In 1640, Pascal started developing a device to help his father add sums of money. The first operating model, the Arithmetic Machine, was introduced in 1642, and Pascal created fifty more devices over the next ten years. (In 1658, Pascal created a scandal when, under the pseudonym of Amos Dettonville, he challenged other mathematicians to a contest and then awarded the prize to himself!) Pascal’s 1642 Arithmetic Engine
IBM 701 A notable first: The IBM 701 Fifty years ago -- on April 29, 1952 --- IBM President Thomas J. Watson, Jr., informed his company's stockholders at the annual meeting that IBM was building "the most advanced, most flexible high-speed computer in the world." Known as the Defense Calculator while in development, the new machine emerged from the IBM Poughkeepsie Laboratory later that year and was formally unveiled to the public on April 7, 1953 as the IBM 701 Electronic Data Processing Machines.* What was so special about the 701? Well, a few things. The 701 was a landmark product because it was: The first IBM large-scale electronic computer manufactured in quantity; IBM's first commercially available scientific computer; The first IBM machine in which programs were stored in an internal, addressable, electronic memory; Developed and produced in record time -- less than two years from "first pencil on paper" to installation; Key to IBM's transition from punched-card machines to electronic computers; and The first of the pioneering line of IBM 700 series computers, including the 702, 704, 705 and 709.
Some of the early milestones in small computers 1975 Bill Gates founded Microsoft 1976 Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak built the first Apple I 1977 the Apple II came out for $1300 1977 Commadore and the Tandy/Radio Shack (TRS-80) computers came out 1981 First IBM PC (8088 architecture)
How things change In 1975, an IBM mainframe computer that could perform 10,000,000 instructions per second (10 MegaHertz) cost around $10,000,000. In 1995 (only twenty years later), a computer video game capable of performing 500,000,000 (500 MegaHertz) instructions per second was available for approximately $500! In 2006 a 3 GigaHertz processor (3,000,000,000 instructions per second) costs around $1200
A punch card machine, a card reader, and a card…
NASA’s fastest computer Wed, 27 Oct 2004 - NASA unveiled its new supercomputer on Tuesday, which took the lead as the fasted computer in the world. Named "Columbia", to commemorate the space shuttle, the supercomputer is built up from 10,240 Itanium 2 processors, and is capable of 42.7 teraflops (trillion calculations per second).
Rank Site (www.top500.org) Computer Processors/Year/Rmax/ Rpeak 1.DOE/NNSA/LLNL United States BlueGene/L - eServer Blue Gene Solution IBM 131072 2005 280600 367,000,000,000,000 2.IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center United States BGW - eServer Blue Gene Solution IBM 40960 2005 91290 114,688,000,000,000 3.DOE/NNSA/LLNL United States ASC Purple - eServer pSeries p5 575 1.9 GHz IBM 10240 2005 63390 77,824,000,000,000 4.NASA/Ames Research Center/NAS United States Columbia - SGI Altix 1.5 GHz, Voltaire Infiniband SGI 10160 2004 51870 60,960,000,000,000 5.Sandia National Laboratories United States Thunderbird - PowerEdge 1850, 3.6 GHz, Infiniband Dell 8000 2005 38270 64,512,000,000,000 So the DOE/NNSA/LLNL supercomputer has 131,072 processors Was built in 2005, and had a peak performance of 367,000,000,000,000 calculations per second. The fastest computers…
Lots of patents Thomas Edison built an “invention factory” to turn out a new invention every 10 days. At one point he and his company received a new patent every 5 days for 4 straight years! Edison received 1093 patents A patent is a legal way of protecting your ideas
Founder of FIRST (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology) 150 patents Founded FIRST Developed the Segway “people transporter” Developed a wheel chair that could climb stairs Developed a kidney dialysis machine the size of a suitcase.
Computers in Everything Can you list some places that computers (even if they don’t look like computers) could be found in your home, school, or local stores?
Computers everywhere House –Alarm systems –Phones –Microwaves –Refrigerators –Heating/cooling systems –DVD players/iPods –Televisions –Computers –Printers –Radios –Water, gas, electric meters Cars Elevator controls Traffic signal controls Telecommunications Mail sorting at the Post Office GPS (global positioning systems) Weather stations Network systems