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Introduction Background Knowledge Workload Modeling Related Work Conclusion & Future Work Modeling Many-Task Computing Workloads on a Petaflop Blue Gene / P Supercomputer2

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Introduction Background Knowledge Workload Modeling Related Work Conclusion & Future Work Modeling Many-Task Computing Workloads on a Petaflop Blue Gene / P Supercomputer3

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Workload analysis is important to evaluate the performance of large- scale distributed computer systems and software (e.g. job scheduling systems). Although real workloads (traces) are usually collected and they reflect reality, they have not yet become widely available. Workload models, which generate synthetic workloads, have a number of advantages over traces (easy to get, representative enough, and can evaluate performance at large scales). Simplified assumptions: fixed-interval, bulk, or Poisson job arrivals Main properties: pseudo-periodicity, long range dependence (LRD), and the “bag-of-tasks” behavior with strong temporal locality. Modeling Many-Task Computing Workloads on a Petaflop Blue Gene / P Supercomputer4

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Bridge the gap between HPC and HTC Comes from the data driven model: move tasks to data Loosely coupled apps with HPC orientations Many activities coupled by distributed file system ops Many resources over short time periods Modeling Many-Task Computing Workloads on a Petaflop Blue Gene / P Supercomputer5

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Falkon –Fast and Lightweight Task Execution Framework –http://datasys.cs.iit.edu/proje cts/Falkon/index.htmlhttp://datasys.cs.iit.edu/proje cts/Falkon/index.html Swift –Parallel Programming System –http://www.ci.uchicago.edu/s wift/index.phphttp://www.ci.uchicago.edu/s wift/index.php Modeling Many-Task Computing Workloads on a Petaflop Blue Gene / P Supercomputer6

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Introduction Background Knowledge Workload Modeling Related Work Conclusion & Future Work Modeling Many-Task Computing Workloads on a Petaflop Blue Gene / P Supercomputer7

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Bag-of-Task (BOT): applications that can be structured as a set of independent computational tasks are called bag-of-tasks. BOTs had been proved to be an effective approach for workload modeling. Self Similarity: refers to situation where a phenomenon has the same general characteristics at different scales. Long-range dependency (LRD): a phenomenon that relates to the rate of decay of statistical dependence, with the implication that this decays more slowly than an exponential decay, typically a power-like decay. Some self-similar processes may exhibit long-range dependence, but not all processes having long-range dependence are self-similar. Joint Distribution: describes the relationship between two or more variables, specifies the probability of different combinations of values. Autocorrelation: the cross-correlation of a signal with itself. Informally, it is the similarity between observations as a function of the time separation between them. Correlation coefficient (0, 1): measures the correlation between two variables, is defined as the covariance divided by the standard deviations. Modeling Many-Task Computing Workloads on a Petaflop Blue Gene / P Supercomputer8

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Introduction Background Knowledge Workload Modeling Related Work Conclusion & Future Work Modeling Many-Task Computing Workloads on a Petaflop Blue Gene / P Supercomputer9

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Another workload log is from running MTC applications on the 128-node Linux Cluster of ANL and U Chicago (36M tasks with 825 BOTs named as ANLUC workload). BOT partition rule: all jobs in the same BOT have exactly the same values with respect to the following attributes: user name, job name, and requested number of processors. General to Cloud: network communication overhead is dwarfed by the task length. Modeling Many-Task Computing Workloads on a Petaflop Blue Gene / P Supercomputer10 Real traces obtained from running MTC applications for 17 month period (173M tasks). Filtered out the logs to isolate workload on a 40K-node IBM Blue Gene/P supercomputer (34.8M tasks with the minimum runtime of 0 seconds, medium of 30 seconds, maximum runtime of 1469.62 seconds, average runtime of 95.20 seconds, and standard deviation of 188.08; partitioned into 1395 BOTs; named as BGP workload).

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BOT size concerns how many tasks in the BOT. Runtime is the execution time of entire BOT, which is time period between the arrival of its first task, and the end of execution of its last task. CPU time means the total execution of all tasks in a BOT. It is calculated as summation of the execution time of each individual task in the BOT. Average execution time is calculated by CPU time divided by BOT size. In-Bag Inter-arrival is calculated as the time between the arrival of its first task, and the arrival of its last task. Dividing the In-Bag Inter- arrival by runtime, we get the arrival intensity during the execution. Throughput is calculated as BOT size divided by the runtime. Modeling Many-Task Computing Workloads on a Petaflop Blue Gene / P Supercomputer11

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Modeling Many-Task Computing Workloads on a Petaflop Blue Gene / P Supercomputer12

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Five random variable distributions, namely Generalized Pareto (GP), Weibull(wbl), Lognormal (logn), Gamma (gamma), and Exponential (expn), to fit the traces. These five distributions have been extensively used in workload analysis. Conclusion: GP distribution is the best fit; maybe not general enough, but similar method could be used. Modeling Many-Task Computing Workloads on a Petaflop Blue Gene / P Supercomputer13 BGP workload left; ANLUC workload right

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Do burst exist, and for how long? Do the bursts have any periodicity pattern? Represent the BOT arrivals as a rate process, which characterizes LRD and the periodicity properties of the workload. These properties can be observed via the autocorrelation function of the BOT arrivals. Conclusion: BGP workload has strong monthly periodic pattern in this workload, and decays after 300 days; ANLUC workload has burst, and staged periodic patterns (lag 60 to lag 100, and lag 140 to lag 172). Modeling Many-Task Computing Workloads on a Petaflop Blue Gene / P Supercomputer14 BGP workload left; ANLUC workload right

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BOT Runtime with respect to BOT Size Throughput Trend BOT Execution Time with respect to BOT Size BOT Execution Time with respect to BOT In-Bag Inter-Arrival Modeling Many-Task Computing Workloads on a Petaflop Blue Gene / P Supercomputer15

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Modeling Many-Task Computing Workloads on a Petaflop Blue Gene / P Supercomputer16 BGP workload left; ANLUC workload right Conclusion: with the increase of the BOT size, the BOT runtime is also growing. What’s more, BGP workload has a lower growing speed compared to ANLUC workload, which is because the ANLUC workload has smaller BOT size.

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Throughput has a relationship with respect to the BOT size, and the number of busy workers. Modeling Many-Task Computing Workloads on a Petaflop Blue Gene / P Supercomputer17 BGP workload left; ANLUC workload right Conclusion: as the BOT size increases, the throughput is also increasing, even though bigger BOT size increases the runtime a little bit; with the growing of number of workers, the throughput also increases because more workers are executing tasks.

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Modeling Many-Task Computing Workloads on a Petaflop Blue Gene / P Supercomputer18 BGP workload left; ANLUC workload right Conclusion: the BOT CPU time is increasing as the BOT size grows; the average execution per task (CPU time / BOT size) always remains same at the same level with different BOT sizes. This means that the increasing speed of the BOT CPU time is as fast as the increasing speed of the BOT size.

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In order to model the arrival pattern of the tasks inside a BOT, it is necessary to discuss the In- Bag inter-arrival pattern of each task in the BOT; We assume that the tasks in a BOT are arriving with a Uniform distribution. The arrival frequency can be calculated as dividing the BOT size by the In-Bag inter-arrival time. Modeling Many-Task Computing Workloads on a Petaflop Blue Gene / P Supercomputer19 BGP workload left; ANLUC workload right Conclusion: the BOT CPU time is increasing as the BOT In-Bag inter-arrival time increases. In addition, there exists a lower bound (thick blue lines) of BOT CPU. This is due to the scheduling capability of the framework (e.g. Falkon).

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Introduction Background Knowledge Workload Modeling Related Work Conclusion & Future Work Modeling Many-Task Computing Workloads on a Petaflop Blue Gene / P Supercomputer20

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Dumitrescu et al. covered the practical aspects of running workloads in large-scale grids. H. Li et al conducted a comprehensive statistical analysis of a variety of workload traces, which includes the workload patterns and the corresponding models with software. S.B. Lowen et al. described the job traffic as a stochastic fractal-based point process, based on which, H. Li modeled the job arrivals by modeling inter-arrival time processes with Markov modulated Poisson process (MMPP). Mallat et al. introduced a particular analysis-by-synthesis method called matching pursuit to model the Pseudo-Periodicity of the workloads. A. Iosup et al. found that the Weibull distribution is the best fit for modeling the inter- arrival times of BOT for workloads in the Grid environment. Modeling Many-Task Computing Workloads on a Petaflop Blue Gene / P Supercomputer21 All the research focuses on the traditional HPC and HTC applications under the Cluster and Grid environments; and in the meantime, we take some of their methods, such as statistics analysis of the job inter-arrival time, and apply them to model workflow-generated MTC workloads in supercomputers and clusters, and generalize to cloud.

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Introduction Background Knowledge Workload Modeling Related Work Conclusion & Future Work Modeling Many-Task Computing Workloads on a Petaflop Blue Gene / P Supercomputer22

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Extracted two groups of BOTs from the traces obtained from running MTC applications on a Blue Gene/P supercomputer and the ANLUC Cluster. Applied five random variable distributions to model the cumulative distribution function of the BOT workloads, and found that GP distribution is the most suitable one. Defined some BOT attributes, such as BOT size, runtime, CPU times, and inter-arrival time of BOT and examine the correlations among them. More realistic synthetic workloads could be created that can be used to study a variety of scheduling algorithms. Continue to collect more MTC workloads to be able to analyze more BOTs, and try to establish some representative models for different MTC workloads. Dependent tasks generated by the workflow system will also be investigated, and we plan to analyze the BOT behavior of these workloads in a Cloud environment. Modeling Many-Task Computing Workloads on a Petaflop Blue Gene / P Supercomputer23

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More information: –http://datasys.cs.iit.edu/~kewang/http://datasys.cs.iit.edu/~kewang/ –http://datasys.cs.iit.edu/projects/http://datasys.cs.iit.edu/projects/ Contact: –kwang22@hawk.iit.edukwang22@hawk.iit.edu Questions? Modeling Many-Task Computing Workloads on a Petaflop Blue Gene / P Supercomputer24

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