Presentation on theme: "Climate change issues in Oil & Gas Sector A sectoral discussion on Environmental issues, GHG emissions, GHG abatement opportunities, Role of CDM."— Presentation transcript:
Climate change issues in Oil & Gas Sector A sectoral discussion on Environmental issues, GHG emissions, GHG abatement opportunities, Role of CDM
Climate Change issues in Oil & Gas SectorPage 2 Contents ► Environmental issues for the Indian Oil & Gas Sector ► GHG Emissions from various industries & sectors ► Climate Change – Enhanced Greenhouse Effect ► Flexibility Mechanisms under The Kyoto Protocol & CDM ► Potential GHG abatement projects, CDM methodologies and UNFCCC registrations ► Carbon transactions ► Way forward - Carbon footprint
Climate Change issues in Oil & Gas SectorPage 3 Environmental issues for the Indian Oil & Gas Sector ► The Oil & Gas Sector has a variety of impacts on the environment. These impacts depends upon the stage of the process, the size and complexity of the project, the nature and sensitivity of the surrounding environment and the effectiveness of planning, pollution prevention, mitigation and control techniques. ► The major areas of environmental concern includes : Atmospheric Impacts Aquatic Impacts Terrestrial Impacts Ecosystem Impacts Potential Emergencies
Climate Change issues in Oil & Gas SectorPage 4 Environmental Impact Atmospheric issues are attracting increasing interest from both industry and government authorities worldwide. The potential impacts mainly arises due to exploration & production, refining operations etc. The primary sources of atmospheric emissions from oil and gas operations arise from: ► Flaring, venting and purging gases ► Combustion processes in diesel engines and gas turbines ► Fugitive gases from loading operations and tank and losses from process equipments ► Airborne particulates from soil disturbance during construction ► Particulates from other burning sources The main areas of impact are ozone depletion, GHG emissions leading to increased global warming, NOx and SOx emissions, SPM emissions etc. The principal aqueous waste streams resulting from exploration and production operation are: ► Produced water ► Drilling fluids, cuttings and well treatment chemicals ► Process wash and domestic wastes ► Cooling water ► Spills and leakage The major impact of the waste streams arise from the toxicity, high p H and salt content of chemicals used as drilling fluids which may result in pollution of ground and surface waters. Impacts may result particularly where ground and surface waters are utilized for household purposes or fisheries and especially ecologically sensitive areas are affected. Potential Environmental Impacts Atmospheric Impacts Aquatic Impacts
Climate Change issues in Oil & Gas SectorPage 5 Environmental Impact Potential impacts to soil arise from two basic sources: ► Physical disturbance as a result of construction ► Contamination resulting from spillage and leakage or solid waste disposal The potential impacts arising from the poor design and construction includes soil erosion due to soil structure, changes in surface hydrology and drainage patterns, increased salination and habitat damage, reducing the capacity of the environment to support vegetation and wildlife etc. Plant and animal communities may be directly affected by changes in their environment through variations in water, air and soil quality and through disturbance by noise. Such changes may directly affect the ecology: for example, habitat, food and nutrient supplies, breeding areas, migration routes etc. The effect is upsetting of the nutrient balances and microbial activity of the soil. The major environmental impact occurs in this case due to ► Spillage of fuels, gases, oil, chemicals and hazardous materials ► Oil or gas well blowout ► Explosions ► Fires ► War & Sabotage ► Natural disaster and their implication on operation e.g. flood, earthquake, cyclone. The major impact of these emergency events include large GHG emissions, ozone depletion, changes in soil structure and character, habitat and vegetative damage. Potential Environmental Impacts Terrestrial Impacts Ecosystem Impacts Potential Emergency
Climate Change issues in Oil & Gas SectorPage 6 Initiatives towards reducing atmospheric impacts ► Among all the different environmental impacts, the major focus lies on Atmospheric Impact caused by Oil & Gas Industry. ► One of the major sources of Atmospheric Impact caused by Oil and Gas Industry is the flaring and venting of gases. So the principle target for emission reduction is in this domain. ► Various technological initiative have been introduced to reduce emissions as a result of combustion process related to power production. More efficient gas turbines have been developed together with improved turbine maintenance regimes. Efficiency improvements may also result from gas turbine optimization considerations. Other technologies to improve fuel efficiency include: steam injection, combined cycle power generation, pump and compressor optimization, waste heat recovery and the application of energy conservation principles. ► Improvements in the technologies have resulted in reduced emission from the different sources. The reduction of GHG emissions directly leads to reduction of global warming. These process improvement/energy efficiency measures causing emission reduction can be directly accounted for and thus can be considered as CDM projects.
Climate Change issues in Oil & Gas SectorPage 7 GHG Emissions from various industries & sectors GHG emissions associated with industry (including energy utilization) represent about 21% of world GHG emissions. The Oil & Gas and Chemical industries are among the major emitters of GHGs. Source: CAIT, IEA, 2004a, Hendriks
Climate Change issues in Oil & Gas SectorPage 8 Climate Change – Enhanced Greenhouse Effect ► Human activities like deforestation or heavy fossil fuel use are increasing the concentration of Greenhouse Gases (‘GHGs’) in the atmosphere. ► GHGs trap heat energy in the Earth's lower atmosphere, like a thick blanket round the planet. ► This enhances the green house effect, resulting in commonly known “Climate Change” or “Global Warming” ► Climate Change leads to: ► Rise in average global temperature (expected to go up by 1-4 Celsius in next 100 years) ► Changes in vegetation ► Increased storm surges ► Sea level rise (parts of Maldives & Bangladesh might submerge in next 50 yrs) ► Risks which will affect the profitability of the Oil & Gas industries
Climate Change issues in Oil & Gas SectorPage 9 Glimpse of Climate change Risks Climate Change Risks for Oil & Gas Sector Business Risks ►Extreme weather conditions resulting in increased energy cost, higher contingency requirement resulting in erosion of profit margins Physical Risks ►Global warming poses threat of sea level rise, hurricanes/ other natural calamities for especially those situated in the coastal regions. ►Coastal E&P facilities, Refineries can face huge damage due to cyclones and hurricanes Competitiveness Risks ►Effect on Gross Refining Margin. As energy costs increase, Oil industries using conventional and carbon intensive energy sources will see a reduction in the GRM. Regulatory risks ►‘Carbon ’tax’ implementation on states by Central government can affect profitability of the Oil & Gas sector
Climate Change issues in Oil & Gas SectorPage 10 Kyoto Protocol and CDM Kyoto protocol - Establishes three mechanisms to supplement national actions to achieve real, long term, measurable and cost effective GHG reductions: Clean Development Mechanism (‘CDM’) International Emission Trading (‘IET’) Joint Implementation (‘JI’) Legally binding emission reduction targets for GHGs only for Annex-1 (i.e., developed ) countries Aim of reducing overall GHG emissions by at least 5.2% below 1990 levels in commitment period Developed Country Govt/ Pvt. Sector Developing Country GHG Abatement Project Carbon Credits Sale proceeds Carbon credits are measured in terms of Certified Emission Reduction (‘CER’) One CER equals 1 MT CO2 equivalent
Climate Change issues in Oil & Gas SectorPage 11 Project Identification CDM Documentation* Validation by DOE Registration with UNFCCC ERPA Generation of Carbon credits Project operation Project Construction Verification/ Certification by DOE UNFCCC / EB Issues CERs CDM PROJECT PROMOTER BUYER OF CER Endorsement by DNA CER CDM Process : Availing Carbon Credits *PIN: Project Identification Note *PDD: Project Design Document ERPA: Emission Reduction Purchase Agreement DOE: Designated Operational Entity DNA: Designated National Authority 1 Project Implementation 2 Kyoto Approvals 3 CER Transaction
Climate Change issues in Oil & Gas SectorPage 12 Potential GHG abatement Projects in Upstream Oil & Gas Sector
Climate Change issues in Oil & Gas SectorPage 13 Potential GHG abatement projects in Upstream Oil & Gas Sector 1. Installation of Gas Recovery Facilities to prevent emission of methane/CO2 to the atmosphere ► Installation of compressors to recover low pressure (LP) gas and compress the same for further distribution ► Installation of ejector systems which uses the motive force to suck LP gases which were previously flared ► Installation of separators to separate gas at various pressures and recover very low pressure gas that was previously flared ► Up-gradation of process gas compressors (PGC) ► Optimal utilization of gas for internal consumption in gas lift wells/ gas re-injection ► Laying pipelines from gas rich areas to areas where there is scarcity of gas but greater demand (by identifying potential consumers). 2. Common Grid of Power at Offshore ► A common grid of power is setup by achieving interconnectivity across various process and well platforms. ► This interconnectivity can be achieved by laying submarine cables and transferring surplus power (NG based) to the shore for sale. ► The project replaces more carbon intensive power source (DG based) to relatively cleaner (NG based) power.
Climate Change issues in Oil & Gas SectorPage 14 Potential GHG abatement projects in Upstream Oil & Gas Sector...(contd) 3. Recovering Vapors from Storage Tanks ► Recovery and utilization of vapors, previously being vented out from oil storage tanks, using ejector system. 4. Carbon Capture & Storage (CCS) ► Capture of CO 2 from large stationary sources, transportation of the gas to an appropriate injection site where it is pumped and stored into underground geological formations such as natural gas and oil fields. ► Storage may also be combined with Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) or Enhanced Gas Recovery (EGR) ► This also results in energy consumption reduction of oil and gas recovery from the wells.
Climate Change issues in Oil & Gas SectorPage 15 Other Potential GHG abatement projects in Upstream Oil & Gas Sector ► Facilities for reduction of gas flaring through ejectors/compressors/separators/pipeline etc. ► Waste heat recovery at oil production facilities. ► Energy efficiency improvement in gas processing plant ► Power factor improvement at oil installations ► Reduction in gas pipe leaks ► Fuel switch from fossil fuels to other cleaner fuels like natural gas ► Captive power generation by utilizing natural gas ► Oil tank head vapor recovery system
Climate Change issues in Oil & Gas SectorPage 16 Potential GHG abatement projects in Downstream Oil & Gas Sector
Climate Change issues in Oil & Gas SectorPage 17 Potential GHG abatement projects in Downstream Oil & Gas Sector 1. Energy efficiency Improvement measures in the existing system ► Steam generation and distribution system up-gradation -Enhanced heat utilization through installation of centralized flash steam recovery system to recover steam condensate -Flash steam utilization in vapour absorption chiller to produce refrigeration effect -Better steam trap management to reduce heat loss -Improvement in the cogeneration/ self generation efficiency ► Steam optimization by installation of Dry-ejector system instead of steam-jet ejector in VDU In Dry-ejector system vacuum gas oil is used as motive liquid and circulated in the system. This reduces generation of LP steam which is required as motive fluid in conventional steam-jet ejector. An unique technology.
Climate Change issues in Oil & Gas SectorPage 18 Potential GHG abatenment projects in Downstream Oil & Gas Sector & Petrochemical Units 1. Energy efficiency Improvement in the existing system…contd ► Installation of ‘mist cooling tower’ instead of conventional cooling tower A much lower cooling water temperature can be achieved through ‘mist cooling tower’. This improves heat recovery and reduces cooling water requirement hence lower pumping energy etc. Not a common practice in large-scale hydrocarbon industries. ► Heat integration through the application of state-of-the-art pinch technology Energy efficiency improvement through optimization of heat exchanger network in CDU/VDU/pre-heat train of distillation units etc. Optimization of HEN is performed using Pinch Analysis. ► New generation refractory Replacement of conventional refractory with ceramic fibre insulation to reduce heat loss in furnace
Climate Change issues in Oil & Gas SectorPage 19 Few more potential areas in refinery units where CDM may be applicable 2. Flare recovery system ► utilization to cater to heat demand of refinery ► utilization in boilers/ Gas Turbine 3. Fuel switch projects ► Fuel switching in furnace, heater etc ► Fuel switch in the thermal energy generation system/ cogeneration/ self generation equipments ► Optimization in H 2 recovery from off gases from CRU, VGO hydro-treater etc 4. Application of Advanced Processes ► Use of new generation catalysts which reduces coke deposition on the catalyst ► Application of energy-efficient Solvent De-asphalting technology instead of energy-intensive Cracking/Coking technology
Climate Change issues in Oil & Gas SectorPage 20 Few more potential areas in refinery units where CDM may be applicable.... (contd) ► Novel bio-catalytic processes with very low energy consumption ► Application of membrane separation technology instead of conventional separation techniques ► H2 generation in the refinery through natural gas reforming instead of naphtha reforming ► Gas-to-Liquid (GTL) technology for production of petroleum fuel/Lube oil/Wax from Natural Gas ► Integrated Gas Combined Cycle (IGCC) based power generation from vacuum residue/ petroleum coke – higher power generation efficiency with generation of H 2 as by product ► Steam-injection in Gas Turbine 5. Alternative Fuels/ Energy ► Bio-diesel ► Efficient generation of H 2 and utilization ► Renewable energy – wind power/ hydro power/ solar power etc. 6. Transportation project ► Changes in the mode of transportation of petroleum products e.g. from road to rail/ pipeline ► Energy efficiency improvement in the intermediate pumping stations of crude/ product pipelines
Climate Change issues in Oil & Gas SectorPage 21 ► Recovery and utilization of gas from oil wells that would otherwise be flared or vented ► Steam optimization systems ► Flare (or vent) reduction and utilization of gas from oil wells as a feedstock ► Baseline and Monitoring Methodology for the recovery and utilization of waste gas in refinery facilities CDM methodologies available for the Oil & Gas Sector AM0009 AM0018 AM0037 AM0055 ► Recovery of gas from oil wells that would otherwise be vented or flared and its delivery to specific end-users ► Recovery and utilization of waste gas in refinery facilities AM0077 AMS-III.P
Climate Change issues in Oil & Gas SectorPage 22 Registered CDM projects in the Oil & Gas Sector from India ► GHG emission reduction through the installation of energy efficient vacuum creating system in the vacuum distillation column of petroleum refinery Methodology used: AM0018 Essar Oil Limited ► Flare gas recovery project at Uran plant, Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC) Limited Methodology used: AM0037 ► Flare gas recovery project at Hazira Gas Processing Complex (HGPC), Hazira plant, Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC) Limited Methodology used: AM0037 ► Up-gradation of Gas Turbine 1 (GT 1) and Gas Turbine 2 (GT 2) at co- generation plant of Hazira Gas Processing Complex (HGPC) of Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Limited (ONGC) Methodology used: AMS.II-D ► Waste heat recovery from Process Gas Compressors (PGCs), Mumbai high south (offshore platform) and using the recovered heat to heat process heating oil ► Methodology used: AMS-II.D Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC) Limited ► NRL -Captive power generation by recovery and utilization of the waste energy (thermal and pressure) of HP steam Methodology used: ACM0004 Numaligarh Refinery Limited
Climate Change issues in Oil & Gas SectorPage 23 Registered CDM projects in the Oil & Gas Sector from India ► Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited (BPCL)’s Wind Power Project, India Methodology used: AMS.I-D Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited ► GHG emission reductions through pre-heat train optimization in the CDU and VDU of Digboi Refinery,, Indian Oil Corporation Limited (Assam Oil Division) Methodology used: AMS-II.D ► Flare Gas Recovery and Utilization of Recovered Flare Gas for process heating requirements at IOCL, Haldia Refinery Methodology used: AMS-III.P ► Flare Gas Recovery system (FGRS) at Barauni Refinery of Indian Oil Corporation Limited Methodology used: AMS.III-P Indian Oil Corporation Limited ► Oil India Limited (OIL) – Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction through Recovery and Utilization of Flare Gas Methodology used: AM0009 Oil India Limited
Climate Change issues in Oil & Gas SectorPage 25 carbon transactions are purchase contracts whereby one party pays another party in exchange for a given quantity of GHG emission reductions, either in the form of allowances or “credits” that the buyer can use to meet its compliance objectives vis-à-vis greenhouse gas mitigation. Payment for emission reductions can be made using one or more of the following forms: cash, equity, debt, or in-kind contributions such as providing technologies to abate GHG emissions. Carbon Transactions Allowance based Transactions (EUA) Project based Transactions (CER,ERU) Project based Transactions (CER,ERU) Carbon transactions
Climate Change issues in Oil & Gas SectorPage 26 Carbon transaction options… Forward transaction Ensures guaranteed carbon revenue Advance possible, but modalities still uncertain Could be fixed price or market-linked Possible to put ‘floor’ and ‘ceiling’ ‘Guaranteed’ quantity or ‘best effort’ basis Spot transaction Transaction on issuance of CERs Till today, has resulted in better rate Has been more popular in India so far Combination of ‘Forward’ and ‘Spot’ Usually when large quantum of CERs available (say >100,000 p.a.)
Climate Change issues in Oil & Gas SectorPage 27 Project finance Investors from Europe, Japan interested in financing CDM, especially RE projects Right on CERs (full / partial) imperative Transaction cost finance Buyers ready to pick up full/part of transaction cost CER price usually discounted Carbon Finance Opportunities…
Climate Change issues in Oil & Gas SectorPage 28 VER market…. Voluntary market ► Essentially a non-compliance market ► Driven by social responsibility ► Market is emerging… not stable yet ► Transacted comodity: VER = Verified Emission Reduction ► From registered projects outside crediting period ► From non-registered projects ► Prices lower compared to CERs ► Opportunities are yet to be assessed Voluntary market ► Essentially a non-compliance market ► Driven by social responsibility ► Market is emerging… not stable yet ► Transacted comodity: VER = Verified Emission Reduction ► From registered projects outside crediting period ► From non-registered projects ► Prices lower compared to CERs ► Opportunities are yet to be assessed
Climate Change issues in Oil & Gas SectorPage 29 CDM – Value Accretion Curve PDD = Project Design DocumentPIN = Project Idea Note UNFCCC = United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
Climate Change issues in Oil & Gas SectorPage 30 CDM Transaction Cost Documentation cost Expenses incurred in documentation, Consultant’s fee Validation cost Fee payable to DOE for validation Registration fee to UNFCCC For 15k CER/y : Nil For > 15k CER/y 0.1 USD for first 15k 0.2 USD for balance CERs CER verification charges Fee payable to DOE for verification (every time) Share of Proceeds (SoP) Charged by UNFCCC every time during issuance of CERs, calculated same way as Regn Fee. Regn fee paid, if any is adjusted Adaptation Fund 2% CERs deducted by UNFCCC at issuance
Climate Change issues in Oil & Gas SectorPage 31 Summary ► Climate change and global warming: major threat to the Oil & Gas industries. ► The Oil & Gas sector will be a significant part of an evolving solution to the CO 2 challenge and certainly drive the ushering of a cleaner hydro carbon age in future. ► Companies have already started pursuing strategies to position themselves in the cleaner, more sustainable and low carbon growth trajectory by conscious reorganization of their product portfolio and restructuring of their multi-location operations. ► Big Oil Companies like British Petroleum is planning to invest USD 8 billion in low carbon power and alternative energy business over the next decade and aims at USD 1 billion of operating profit by 2015 from this business only. ► Adoption of the right strategy for mitigating long term climate change risks can provide distinct competitive advantage. ► Companies seeking to develop their strategies should first analyze their ‘value-at-stake’ or ‘value-at-risk’ under a variety of scenarios from current and emerging policies to reduce carbon emissions.
Climate Change issues in Oil & Gas SectorPage 32 Carbon footprint - key starting step Map carbon footprint Determine boundary Develop carbon inventory Capacity building Determin e carbon emission s Establishing carbon footprint Carbon footprint has the power to influence all decisions on climate change strategy Enablers Identify key sources of GHG emissions Identify and decide Organizational and Operational Boundary Select the GHG emission calculation approach Developing customized modules and inventory manuals Provide Training on the implementation of inventory manuals Demonstrating the use of customized modules Collecting activity data and emission data Applying customized calculation tools for estimating GHG emissions
Climate Change issues in Oil & Gas SectorPage 33 ACCURACY WBCSD & WRI Protocol…. The framework for GHG Accounting COMPLETNESS CONSISTENCY RELEVANCE TRANSPARENCY GHG ACCOUNTING & REPORTING PRINCIPLES
Climate Change issues in Oil & Gas SectorPage 34 Determining Organizational Boundary Approach Company selects an approach for consolidating GHG emissions and then consistently applies the selected approach to define those businesses and operations that constitute the company for the purpose of accounting and reporting GHG emissions. Equity share approach A company accounts for GHG emissions from operations according to its share of equity in the operation. Control approach A company accounts for 100% of the GHG emissions from operations over which it has control. Does not account for GHG emissions from operations in which it owns an interest but has no control (Financial or Operational).
Climate Change issues in Oil & Gas SectorPage 35 Determining Operational Boundary
Climate Change issues in Oil & Gas SectorPage 36 Identifying and calculating GHG emissions
Climate Change issues in Oil & Gas SectorPage 37 Key Performance Indicators ► PRODUCTIVITY/EFFICIENCY RATIOS: -Express the value or achievement of a business divided by its GHG impact. -Increasing efficiency ratios reflect a positive performance improvement. -Examples of productivity/efficiency ratios include resource productivity (e.g., sales per GHG) and process eco-efficiency (e.g., production volume per amount of GHG). ► INTENSITY RATIOS (normalized” environmental impact data): -Express GHG impact per unit of physical activity or unit of economic output. -A physical intensity ratio is suitable when aggregating or comparing across businesses that have similar products. An economic intensity ratio is suitable when aggregating or comparing across businesses that produce different products. A declining intensity ratio reflects a positive performance improvement. -Many companies historically tracked environmental performance with intensity ratios. -Examples of intensity ratios include product emission intensity (e.g., tonnes of CO 2 emissions per electricity generated); service intensity (e.g., GHG emissions per function or per service); and sales intensity (e.g., emissions per sales). ► PERCENTAGES (Percentage Indicator): -Ratio between two similar issues (with the same physical unit in the numerator and the denominator). -Examples of percentages are current GHG emissions expressed as % of base year GHG emissions.
Thank you Indra Guha Senior Manager Climate Change and Sustainability Services Mobile: