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Chapter 1 - Introduction

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1 Chapter 1 - Introduction
This slide presentation is designed to be viewed as a Slide Show. If viewed as a Slide Show your will be able to observe the animation and you should have functional hyperlinks. When in the Slide Show view, click to advance the slide. If the presentation is working very slowly, you may want to save it to your computer and then run the show. I hope you find this presentation interesting.

2 September 11, 2001 Remember Click to advance slide
When I originally created this presentation, it was shortly after Sept. 11. When I updated my slides, I couldn’t delete these slides. I think we just have to remember! Click to advance slide

3 Terrorists - God may give you mercy, but we will not!
Senator John McCain

4 COMPUTER LITERACY Knowing how to use a computer
Knowledge and understanding of computers and how they are used in society

5 Information Processing Cycle
What Is a Computer? A computer is an electronic device, operating under the control of instructions stored in its own memory Accepts data (Input) Manipulates Data (Processing) Produces information (Output) Information Processing Cycle

6 Information Processing Cycle
D I Data are changed into Information (Facts) (Useful Form) Input Process Output Storage Communications

7 What is Green computing?
Involves reducing the electricity consumed and environmental waste generated when using a computer Strategies include: Recycling Regulating manufacturing processes Extending the life of computers Immediately donating or properly disposing of replaced computers

Input Process Output Storage Input Devices Output Devices System Unit contains Processing Devices CPU & Main Memory (RAM) Storage Devices Communications Devices

9 Output Output Storage Input Input Input Input Input Process Output
Communications Input Input Input Process Output Input

10 What is the system unit? system unit Case that contains electronic components of the computer used to process data

11 Processor Memory Adapter cards
What are common components inside the system unit? Circuitry power supply ports drive bays processor memory sound card video card modem card network card Processor Memory Adapter cards Sound card Modem card Video card Network card

12 What is the motherboard?
processor chip adapter cards memory chips memory slots motherboard Expansion slots for adapter cards Main circuit board in system unit Contains adapter cards, processor chips, and memory chips

13 What is storage? Storage holds data, instructions, and information for future use Storage media Physical material on which data is stored Hard disks, CD &DVDs, flash media more Floppy disks (no more, obsolete!) Storage device The mechanism that retrieves & records (reads/writes) data to and from the storage media

14 Types of storage media Hard disks, flash media, CDs & DVDs, floppy disks, others?

15 What are communication devices?
Hardware that enables a computer to send & receive data Modem Network card Transmission media Cables, telephone lines, radio networks, satellites and other? Check Webopedia for a definition

16 Why use a computer? Why is a computer so powerful?
Close to the speed of light Low failure rate Speed Reliability Accuracy Storage Communications Process error free GIGO ! Garbage In Garbage Out Total & instant recall Share resources: devices & data

17 What is Computer Software?
Computer programs A series of instructions that tells the computer hardware how to perform tasks Two general categories of software System Software Operating system Utility program Application Software

18 Systems Software Coordinates hardware and runs application software
Operating system User interface Graphical user interface (GUI – icons & menus) Microsoft Windows 98, ME & 2000, XP, Windows 7 Utility programs Help manage the computer, its devices & programs Examples include: Uninstall, format disks, add printers, etc.

19 Application Software Performs specific tasks Word Processing
Spreadsheet Database Presentation Graphics Many other tasks

20 How do we obtain software?
The operating system is usually bundled with the computer when purchased Some applications may be bundled with the computer Packaged software Custom software Shareware Freeware and public-domain software

21 Works with users & programmers to design programs
COMPUTER SOFTWARE Software Development Computer programmers Programming languages Visual Basic C++ Java Systems analyst Works with users & programmers to design programs

22 What are the elements of an Information System?
When System Analysts work with an information system they must consider all of the elements Hardware Software Data People Procedures

23 What is a Network? A collection of computers & devices
Sharing connected resources Hardware (often wireless) Software Data Local Area Network – LAN Office & close buildings like a campus Wide Area Network – WAN Large geographic area like to U Mary Fargo

24 What is a server? A server manages the resources on a network
Clients access the resources on the server

25 What is the Internet? A worldwide collection of networks 1969


27 What is the Web? The World Wide Web is a service on or a part of the Internet Connects Web sites containing Web pages through a means of hyperlinks 1991

28 What is the Internet/Web used for?
Internet uses: Accessing Information Shopping Meeting people – social networking (Facebook) Entertainment Remember that the World Wide Web is one part/a service on the Internet Web browsers help navigate the WWW Microsoft Internet Explorer Netscape Navigator

29 What is social networking?
A Web site that encourages members to share their interests, ideas, stories, photos, music, and videos with other registered users

30 What are the Seven Categories of Computers?
1 The Personal Computer category includes Desktop computers Two popular architectures are: 1. PCs & 2. MACs (Apple)

31 PERSONAL COMPUTERS Can perform all of its input, processing, output, and storage activities by itself If the PC is not connected to another (host) computer It is said to be a “stand alone computer”

32 What is a Workstation? A very powerful PC (desktop) used for intense calculations & graphic intensive applications (graphic art , desktop publishing, multimedia, etc.) Tower Model

1. Personal computers 2 Mobile Computers Notebook or laptop Tablet PC Mobile Devices Smart Phones Digital cameras E-book readers Media players

34 What is a Tablet PC? Useful for taking handwritten notes.
Allows you to write on the screen using a digital pen

35 3 - Game Consoles? A mobile computer using handheld controllers as input devices. Surgeons hone skills using the Wii system.

36 Mobile Computers Click on the blackberry above to start the video

37 Mobile Computers Click the Smart Cards to view a video

1. Personal computers 2. Mobile computers 3. Game Consoles 4 Servers Control the access to hardware, software, & data Provide a centralized storage area

1. Personal computers 2. Mobile computers 3. Game Consoles 4. Servers 5 Mainframe computers

40 Mainframe Computers are Bigger Than Servers Very powerful & expensive
Can handle hundreds or thousands of connected users simultaneously

41 6 SUPERCOMPUTERS Fastest, most powerful computers
Able to process more than one quadrillion instructions per second and growing! 1 quadrillion = 1,000 trillion

42 How fast are these supercomputers?
Let’s try to understand the terminology used in the video (next slide). FLOP = a floating point operation (I think it is a mathematical calculation of fractions.) I am going to think about one mathematical calculation. Kilo = 1,000 mathematical calculation per second Mega = 1,000,000 (a million) Giga = 1,000,000,000 (a billion; current PCs) Tera = 1,000,000,000,000 (a trillion) Peta = 1,000,000,000,000,000 (one quadrillion) Currently (July, 2011) a Japanese supercomputer running at 8 petaflops is the world’s fastest computer

43 Click to view video

44 7 - Embedded computers? A special-purpose computer that functions as a component in a larger product Consumer Electronics Mobile and digital telephones Digital televisions Cameras Video recorders DVD players and recorders Answering machines Home Automation Devices Thermostats Sprinkling systems Security monitoring systems Appliances Lights Automobiles Antilock brakes Engine control modules Airbag controller Cruise control Process Controllers and Robotics Remote monitoring systems Power monitors Machine controllers Medical devices Computer Devices and Office Machines Keyboards Printers Faxes Copiers

45 Examples of Computer Applications in Society
Education Finance Government Healthcare Science Publishing Travel Industry p Figs. 1-36–1-43

46 Video: Computer History in a Barn

47 back to results
History of Computers Click on the rectangle above to start the video 300 computers in 140 seconds

48 Embedded Computers Click on the rectangle above to start the video
Smart Dust Micro Computers 2:30 minute video

49 Chapter 1 Complete

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