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СЪВРЕМЕННИ СУПЕРКОМПЮТРИ

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Presentation on theme: "СЪВРЕМЕННИ СУПЕРКОМПЮТРИ"— Presentation transcript:

1 СЪВРЕМЕННИ СУПЕРКОМПЮТРИ

2 Tianhe-2 (MilkyWay-2) - TH-IVB-FEP Cluster, Intel Xeon E5-2692 12C 2
Tianhe-2 (MilkyWay-2) - TH-IVB-FEP Cluster, Intel Xeon E C 2.200GHz, TH Express-2, Intel Xeon Phi 31S1P Tianhe-2, a supercomputer developed by China’s National University of Defense Technology, retained its position as the world’s No. 1 system with a performance of petaflop/s (quadrillions of calculations per second) on the Linpack benchmark, according to the 42nd edition of the twice-yearly TOP500 list of the world’s most powerful supercomputers. The list was announced Nov. 18 at the SC13 conference in Denver, Colo

3 Tianhe-2 (MilkyWay-2) – cont.
Site: National Super Computer Center in Guangzhou Manufacturer: NUDT Cores: 3,120,000 Linpack Performance (Rmax) 33,862.7 TFlop/s Theoretical Peak (Rpeak) 54,902.4 TFlop/s Power: 17, kW Memory: 1,024,000 GB Interconnect: TH Express-2 Operating System: Kylin Linux Compiler: icc Math Library: Intel MKL MPI: MPICH2 with a customized GLEX channel In a massive escalation of the supercomputing arms race, China has built Tianhe-2, a supercomputer capable of petaflops — almost twice as fast as the US Department of Energy’s Titan, and topping the official Top 500 list of supercomputers by some margin. The US isn’t scheduled to build another large supercomputer until 2015, suggesting China will hold pole position for a long time to come. The computer has 32,000 Ivy Bridge Xeon CPUs and 48,000 Xeon Phi accelerator boards for a total of 3,120,000 compute cores, which are decked out with 1.4 petabytes of RAM. And of course the operating system is Linux. The construction of Tianhe-2 (literally Milky Way-2) comes as a huge surprise, as it was originally scheduled for deployment in No one knows why China proceeded so quickly, but it’s fairly safe to assume that it’s a reaction to the DoE’s completion of Titan last year. Tianhe-2, which is currently being tested in a non-optimal space, is capable of petaflops — when it’s deployed in its final location, however, and when any bugs have been ironed out, the theoretical peak performance will be 54.9 petaflops. Assuming that the US doesn’t accelerate its own supercomputing plans, the final form of Tianhe-2 will be almost four times faster than any other supercomputer in the world. To achieve a theoretical peak of 54.9 petaflops, Tianhe-2 has a mind-bogglingly insane hardware spec. There are a total of 125 cabinets housing 16,000 compute nodes, each of which contains two Intel Xeon (Ivy Bridge) CPUs and three 57-core Intel Xeon Phi accelerator cards. Each compute node has a total of 88GB of RAM. In total, according to a report [PDF] by Jack Dongarra of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, there are a total of 3,120,000 Intel cores and petabytes of RAM, making Tianhe-2 by far the largest installation of Intel CPUs in the world. We believe it’s also the largest amount of RAM for a single system, too.

4 Tianhe-2 (MilkyWay-2) – cont.
List Rank System Vendor Total Cores Rmax (TFlops) Rpeak (TFlops) Power (kW) 11/2013 1 TH-IVB-FEP Cluster, Intel Xeon E C 2.200GHz, TH Express-2, Intel Xeon Phi 31S1P NUDT 3,120,000 33,862.7 54,902.4 17,808.00 06/2013 To achieve a theoretical peak of 54.9 petaflops, Tianhe-2 has a mind-bogglingly insane hardware spec. There are a total of 125 cabinets housing 16,000 compute nodes, each of which contains two Intel Xeon (Ivy Bridge) CPUs and three 57-core Intel Xeon Phi accelerator cards. Each compute node has a total of 88GB of RAM. In total, according to a report [PDF] by Jack Dongarra of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, there are a total of 3,120,000 Intel cores and petabytes of RAM, making Tianhe-2 by far the largest installation of Intel CPUs in the world. We believe it’s also the largest amount of RAM for a single system, too.

5 Xeon Phi/Many Integrated Core (MIC) hardware From Larrabee
to Knights Ferry Intel’s MIC (pronounced “Mike”) began as  a hybrid GPU/HPC (high-performance computing) product known as Larrabee *http://www.extremetech.com/extreme/ intels-64-core-champion-in-depth-on-xeon-phi

6 The Knights Ferry die, Aubrey Isle
The Knights Ferry die, Aubrey Isle. Die size on KNF, at 45nm, was rumored to be roughly 700mm sq. Xeon Phi ramps up Knights Ferry; Intel isn’t giving many details yet, but we know the architecture will pack 50 or more cores and at least 8GB of RAM. In this space, total available memory is an important feature. Knights Ferry, with its 32 cores and max of 2GB of RAM, could only offer 64MB of RAM per core; a 50-core Xeon Phi with 8-16GB of RAM would offer between MB per core.

7

8 To achieve a theoretical peak of 54
To achieve a theoretical peak of 54.9 petaflops, Tianhe-2 has a mind-bogglingly insane hardware spec. There are a total of 125 cabinets housing 16,000 compute nodes, each of which contains two Intel Xeon (Ivy Bridge) CPUs and three 57-core Intel Xeon Phi accelerator cards. Each compute node has a total of 88GB of RAM. In total, according to a report [PDF] by Jack Dongarra of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, there are a total of 3,120,000 Intel cores and petabytes of RAM, making Tianhe-2 by far the largest installation of Intel CPUs in the world. We believe it’s also the largest amount of RAM for a single system, too. *

9 Beyond the glut of x86 compute capacity, though, Tianhe-2 is notable for another reason: Except for the CPUs, almost all of the other components were made in China. The front-end system, which manages the actual operation of all the compute nodes, consists of Galaxy FT-1500 processors — 16-core SPARC chips designed and built by China’s National University of Defense Technology (NUDT). The interconnect (pictured below), also designed and constructed by the NUDT, consists of port optoelectronic switches that connect each of the compute nodes via a fat tree topology. The operating system, Kylin Linux, was also developed by NUDT. Beyond the glut of x86 compute capacity, though, Tianhe-2 is notable for another reason: Except for the CPUs, almost all of the other components were made in China. The front-end system, which manages the actual operation of all the compute nodes, consists of Galaxy FT-1500 processors — 16-core SPARC chips designed and built by China’s National University of Defense Technology (NUDT). The interconnect (pictured below), also designed and constructed by the NUDT, consists of port optoelectronic switches that connect each of the compute nodes via a fat tree topology. The operating system, Kylin Linux, was also developed by NUDT.

10 Tianhe-2 is currently located at the NUDT while it undergoes testing, but will be fully deployed at the National Supercomputer Center in Guangzhou (NSCC-GZ) by the end of The peak power consumption for the processors, memory, and interconnect is 17.6 megawatts, with the water cooling system bringing that up to 24MW — slightly below the gigaflops-per-watt efficiency record set by the DoE/ORNL/Cray Titan supercomputer. When Tianhe-2 is complete, its primary purpose will be as an open research platform for researchers in southern China.

11 With Tianhe-2, two Arch-2 network interface chips and two "Ivy Bridge-EP" Xeon E5 compute nodes (each with two processor sockets) are on a single circuit board (even though they are logically distinct). This compute node plus one Xeon Phi coprocessor share the left half of the compute node and five Xeon Phis share the right side. The two sides can be electrically separated and pulled out separately for maintenance. The Arch-2 NICs link to the Xeon E5 chipset through PCI-Express 2.0 ports on the NIC, which is unfortunate given the doubling of bandwidth with the move to PCI-Express 3.0 slots. (Maybe that is coming with the Arch-3 interconnect, if there is one on the whiteboard at NUDT?) There's one Arch-2 NIC per compute node; the three Xeon Phi coprocessors for each node link over three PCI-Express 3.0 x16 ports to the CPUs. Yup, the Xeon Phis can talk faster to the CPU than the CPU can talk to the Arch-2 interface. It is unknown how this imbalance might affect the performance of Tianhe-2. First, here is a picture of the Tianhe-2 chassis. As we previously explained, based on a report of the machine put together by Jack Dongarra, a professor at the University of Tennessee and one of the stewards of the Linpack supercomputer benchmark, the Chinese government's National University of Defense Technology has done a bit of integrating with the updated "Sky River" machine. (Sky River is what Tianhe means when translated to English, and it is what we in the West call the Milky Way when we look to the night sky.) *

12 The RSW switch blade for Tianhe-2

13 One set of RSW switches is rotated 90 degrees in parts of the system for reasons that don't make sense to me – yet. But here is how the components plug together: How the compute nodes, switch, and backplane come together in Tianhe-2

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15 That special version of the Xeon Phi that NUDT is getting is called the 31S1P, and the P is short for passive cooling. Dongarra said that this Xeon Phi card had 57 cores and was rated at teraflops at double-precision floating point, and that is precisely the same feeds and speeds as the 3120A launched back in November with active cooling (meaning a fan). That 3120A had only 6GB of GDDR5 graphics memory, and the 31S1P that NUDT is getting has 8GB like the Xeon Phi 5110P card, which has 60 cores activated, which runs at a slightly slower clock speed, and which burns less juice and creates less heat. It is also 33 per cent more expensive at $2,649 in single-unit quantities. Anyway, with 48,000 of these bad boys, the Xeon Phi part of Tianhe-2 has 2.74 million cores and delivers a peak DP performance of petaflops. Add 'em up, and you get 54.9 petaflops peak. *http://www.theregister.co.uk/Print/2013/06/10/inside_chinas_tianhe2_massive_hybrid_supercomputer/

16 The Tianhe-2, like its predecessor, is also front-ended by a homegrown Sparc-based cluster. NUDT has created its own variant of the Sparc chip, called the Galaxy FT-1500, which has sixteen cores, runs at 1.8GHz, is etched in 40 nanometer processes, burns around 65 watts, and delivers around 144 gigaflops of double-precision performance. The front-end processor for the Tianhe-2 machine has 4,096 of these processors in its nodes, which gives another 590 teraflops.

17 The TH Express-2 Arch interconnect created by NUDT
The Arch network has thirteen switches, each with 576 ports, at its top level, and that router chip, called the NRC and presumably short for network router chip, has a throughput of 2.76Tb/sec. The Arch network interface chip, called NIC of course, has a lot fewer pins (675 compared to 2,577 in the router) but is designed to have the same die size. This Arch NIC hooks into PCI-Express 2.0 slots on the compute nodes and it looks like there is one Arch port per node. These NIC ports hook into a passive electrical backplane and link local server nodes to each other. The thirteen 576-port switches are used to link groups of racks to each other in the fat tree setup. (Much like top-of-rack and end-of-row aggregation switches do in InfiniBand and Ethernet networks.) Presumably this is done with optical cables. The backplane is running at 10Gb/sec or 14Gb/sec, according to the presentation by Xiangke, and it is not clear if these are two different dialable bandwidths or if different parts of the backplane must run at these two different speeds. Dongarra said that a broadcast MPI operation was able to run at 6.36GB/sec on the Arch interconnect with a latency of around 9 microseconds with a 1KB data packet across 12,000 of the nodes in Tianhe-2A system. Arch is said to be using a proprietary protocol, but I would bet it is a hodge-podge of different technologies and very likely a superset of InfiniBand. But that is just a hunch, and there are people much more qualified than this system hack to make better guesses. The whole shebang has 125 compute racks and the thirteen Arch switch racks for a total of 138 racks, plus another 24 racks for storage (12.4PB in size) if you want to count that in the system. It runs the Kylin variant of Linux created by NUDT for the Chinese military as well as the H2FS file system. This beast consumes 17.4MW under load, and the closed-coupled, chilled water cooling system is designed to handle 24MW and - as it turns out - will warm up the water supply in Guangzhou. The most interesting part of the Tianhe-2 system is probably the Arch interconnect, which is also known as TH Express-2. The heart of the Arch interconnect is a high-radix router, just like Cray's Intel's "Gemini" and "Aries" interconnects, and like Aries is also uses a combination of electrical cables for short haul jumps and optical cables for long haul jumps. And like InfiniBand networks, Arch uses a fat tree topology, which is why many believe that Arch is, in fact, a goosed up version of InfiniBand, but NUDT is claiming it is a proprietary protocol and frankly, we are in no position to argue.

18 links CRAYT3E https://cug.org/5-publications/proceedings_attendee_lists/1999CD/S99_Proceedings/S99_Papers/Frese/frese.html -


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