Outline Overview – Supercomputers, GRID, Applications, Programming Languages UNIX/Linux Environment Overview of C Programming Language C Language – statements … – C Language – statements … C Language – statements … – C Language – statements … » C Language – statements …
High Performance Computing HPC Supercomputers/GRID
From local parallelism towards massively parallel systems( 1960’s – nowadays) Supercomputer architecture Cray-1 preserved at the Deutsches Museum The Blue Gene/P supercomputer at Argonne National Lab runs over 250,000 processors using normal data center air conditioning, grouped in 72 racks/cabinets connected by a high-speed optical network Blue GeneArgonne National Lab 
The world’s fastest computer (currently) is (was ?) At the time (2004 - 2008), the world's fastest computer was Blue Gene/L built by IBM and placed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, that has reached more than 136 trillion operations a second (TFLOPS) and plans to double that by year's end. “ This machines can be used to answer questions that literally will mean life or death of humanity”, said Peter A. Freeman, assistant director at National Science Foundation.”
The world’s fastest computer in 2011 Japan’s K Computer Tops 10 Petaflop/s to Stay Atop TOP500 List. Installed at the RIKEN Advanced Institute for Computational Science (AICS) in Kobe, Japan, the K Computer it achieved an impressive 10.51 Petaflop/s on the Linpack benchmark using 705,024 SPARC64 processing cores. In the second place is the Chinese Tianhe-1A system with 2.57 Petaflop/s performance. See www.top500.org
General highlights from the TOP500 since the last edition Already 46 percent of the systems use processors with eight or more cores. Total combined performance of all 500 systems has grown to 162 Pflop/s, compared to 123 Pflop/s six months ago and 74 Pflop/s one year ago.
General highlights from the TOP500 since the last edition A total of 379 systems (75.8 percent) are now using Intel processors, about the same as in the in the previous list 6 months ago. Intel is followed by the AMD Opteron family with 61 systems (12.2 percent), down from 62 (12 percent) in the previous list 6 months ago. The share of IBM Power processors is at 53 systems (10.6 percent).
General highlights from the TOP500 since the last edition IBM kept its lead in systems and has now 193 systems (38.6 percent) compared to HP with 146 systems (29.2 percent). IBM remains the clear leader in the TOP500 list in performance and has a considerably lead with a share 41 percent of installed total performance (down from 49.1 percent).
General highlights from the TOP500 since the last edition HP is now only third even so it increased its share to 11.4 percent up from 10.5 percent. Fujitsu follows closely in the 4th spot due to the impressive performance of the No. 3 K Computer with 8.5 percent down from 10.1 percent.
General highlights from the TOP500 since the last edition The U.S. is clearly the leading consumer of HPC systems with 250 of the 500 systems (252 last time). The European share (105 systems – 106 last time) is still lower than the Asian share (124 systems – 122 last time). Dominant countries in Asia are China with 72 systems (up from 68) and Japan with 31 systems (down from 35). In Europe, UK, France, and Germany, are almost equal with 24, 21, and 19 respectively.
Electrical power grid The Grid You never worry about where the electricity you are using comes from, if it is from coal in Australia, from wind power in the U.S. or from a nuclear plant in France. You simply know that when you plug your toaster in to the wall socket, it will get the electrical power you need to do the job. You would never worry about where the computer power you are using comes from, if it is from a supercomputer in Germany, a computer farm in India or a laptop in New Zealand. You simply know that when you plug your computer in to the Internet, it will get the computer power you need to do the job. Imagine several million computers from all over the world, and owned by thousands of different people. Imagine they include desktops, laptops, supercomputers, data vaults, and instruments like mobile phones, meteorological sensors and telescopes... Now imagine that all of these computers can be connected to form a single, huge and super-powerful computer! This huge, sprawling, global computer is what many people dream "The Grid" will be. "The Grid" takes its name from an analogy with the electrical "power grid". The idea was that accessing computer power from a computer grid would be as simple as accessing electrical power from an electrical grid". HOW FAR CAN THIS "GRID" ANALOGY STRETCH? Let's compare an electrical power grid with the dream "Grid": What’s GRID Computing
Introducing the UNIX and Linux Operating Systems UNIX/Linux can be used on systems functioning as: – Dedicated servers or client workstations in a server- based network – Client/server workstations connected to a peer-to- peer network – Stand-alone workstations not connected to a network
Introducing the UNIX and Linux Operating Systems (continued) UNIX/Linux is a multi-user system UNIX/Linux is a multitasking system – Can execute more than one program at a time UNIX/Linux is a portable operating system – Used in many computing environments
UNIX Concepts Shell – The interface between user and OS Hierarchical Structure – Directory and subdirectory organization Layered components – Layers of software surround the computer’s inner core
Linux and UNIX Linux is UNIX-like – Not written from traditional UNIX code Linux is original code – Includes POSIX standards Other Linux information – Created by Linus Torvalds – Offers all the complexity of UNIX – Linux can coexist with other OSs
History of developing UNIX OS The original Bell Labs UNIX: 1969/70 Ken Thompson - UNiplexed Information and Computing Service (the spelling of UNICS was later changed to UNIX) 1973Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie (the author of C language) rewrote the system in C The Berkeley Standard Distribution (late 70s): communication and networking functions, using communication protocol TCP/IP one of the first full-screen editors - Vi (visual editors) CShell command interpreter
The Pioneers of UNIX Dennis Ritchie (UNIX, C programming language) Dennis Ritchie Ken Thompson (UNIX) Ken Thompson Alfred Aho (AWK programming language) Alfred Aho Brian Kernighan (AWK programming language, many C and UNIX programming books) Brian Kernighan Lorinda Cherry (many document processing tools) Lorinda Cherry
Secure Shell (SSH) Developed for UNIX/Linux systems to provide authentication security for TCP/IP applications, such as FTP and Telnet Can encrypt communications as they go across a network or the Internet openSSH includes protocols and software for free distribution on UNIX/Linux systems