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Dr. Virendrakumar (Virendra) C. Bhavsar

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1 Dr. Virendrakumar (Virendra) C. Bhavsar
Supercomputing Dr. Virendrakumar (Virendra) C. Bhavsar Professor Faculty of Computer Science University of New Brunswick (UNB) Fredericton, Canada

2 Outline Definitions Applications Hardware Software Current Status
University of New Brunswick Future 2 2

3 Definitions Computing Supercomputing
- A supercomputer is a computer that is at the frontline of current processing capacity, particularly speed of calculation. High Performance Computing (HPC)/High Productivity Computing - supercomputing - a subset of HPC Parallel Computing many calculations are carried out simultaneously 10**6 Million, 10**9 Billion, 10**12 Trillion

4 Human Brain 10**10 Neurons 10**4 Fan-in
Wires much slower than chips Millions of times more volume 10**14 Inputs (Connection strngths 10**12 Connection strengths can affect processing in 5 msec Lower bound on the computational power of brain ~ 10**10 neurons, 10 spikes/sec, 10**14 connections ~10**15 operations/sec or 10**18 bits/sec 4 4

5 Connection Machine CM-2
65K Processors, 5 CM-2 = 1.8 x 10**13 bits/sec 10**5 times slower than brain 5 5

6 Early Computers 1950: 5,000 operations/sec; : 1 Million Operations/sec

7 Advances in Microprocessor Technology
MHz clock 1988 – 40 MHz 2002 – 2 GHz 2009 – P4 3.0 GHz, Quadcore 2.66 MHz Intel Montecito chip 1.72 Billion transistors NVidia 280 series GPU 1.4 Billion transistors Circuit complexity doubles every 18 months  Computing power at a given cost doubles every 18 months - Processor clock rates: 40% increase/year + more instr./cycle - DRAM Access Times: 10% increase/year  caches required 7 7

8 Applications Grand Challenge Applications
cannot be solved in a reasonable amount of time with today's computers Environment, Ecosystems, Molecular engineering, cognition, weapon design, Artificial Intelligence, (near) Real-Time Applications Military/Defense Applications Space Financial Forecasting; Live data (e.g. online stock market data)

9 Applications (near) Real-Time Applications Google
Software as a Service (SaaS) delivery model ATMs, online banking Data Intensive Applications Walmart – inventory management Data Mining 9 9

10 Applications Computational Modeling and Simulation
Science, Engineering, Social Sciences, … Parameter sweep applications Animation and Movies 10 10

11 Applications Compute Intensive Applications Massive Data applications
11 11

12 Applications Capability Computing
- Using the maximum computing power to solve a large problem in the shortest amount of time Capacity computing Using efficient cost-effective computing power to solve somewhat large problems - many small problems 12 12

13 Supercomputer Design Challenges
Cooling Speed of Light Compute Bound Problems  I/O Bound problems 13 13

14 Supercomputer Technologies
Pipelining and Vector Processing Parallel and Distributed Processing Liquid Cooling Non-Uniform Memory Access Striped Disks (RAID) Parallel File System 14 14

15 Parallel and Distributed Algorithms
Intrinsic parallelism Design of parallel algorithms Analysis of parallel algorithms 15 15

16 Programming PVM and MPI – Loosely connected clusters
OpenMP for Shared Memory Machines 16 16

17 Automatic Parallelization
Compilers Limited success Application Checkpointing 17 17

18 Current Supercomputer Roadrunner applications
National Security Planet: Earth and Environmental Sciences e.g. ground water modeling Health: Biology, Chemistry, Life Sciences Science: Engineering, Technology Universe: Astronomy, Space, Astrophysics - Modeling the decay of the US nuclear arsenal 18 18

19 Current Supercomputer
Roadrunner Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM, USA >1 Petaflop (Quadrilion): million billion (10**15) floating-point operations/sec (FLOPS) 1.71 Petaflop peak Weight - 500,000 pounds Power - 4 Mega Watt Space – 6000 square feet Cabling 57 miles 19 19

20 Current Supercomputer
Roadrunner (Installation Year – 2008) Los Alamos National Lab, USA ~ 3,250 compute nodes Compute Node: Two AMD Opteron dual-core microprocessors Each of the Opteron core: Internally attached to one of four enhanced Cell microprocessors. Enhanced Cell: double-precision arithmetic faster and can access more memory than can the original Cell in a PlayStation 3. The entire machine will have almost 13,000 Cells and half as many dual-core Opterons. Interconnection Network: off-the-shelf Infiniband 20 20

21 Current Supercomputer
Roadrunner (Installation Year – 2008) DOE/NNSA/LANL System Family - IBM Cluster System Model - BladeCenter QS22 Cluster Computer - BladeCenter QS22/LS21 Cluster, PowerXCell 8i 3.2 Ghz / Opteron DC 1.8 GHz , Voltaire Infiniband Operating System - Linux Interconnect – Infiniband Processor - PowerXCell 8i 3200 MHz (12.8 GFlops) 21 21

22 Hardware: Building Blocks
Building blocks – processors, memory, interconnection networks Processors Memory – main and secondary storage Interconnection networks 22 22

23 Hardware: Architectures
Taxonomy: SISD, SIMD, MISD and MIMD Shared Memory Processing versus Distributed Memory Processing Symmetric Multi-Processing (SMP) versus Non-Uniform Memory Access (NUMA) Processors Clusters 23 23

24 Special Purpose Supercomputers
Specially Programmed FPGA chips Custom VLSI Chips Reconfigurable Computing GPUs (Graphics Processing Units) 24 24

25 University of New Brunswick
25 25

26 High Performance Computing and Networking @ University of New Brunswick

27 ACEnet: Atlantic Computational Excellence Network
“People, Research, Excellence” Hosting sites: Member sites:

28 ACEnet Atlantic Canada is a distributed environment $30 million initiative Waterways make networking solutions difficult (e.g. Cabot Strait)

29 World-class HPC facilities
ACEnet World-class HPC facilities Behave as a single, regionally distributed “computational power grid” Create and operate sophisticated collaboration facilities to bind together geographically dispersed research communities.

30 Advaced Computational Research Lab (ACRL) Infrastructure

31 Major Users UNB Biology Gary Saunders
UNB Chemistry Scott Brownridge Larry Calhoun Ghislain Deslongchamps Friedrich Grein UNB Computer Science Eric Aubanel Virendra Bhavsar Brad Nickerson Ruth Shaw UNB Text Processing Centre Alan Burk David Gants UNB Geodesy Petr Vanícek Richard Langley UNB Mathematics Keith De’Bell Abraham Punnen UNB Mechanical Engineering Mohammad Bagher Ayani David Bonham Andrew Gerber Marwan Hassan Esam Hussein UNB Physics Dr. Eugene K Ho Dr. Zong-Chao Yan Dr. Li-Hong Xu UNB Forestry Evelyn Richards UNB Biomedical Kevin Englehart DAL Physics Andrew Rutenberg MTA Chemistry Stacey Wetmore MUN Computer Science Dwight Kuo Sick Kids Hospital, Toronto Regis Pomes Ching-Hsing Yu Len Zaifman StFX Computer Science Laurence Yang UofCalgary Computer Science Peter Tieleman Justin MacCallum UdeM Environmental Studies Yves Gagnon UdeM Computer Science Jalal Almhana UPEI Physics Sheldon Opps James Polson UofT Computer Science Hue Sun Chan Maria Sabaye Moghaddam

32 Fundy: SUN cluster, AMD Opeteron, 632 cores
ACEnet at UNB Fundy: SUN cluster, AMD Opeteron, 632 cores ACEnet: 3324 cores Internet connectivity > 2Gbps at UNB


34 Collaboration gear across Atlantic Canada
Collaboration Grid Collaboration gear across Atlantic Canada Lecture rooms equipped so ACEnet sites can share seminars and participate remotely ACEnet cafés at each site sharing continuous video feeds Desktop level collaboration equipment for personal communication Access Grid streams tens to hundreds of Mbps across the CANARIE network ACEnet

35 My Research Work Special Purpose computers for Military Applications
Design and development of MICRON and PLEXUS Parallel Monte Carlo Algorithms Graphics and Visualization PaGrid Artificial Intelligence – artificial neural networks, e-Business Bioinformatics – Canadian Potato Genome project

36 Future IBM Cyclops64 – supercomputer on a chip C-DAC initiative for 2010 –petaflop machine NCSA, USA 2011 petaflop machine NASA, SGI and Intel Pleiades – 10 petaflop by 2012 1 Exaflop (10**18 flops) by 2019 Human brain neural simulations – 10 exaflop by 2025 2-week Full Weather modeling – 1 zeta flops (10**21 flops) by 2030

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