Lecture -1- By lec. (Eng.) Hind Basil University of technology Department of Materials Engineering
What is Computer? Computer is an advanced electronic device that takes raw data as input from the user and processes these data under the control of set of instructions (called program) and gives the result (output) and saves output for the future use. It can process both numerical and non-numerical (arithmetic and logical) calculations.
3 Computers can perform four general operations, which comprise the information processing cycle. a. accepts dataInput b. processes dataProcessing c. produces outputOutput d. stores resultsStorage
4 The ability to perform the information processing cycle with amazing speed. Reliability (low failure rate). Accuracy. Ability to store huge amounts of data and information. Ability to communicate with other computers.
5 Input devices. Central Processing Unit (containing the control unit and the arithmetic/logic unit). Memory. Output devices. Storage devices.
Processor CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT (CPU) The main unit inside the computer is the CPU. This unit is responsible for all events inside the computer. It controls all internal and external devices, performs arithmetic and logic operations. The CPU (Central Processing Unit) is the device that interprets and executes instructions.
Storage Devices 1. Primary memory (main memory) A. RAM (Random Access Memory/Read- Write Memory) Is the main memory of the computer. It consists of electronic components that store data including numbers, letters of the alphabet, graphics and sound. Any information stored in RAM is lost when the computer is turned off.
B. ROM (Read-only-memory) is memory that is etched on a chip that has start-up directions for your computer. It is permanent memory.
2. Secondary memory (storage devices) A. Hard Disk (Local Disk) B. Optical Disks: CD-R, CD-RW, DVD-R, DVD-RW C. Pen Drive D. Zip Drive(super disk) E. Floppy Disks F. Memory Cards
Another form of auxiliary storage is a hard disk. A hard disk consists of one or more rigid metal plates coated with a metal oxide material that allows data to be magnetically recorded on the surface of the platters. The hard disk platters spin at a high rate of speed, typically 5400 to 7200 revolutions per minute (RPM). Storage capacities of hard disks for personal computers range from 10 GB to 120 GB (one billion bytes are called a gigabyte).
A floppy disk is a portable, inexpensive storage medium that consists of a thin, circular, flexible plastic disk with a magnetic coating enclosed in a square-shaped plastic shell. 18
21 Output devices make the information resulting from the processing available for use. The two output devices more commonly used are the printer and the computer screen. The printer produces a hard copy of your output, and the computer screen produces a soft copy of your output.
Types of Computer On the basis of working principle a) Analog Computer An analog computer (spelt analogue in British English) is a form of computer that uses continuous physical phenomena such as electrical, mechanical, to model the problem being solved
b) Digital Computer A computer that performs calculations and logical operations with quantities represented as digits, usually in the binary number system
c) Hybrid Computer (Analog + Digital) A combination of computers those are capable of inputting and outputting in both digital and analog signals. A hybrid computer system setup offers a cost effective method of performing complex simulations.
On the basis of Size a) Super Computer The fastest type of computer. Supercomputers are very expensive and are employed for specialized applications that require immense amounts of mathematical calculations. For example, weather forecasting requires a supercomputer. Other uses of supercomputers include animated graphics, fluid dynamic calculations, nuclear energy research, and petroleum exploration. The chief difference between a supercomputer and a mainframe is that a supercomputer channels all its power into executing a few programs as fast as possible, whereas a mainframe uses its power to execute many programs concurrently.
b) Mainframe Computer A very large and expensive computer capable of supporting hundreds, or even thousands, of users simultaneously. In the hierarchy that starts with a simple microprocessor (in watches, for example) at the bottom and moves to supercomputers at the top, mainframes are just below supercomputers. In some ways, mainframes are more powerful than supercomputers because they support more simultaneous programs. But supercomputers can execute a single program faster than a mainframe.
c) Mini Computer A midsized computer. In size and power, minicomputers lie between workstations and mainframes. In the past decade, the distinction between large minicomputers and small mainframes has blurred, however, as has the distinction between small minicomputers and workstations. But in general, a minicomputer is a multiprocessing system capable of supporting from 4 to about 200 users simultaneously