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Your Interactive Guide to the Digital World Discovering Computers 2012 Chapter 1 Basic Introduction to Computers.

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Presentation on theme: "Your Interactive Guide to the Digital World Discovering Computers 2012 Chapter 1 Basic Introduction to Computers."— Presentation transcript:

1 Your Interactive Guide to the Digital World Discovering Computers 2012 Chapter 1 Basic Introduction to Computers

2 Objectives Overview Explain why computer literacy is vital to success in today’s world Define the term, computer, and describe the relationship between data and information Describe the five components of a computer Discuss the advantages and disadvantages that users experience when working with computers Define the term, network, and identify benefits of sharing resources on a network Discuss the uses of the Internet and World Wide Web Discuss the special information requirements of an enterprise-sized corporation Identify information systems and software used in the functional units of an enterprise Describe and list general purpose and integrated information systems used throughout an enterprise Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1 2 See Page 3 for Detailed Objectives

3 Objectives Overview Distinguish between system software and application software Differentiate among types, sizes, and functions of computers in each category Describe the role of each element in an information system Explain how home users, small office/home office users, mobile users, power users, and enterprise users each interact with computers Discuss how society uses computers in education, finance, government, health care, science, publishing, travel, and manufacturing Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1 3 See Page 3 for Detailed Objectives

4 A World of Computers Computers are everywhere Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1 4 Pages Figure 1-1

5 What Is Enterprise Computing? Enterprise computing involves the use of computers in networks, such as LANs and WANs, or a series of interconnected networks that encompass a variety of different operating systems, protocols, and network architectures Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 14 5 Pages 720 – 721 Figure 14-1

6 What Is Enterprise Computing? Types of enterprises include: Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 14 6 Page 722 RetailManufacturingServiceWholesaleGovernmentEducational Transportation

7 What Is Enterprise Computing? Most traditional enterprises are organized in a hierarchical manner Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 14 7 Pages 722 – 723 Figure 14-2

8 What Is Enterprise Computing? In an enterprise, users typically fall into one of four categories: Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 14 8 Page 724 Figure 14-3 Executive Management Middle Management Operational Management Nonmanagement Employees

9 What Is Enterprise Computing? Enterprise information is the information gathered in the ongoing operations of an enterprise-sized organization – Business intelligence – Business process management – Business process automation Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 14 9 Pages

10 What Is Enterprise Computing? Managers coordinate resources by performing four activities Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter Page 725 Figure 14-4 PlanningOrganizing Leading Controlling

11 Information Systems in the Enterprise An information system is a set of hardware, software, data, people, and procedures that work together to produce information Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter Page 726 Figure 14-5

12 Information Systems in the Enterprise Functional units within an enterprise might include: Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter Page 727 Enterprise Accounting and Finance Human Resources Engineering or Product Development ManufacturingMarketingSalesDistribution Customer Service Information Technology

13 Information Systems in the Enterprise Accounting software manages everyday transactions Billing software helps the company reconcile purchases with customer payments Financial software helps managers budget, forecast, and analyze Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter Pages 726 – 728 Figure 14-7

14 Information Systems in the Enterprise A human resources information system (HRIS) manages one or more human resources functions Employee relationship management systems manage communication between employees and the business Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter Page 728 Figure 14-8

15 Information Systems in the Enterprise Computer-aided design (CAD) uses a computer and special software to aid in engineering, drafting, and design Computer-aided engineering (CAE) uses computers to test product designs Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter Pages 728 – 729 Figure 14-9

16 Information Systems in the Enterprise Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) is the use of computers to control production equipment Computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM) uses computers to integrate the many different operations of the manufacturing process Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter Page 729 Figure 14-10

17 Information Systems in the Enterprise Material Requirements Planning (MRP) uses software to help monitor and control processes related to production Manufacturing Resource Planning II (MRP II) is an extension of MRP and also includes software that helps in scheduling Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter Pages

18 Information Systems in the Enterprise A quality control system helps an organization maintain or improve the quality of its products or services A marketing information system serves as a central repository for the tasks of a marketing department Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter Page 730

19 Information Systems in the Enterprise Sales force automation (SFA) software equips traveling salespeople with the electronic tools they need to be more productive Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter Pages 730 – 731 Figure 14-12

20 Information Systems in the Enterprise Distribution systems perform the following functions: Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter Page 731 Provide forecasting for inventory control Manage and track shipping of products Provide information and analysis on inventory in a warehouse

21 Information Systems in the Enterprise Customer interaction management (CIM) software manages the day-to-day interactions with customers Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter Page 731 Figure 14-13

22 Information Systems in the Enterprise The information technology (IT) department makes technology decisions for the enterprise – Whether to build or buy new information systems – When a computer or information system has outlived its useful life Web site management programs collect data designed to help organizations make informed decisions regarding their Web presence Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter Page 732

23 Information Systems in the Enterprise General purpose information systems generally fall into one of five categories Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter Page 732 Office Information System Transaction Processing System Management Information System Decision Support System Expert System

24 Information Systems in the Enterprise Batch processing vs. online transaction processing Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter Page 733 Figure 14-14

25 Information Systems in the Enterprise Management Information SystemDecision Support System Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter Pages 734 – 735 Figures – 14-16

26 Information Systems in the Enterprise Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter Page 736 Figure 14-17

27 Information Systems in the Enterprise Integrated Information Systems Customer relationship management manages information about customers, interactions with customers, past purchases, and interests Enterprise resource planning provides centralized, integrated software to help manage and coordinate ongoing activities Content management systems are information systems that combine databases, software, and procedures Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter Pages

28 Information Systems in the Enterprise Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter Page 738 Figure 14-18

29 Information Systems in the Enterprise Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter Page 739 Figure 14-19

30 What Is a Computer? A computer is an electronic device, operating under the control of instructions stored in its own memory Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1 30 Page 6 Collects data (input) Processing Produces information (output) Information Processing Cycle

31 What Is a Computer? Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1 31 Page 6 Figure 1-2

32 The Components of a Computer A computer contains many electric, electronic, and mechanical components known as hardware Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1 32 Pages Allows you to enter data and instructions into a computer Input Device Hardware component that conveys information to one or more people Output Device Case that contains the electronic components of the computer that are used to process data System Unit Records (writes) and/or retrieves (reads) items to and from storage media Storage Device Enables a computer to send and receive data, instructions, and information to and from one or more computers or mobile devices Communications Device

33 The Components of a Computer Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1 33 Page 7 Figure 1-3

34 Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Computers Advantages of Using Computers Disadvantages of Using Computers Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1 34 SpeedReliability ConsistencyStorage CommunicationsHealth Risks Violation of PrivacyPublic Safety Impact on Labor ForceImpact on Environment Pages

35 Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Computers Green computing involves reducing the electricity consumed and environmental waste generated when using a computer Strategies include: – Recycling – Regulating manufacturing processes – Extending the life of computers – Immediately donating or properly disposing of replaced computers Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1 35 Page 10

36 Networks and the Internet A network is a collection of computers and devices connected together, often wirelessly, via communications devices and transmission media Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1 36 Pages Figure 1-6

37 Networks and the Internet The Internet is a worldwide collection of networks that connects millions of businesses, government agencies, educational institutions, and individuals Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1 37 Page 11 Figure 1-7

38 Networks and the Internet People use the Internet for a variety of reasons: Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1 38 Pages Figure 1-8 CommunicateResearch and Access Information ShopBank and InvestOnline Trading EntertainmentDownload VideosShare InformationWeb Application

39 Networks and the Internet A social networking Web site encourages members to share their interests, ideas, stories, photos, music, and videos with other registered users Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1 39 Page 14 Figure 1-9

40 Computer Software Software, also called a program, tells the computer what tasks to perform and how to perform them Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1 40 Pages Figures System Software Operating system Utility program Application Software

41 Computer Software Installing is the process of setting up software to work with the computer, printer, and other hardware Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1 41 Pages Figure 1-12

42 Computer Software A programmer develops software or writes the instructions that direct the computer to process data into information Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1 42 Page 18 Figure 1-13

43 Categories of Computers Embedded computers Supercomputers Mainframes Servers Game consoles Mobile computers and mobile devices Personal computers Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1 43 Page 19

44 Personal Computers A personal computer can perform all of its input, processing, output, and storage activities by itself Two popular architectures are the PC and the Apple – Desktop computer Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1 44 Pages Figures

45 Mobile Computers and Mobile Devices Personal computer you can carry from place to place Examples include notebook computers, laptop computers, netbooks, ultra-thins, and Tablet PCs Mobile Computer Computing device small enough to hold in your hand Examples include smart phones and PDAs, e- book readers, handheld computers, portable media players, and digital cameras Mobile Device Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1 45 Pages

46 Mobile Computers and Mobile Devices Notebook computer Tablet PC Smart phones and PDAs E-book reader Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1 46 Pages Figures 1-17 – 1-20

47 Mobile Computers and Mobile Devices Handheld computer Portable media player Digital camera Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1 47 Pages Figures 1-21 – 1-23

48 Game Consoles A game console is a mobile computing device designed for single-player or multiplayer video games Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1 48 Page 24 Figure 1-24

49 Servers A server controls access to the hardware, software, and other resources on a network – Provides a centralized storage area for programs, data, and information Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1 49 Page 25 Figure 1-25

50 Mainframes A mainframe is a large, expensive, powerful computer that can handle hundreds or thousands of connected users simultaneously Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1 50 Page 25 Figure 1-26

51 Supercomputers A supercomputer is the fastest, most powerful computer – Fastest supercomputers are capable of processing more than one quadrillion instructions in a single second Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1 51 Page 25 Figure 1-27

52 Embedded Computers An embedded computer is a special-purpose computer that functions as a component in a larger product Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1 52 Page 26 Consumer Electronics Mobile and digital telephones Digital televisions Cameras Video recorders DVD players and recorders Answering machines Home Automation Devices Thermostats Sprinkling systems Security monitoring systems Appliances Lights Automobiles Antilock brakes Engine control modules Airbag controller Cruise control Process Controllers and Robotics Remote monitoring systems Power monitors Machine controllers Medical devices Computer Devices and Office Machines Keyboards Printers Faxes Copiers

53 Embedded Computers Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1 53 Page 26 Figure 1-28

54 Elements of an Information System HardwareSoftwareData PeopleProcedures Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1 54 Page 27

55 Elements of an Information System Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1 55 Page 27 Figure 1-29

56 Examples of Computer Usage Home User Personal financial management Web access Communications Entertainment Small Office/Home Office User Look up information Send and receive messages Make telephone calls Mobile User Connect to other computers on a network or the Internet Transfer information Play video games Listen to music Watch movies Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1 56 Pages 28 – 31 Figures 1-30 – 1-32

57 Examples of Computer Usage Power User Work with multimedia Use industry-specific software Enterprise User Communicate among employees Process high volumes of transactions Blog Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1 57 Pages 31 – 32 Figures 1-33 – 1-34

58 Computer Applications in Society Education Finance Government Health Care Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1 58 Pages Figures 1-36 – 1-39

59 Computer Applications in Society Science Publishing Travel Manufacturing Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1 59 Pages Figures 1-40 – 1-43

60 Video: Computer History in a Barn Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1 60 CLICK TO START

61 Summary Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1 61 Page 39 Special computing requirements present in an enterprise-sized organization Various types of users within an organization Large information systems

62 Summary 62 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1 Basic computer concepts Components of a computer Networks, the Internet, and computer software Many different categories of computers, computer users, and computer applications in society

63 Your Interactive Guide to the Digital World Discovering Computers 2012 Chapter 1 Basic Introduction to Computers Chapter 1 Complete


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