner performance variables >Burner test protocols >Current range of California gas >Established current California gas ranges >Anticipated LNG and off-spec gas

4 Upcoming CEC Project >Expected start in March, 2006 >Stakeholders committee to monitor usefulness of project results >Technical advisory committee relying on expertise to assist project team as project proceeds >Activities –Selection of performance variables, test protocols, burners with control systems –Testing in GTI laboratory furnaces –Modeling of burner sensitivity to fuel changes

5 1.Mixing Type 2.Fuel Type 3.Oxidizer Type 4.Draft Type 5.Heating Type 6.Burner Geometry Industrial Burner Classification Criteria

6 Major Burner Control Methods >On / Off Operation >High / Low Operation >Modulating or variable firing rate

7 Major Process Control Variables >Furnace Temperature >Load Temperature >Load Temperature Uniformity >Oxygen Trimming >Moisture Content >Time-temperature profile >Time at setpoint temperature

8 Burner Applications 1.Radiant Burners 2.High Velocity Burners 3.Regenerative Burners 4.Natural Draft Burners 5.Boiler Burners 6.Linear Grid / In-Duct Burners 7.Oxygen Enhanced / Oxy-Fuel Burners 8.Flare Burners >Thermal Radiation –Drying –Plastic thermoforming –Paint curing >Radiant Tube –Indirect heating >Radiant Wall –Process Industry

9 Burner Applications 1.Radiant Burners 2.High Velocity Burners 3.Regenerative Burners 4.Natural Draft Burners 5.Boiler Burners 6.Linear Grid / In-Duct Burners 7.Oxygen Enhanced / Oxy-Fuel Burners 8.Flare Burners >Metals Industry >Ceramic/Glass Industry

10 Burner Applications 1.Radiant Burners 2.High Velocity Burners 3.Regenerative Burners 4.Natural Draft Burners 5.Boiler Burners 6.Linear Grid / In-Duct Burners 7.Oxygen Enhanced / Oxy-Fuel Burners 8.Flare Burners >Zinc Distillation >Metals Industry >Glass Industry

11 Burner Applications 1.Radiant Burners 2.High Velocity Burners 3.Regenerative Burners 4.Natural Draft Burners 5.Boiler Burners 6.Linear Grid / In-Duct Burners 7.Oxygen Enhanced / Oxy-Fuel Burners 8.Flare Burners >Chemical and Hydrocarbon Process Industries

12 Burner Applications 1.Radiant Burners 2.High Velocity Burners 3.Regenerative Burners 4.Natural Draft Burners 5.Boiler Burners 6.Linear Grid / In-Duct Burners 7.Oxygen Enhanced / Oxy-Fuel Burners 8.Flare Burners >Steam Generation >Water Heating >Space Heating

13 Burner Applications 1.Radiant Burners 2.High Velocity Burners 3.Regenerative Burners 4.Natural Draft Burners 5.Boiler Burners 6.Linear Grid / In-Duct Burners 7.Oxygen Enhanced / Oxy-Fuel Burners 8.Flare Burners >Space Heating >Turbine Exhaust >Uniform Spread Heating

14 Burner Applications 1.Radiant Burners 2.High Velocity Burners 3.Regenerative Burners 4.Natural Draft Burners 5.Boiler Burners 6.Linear Grid / In-Duct Burners 7.Oxygen Enhanced / Oxy-Fuel Burners 8.Flare Burners >Metal Heating > Metal Melting >Glass Melting >Mineral Calcining

15 Burner Applications 1.Radiant Burners 2.High Velocity Burners 3.Regenerative Burners 4.Natural Draft Burners 5.Boiler Burners 6.Linear Grid / In-Duct Burners 7.Oxygen Enhanced / Oxy-Fuel Burners 8.Flare Burners >Petrochemical Industries

16 Industrial Natural Gas Demand by Sector in California ( ) Source: California Energy Commission Petroleum 35% Oil and Gas extraction 13% Chemical 4% Primary Metal 4% Fabricated Metal 3% Glass 3% Nonmetallic Mineral 3% Other 18% Food and Beverage 10% Sugar and Frozen Food 7%.

17 Burner Use in California >Petrochemical (53.3% of Natural Gas Usage) –Natural Draft Burners –Radiant Burners –Boiler Burners –Flare Burners >Food Processing (17.0% of Natural Gas Usage) –Radiant Burners –Linear Burners >Glass and Cement Industry ( 7.3% of Natural Gas Usage) –Regenerative Burner Systems –Oxy-Fuel Burners –Air-Staged Diffusion Mixed

18 Burner Use in California >Metal Industry (7.2% of Natural Gas Usage) –Radiant Burners –Oxy-fuel Burners –High Velocity Burners –Boiler Burners –Regenerative Burner Systems >Paper and Textile Industry (7.2% of Natural Gas Usage) –Boiler Burners –Radiant Burners >Other Use (combined total 7.9% of Natural Gas Usage)

19 Burner Evaluation Criteria Heat Flux Flame Shape Emissions Stability Incomplete Combustion Turndown Ratio Noise Furnace Temperature Exhaust Temperature Ignition Limits Air-Fuel Ratio Flame Temperature

20 Major Affected Parameters >Stability –Flashback, lift-off, blowout, pressure fluctuations >Flame shape –Flame length and diameter >Emissions –CO, NO x, UHC, VOC >Burner noise >Flame heat release –Flame and flue gas temperature, heat flux >Turndown ratio

21 Burner Evaluation - Traditional >Flue gas and furnace temperature –Suction pyrometer (aspirator) –Thermocouples >Stability –Air pressure/noise fluctuation –Visual lift-off & flashback (premixed) >Flame shape and length –Visual observation (template measurement) >Heat release –Optical heat flux probe –Heat balance calculations >Noise –Microphone >Emissions –Gas sampling to external analyzers

22 Burner Evaluation - Advanced >Exhaust and furnace temperature –Laser diagnostics –Thermal imaging >Stability –Optical sensor observation of flame stability –Acoustic measurements >Flame shape and length –Optical sensor monitor of flame shape –Composition monitoring of flame envelope (chemical length) >Emissions –Laser diagnostics (FT-IR) –Doping induced luminescence >Flame temperature –Laser diagnostics

23 Gaseous Fuel Ranges for the State of California

24 Source: California Energy Commission SDG&E/SoCalGas Service Area

25 Potential Sources of LNG to CA Project NameLocationMajor OwnersStatusLNG Composition (source: GTI) LNG Values Sakhalin EnergyRussia, off east Coast Shell, Mitsui, Mitsubishi Under construction; startup % methane 4.9% ethane 1.9% butane 0.8% propane HHV=1105Btu/scf SpG=0.613 Wobbe=1411Btu/scf Z= Tangguh ProjectIndonesiaBP, CNOOC, various local partners 96.4% methane 2.0% ethane 0.4% propane 1.4% butane HHV=1069Btu/scf SpG=0.590 Wobbe=1392Btu/scf Z= Malaysia TIGAMalaysiaPetronas, Shell, Mitsubishi Operational91.2% methane 5.2% ethane 3.3% propane 1.4% C4+ HHV=1137Btu/scf SpG=0.633 Wobbe=1428Btu/scf Z= Northwest Shelf Train 5 AustraliaWoodside, Shell, BP, BHP, Chevron, Mitsubishi/Mitsui Under const % methane 7.1% ethane 2.5% propane 1.0% C4+ HHV=1128Btu/scf SpG=0.628 Wobbe=1424Btu/scf Z= DarwinAustraliaConocoPhillipsUnder const Fields have high liquids content so LNG could be “hot” but this will depend on the design of the plant. Peru LNGPeruHunt Oil, Repsol, SK Planned; 2009N/A

26 Burner Classification Criteria

27 1.Mixing Type 2.Fuel Type 3.Oxidizer Type 4.Draft Type 5.Heating Type 6.Burner Geometry Classification Criteria >Diffusion Mixed –Non-Staged –Air Staged –Fuel Staged >Partial Pre-mixed –Non-Staged –Air Staged >Pre-Mixed –Non-Staged

28 1.Mixing Type 2.Fuel Type 3.Oxidizer Type 4.Draft Type 5.Heating Type 6.Burner Geometry >Gas >Liquid >Solid >Dual Classification Criteria

29 1.Mixing Type 2.Fuel Type 3.Oxidizer Type 4.Draft Type 5.Heating Type 6.Burner Geometry Classification Criteria >Air >Oxygen >Oxygen Enriched Air >Preheated Air

30 1.Mixing Type 2.Fuel Type 3.Oxidizer Type 4.Draft Type 5.Heating Type 6.Burner Geometry Classification Criteria >Forced Draft >Natural Draft >Inspirated >Aspirated

31 1.Mixing Type 2.Fuel Type 3.Oxidizer Type 4.Draft Type 5.Heating Type 6.Burner Geometry Classification Criteria >Direct >Indirect

32 1.Mixing Type 2.Fuel Type 3.Oxidizer Type 4.Draft Type 5.Heating Type 6.Burner Geometry Classification Criteria >Round Nozzle >Rectangular Nozzle >Swirl

33 Burner Physical Types

34 Burner Types 1.Radiant Burners 2.High Velocity Burners 3.Regenerative Burners 4.Natural Draft Burners 5.Boiler Burners 6.Linear Grid / In-Duct Burners 7.Oxygen Enhanced / Oxy-Fuel Burners 8.Flare Burners

35 Burner Types 1.Radiant Burners 2.High Velocity Burners 3.Regenerative Burners 4.Natural Draft Burners 5.Boiler Burners 6.Linear Grid / In-Duct Burners 7.Oxygen Enhanced / Oxy-Fuel Burners 8.Flare Burners >Radiant Wall >Thermal Radiation >Radiant Tube

36 Burner Types 1.Radiant Burners 2.High Velocity Burners 3.Regenerative Burners 4.Natural Draft Burners 5.Boiler Burners 6.Linear Grid / In-Duct Burners 7.Oxygen Enhanced / Oxy-Fuel Burners 8.Flare Burners >Radiant Wall –Natural Draft –Forced Draft >Pre-mixed >Non-Premixed >Thermal Radiation >Radiant Tube

37 Burner Types 1.Radiant Burners 2.High Velocity Burners 3.Regenerative Burners 4.Natural Draft Burners 5.Boiler Burners 6.Linear Grid / In-Duct Burners 7.Oxygen Enhanced / Oxy-Fuel Burners 8.Flare Burners >Radiant Wall >Thermal Radiation –Porous Ceramic –Ported Ceramic –Fiber Metal –Flame Impingement –Catalytic –Perforated Ceramic –Porous Refractory –Wire Mesh >Radiant Tube

38 Burner Types 1.Radiant Burners 2.High Velocity Burners 3.Regenerative Burners 4.Natural Draft Burners 5.Boiler Burners 6.Linear Grid / In-Duct Burners 7.Oxygen Enhanced / Oxy-Fuel Burners 8.Flare Burners >Radiant Wall >Thermal Radiation >Radiant Tube –Non-Circulating –Recirculating –Forced Draft –Inspirating

39 Burner Types 1.Radiant Burners 2.High Velocity Burners 3.Regenerative Burners 4.Natural Draft Burners 5.Boiler Burners 6.Linear Grid / In-Duct Burners 7.Oxygen Enhanced / Oxy-Fuel Burners 8.Flare Burners >Pre-mixed >Diffusion Mixed >Partially Pre-mixed >Air Staged

40 Burner Types 1.Radiant Burners 2.High Velocity Burners 3.Regenerative Burners 4.Natural Draft Burners 5.Boiler Burners 6.Linear Grid / In-Duct Burners 7.Oxygen Enhanced / Oxy-Fuel Burners 8.Flare Burners >One Box >Two Box >Rotary / Heat Wheel >Radiant Tube

41 Burner Types 1.Radiant Burners 2.High Velocity Burners 3.Regenerative Burners 4.Natural Draft Burners 5.Boiler Burners 6.Linear Grid / In-Duct Burners 7.Oxygen Enhanced / Oxy-Fuel Burners 8.Flare Burners >Round Flame >Wall Fired Flat Flame >Radiant Wall >Flat Flame

42 Burner Types 1.Radiant Burners 2.High Velocity Burners 3.Regenerative Burners 4.Natural Draft Burners 5.Boiler Burners 6.Linear Grid / In-Duct Burners 7.Oxygen Enhanced / Oxy-Fuel Burners 8.Flare Burners >Low NOx >Ultra Low NOx >Conventional

43 Burner Types 1.Radiant Burners 2.High Velocity Burners 3.Regenerative Burners 4.Natural Draft Burners 5.Boiler Burners 6.Linear Grid / In-Duct Burners 7.Oxygen Enhanced / Oxy-Fuel Burners 8.Flare Burners >Low NOx –External Flue Gas Recirculation (EFGR) –Air Staged –Fuel Staged –Fuel Induced Recirculation >Ultra Low NOx >Conventional

44 Burner Types 1.Radiant Burners 2.High Velocity Burners 3.Regenerative Burners 4.Natural Draft Burners 5.Boiler Burners 6.Linear Grid / In-Duct Burners 7.Oxygen Enhanced / Oxy-Fuel Burners 8.Flare Burners >Low NOx >Ultra Low NOx –Pre-mixed –Partially Premixed –Rapid Mix –Internal Flue Gas Recirculation >Conventional

45 Burner Types 1.Radiant Burners 2.High Velocity Burners 3.Regenerative Burners 4.Natural Draft Burners 5.Boiler Burners 6.Linear Grid / In-Duct Burners 7.Oxygen Enhanced / Oxy-Fuel Burners 8.Flare Burners >Low NOx >Ultra Low NOx >Conventional –Swirl –Register

46 Burner Types 1.Radiant Burners 2.High Velocity Burners 3.Regenerative Burners 4.Natural Draft Burners 5.Boiler Burners 6.Linear Grid / In-Duct Burners 7.Oxygen Enhanced / Oxy-Fuel Burners 8.Flare Burners >Duct –Linear Grid –Grid >Make-up Air

47 Burner Types 1.Radiant Burners 2.High Velocity Burners 3.Regenerative Burners 4.Natural Draft Burners 5.Boiler Burners 6.Linear Grid / In-Duct Burners 7.Oxygen Enhanced / Oxy-Fuel Burners 8.Flare Burners >Air-Oxy Fuel –Concentric Pipe –Multiple Nozzle –Flat Flame –Staged >Oxy-Fuel –Polishing –Forehearth

48 Burner Types 1.Radiant Burners 2.High Velocity Burners 3.Regenerative Burners 4.Natural Draft Burners 5.Boiler Burners 6.Linear Grid / In-Duct Burners 7.Oxygen Enhanced / Oxy-Fuel Burners 8.Flare Burners >Single Point –Non Assisted –Simple Steam Assisted –Advanced Steam Assisted –Low Pressure Air Assisted >Multi-point >Enclosed

49 Burner Types 1.Radiant Burners 2.High Velocity Burners 3.Regenerative Burners 4.Natural Draft Burners 5.Boiler Burners 6.Linear Grid / In-Duct Burners 7.Oxygen Enhanced / Oxy-Fuel Burners 8.Flare Burners >Single Point >Multi-point –Non Assisted –Simple Steam Assisted –Advanced Steam Assisted –Low Pressure Air Assisted >Enclosed

50 Burner Types 1.Radiant Burners 2.High Velocity Burners 3.Regenerative Burners 4.Natural Draft Burners 5.Boiler Burners 6.Linear Grid / In-Duct Burners 7.Oxygen Enhanced / Oxy-Fuel Burners 8.Flare Burners >Single Point >Multi-point >Enclosed –Non Assisted –Simple Steam Assisted –Advanced Steam Assisted –Low Pressure Air Assisted


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