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T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE Introduction to Computer Science (I) Introduction.

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Presentation on theme: "T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE Introduction to Computer Science (I) Introduction."— Presentation transcript:

1 T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE Introduction to Computer Science (I) Introduction

2 T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE Information Technology in Our Lives Digital Convergence –Converting whatever we can in the physical and communications world to binary on/off signals, called bits Text Voice Picture Movie

3 T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE At Home – , Internet shopping, virtual museum, banking transactions, news –Small computers in VCRs, automobiles, air- conditioning systems, washing machines,

4 T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE At Play –Group chatting, games, songs and movies from Internet

5 T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE At Work –Mobile worker –Office software, Database, ERP, SCM, CRM

6 T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE At School or College –Computer-based courses, distance learning

7 T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE The History of Computing 3000 B.C.: The Abacus –The original mechanical counting device Image courtesy of Computer History Museum,

8 T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE : Blaise Pascal –French mathematician and philosopher –Built the Pascaline in 1642 Image courtesy of Computer History Museum,

9 T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE 1642: The Pascaline –A counting-wheel design A single revolution of one wheel would engage gears that turned the wheel one tenth of a revolution to its immediate left Image courtesy of Computer History Museum,

10 T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE 1801: Jacquard’s loom –Frenchman Joseph-Marie Jacquard ( ) –Weaving loom –The first significant use of binary automation Image courtesy of Computer History Museum,

11 T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE –Jacquard Loom Salesman’s Model Image courtesy of Computer History Museum,

12 T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE : Charles Babbage –Envisioned a steam-powered difference engine and then an analytical engine Image courtesy of Computer History Museum,

13 T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE 1842: Bassage’s Difference Engine and the Analytical Engine Image courtesy of Computer History Museum,

14 T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE Diagram Showing Method Image courtesy of Computer History Museum,

15 T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE : Lady Ada Augusta Lovelace –Punched cards could be prepared to instruct Babbage’s engine to repeat certain operations –The first programmer Source:

16 T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE : Herman Hollerith –Devised a punched-card tabulating machine to speed up the 1890 U.S. census Image courtesy of Computer History Museum,

17 T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE 1890: Hollerith’s Tabulating Machine –Used a hand punch to enter data onto cards Image courtesy of Computer History Museum,

18 T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE –A Pantograph Punch Image courtesy of Computer History Museum,

19 T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE : Thomas Watson, Sr. –In 1896 Herman Hollerith founded the Tabulating Machine Company, which merged in 1911 with several other company to form the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company. It was renamed the International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) by company president Thomas J. Watson in Image courtesy of Computer History Museum,

20 T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE 1920s-1950s: The Electro-Mechanical Accounting Machine Era –Punched-card technology Image courtesy of Computer History Museum,

21 T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE Punched Card Office Image courtesy of Computer History Museum,

22 T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE : Dr. John V. Atanasoff and His ABC (Atanasoff Berry Computer) Source:

23 T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE 1942: The First Elecronic Digital Computer: The ABC Source:

24 T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE 1946: The Electronic ENIAC Computer –Dr. John W. Mauchly (middle) collaborated with J. Presper Ecjert, Jr. (foreground) at the University of Pennsylvania to develop a machine that would compute trajectory tables for the U.S. Army. –Used vacuum tubes –ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) Image courtesy of Computer History Museum,

25 T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE 1951: The UNIVAC I and the First Generation of Computers –Used vacuum tubes in the first generation of computers ( ) –The Universal Automatic Computer (UNIVAC I) was developed by Mauchly and Eckert for the Remington- Rand Corporation –The first commercially viable electronic digital computer Source:

26 T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE 1954: The IBM 650 –IBM’s first entry into the commercial computer market was the IBM 701 in 1953 –IBM 650, introduced in 1954, was designed as a logical upgrade to existing punched-card machines Source:

27 T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE : “Amazing” Grace Murray Hopper –In 1959, Dr. Hopper led an effort that laid the foundation for the development of COBOL –Found the first “bug” in a computer—a real one. She repaired the Mark II by removing a moth that was caught in Relay Number II. Source:

28 T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE 1958: The First Integrated Circuit –The first integrated circuit, a phase-shift oscillator, was invented in 1958 by Jack S. Kilby of Texas Instruments. Image courtesy of Computer History Museum,

29 T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE 1963: The PDP-8 Minicomputer –In 1963 Digital Equipment Corporation introduced the PDP-8 –The first successful minicomputer Source:

30 T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE 1964: The IBM System/360 and the Third Generation of Computers –The third generation was characterized by computers built around integrated circuits –A family of computers with upward compatibility; when a company outgrew one model it could move up to the next model without worrying about converting its data Image courtesy of Computer History Museum,

31 T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE 1964: BASIC-More Than a Beginner’s Programming Language –Dr. Thomas Kurtz and Dr. John Kemeny of Dartmouth College developed a programming language that a beginner could learn and use quickly Image courtesy of Computer History Museum,

32 T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE 1969: ARPANET and the Unbundling of Hardware and Software –A U.S. Department of Defense’s Advanced Research Project Agency (ARPA) sponsorship of a project, named ARPANET, was underway to unite a community of geographically dispersed scientists by technology –When IBM unbundled and sold software separately, the software industry began to flourish Source:

33 T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE 1975: Microsoft and Bill Gates –Bill gates and Paul Allen formed Microsoft Corporation, now the largest and most influential software company in the world Source:

34 T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE 1976: The Apple I –Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak, along with Ronald G. Wayne formed the Apple Computer Company Source:

35 T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE 1981: The IBM PC –IBM tossed its hat into the personal computer ring with its announcement of the IBM Personal Computer Image courtesy of Computer History Museum,

36 T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE 1982: Mitchell Kapor Designs Lotus –In 1982, Kapor founded Lotus Development Company. Kapor and the company introduced an electronic spread-sheet product, Lotus Image courtesy of Computer History Museum,

37 T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE 1984: The Macintosh and Graphical User Interfaces –Apple Computer introduced the Macintosh desktop computer with a very friendly graphical user interface Source:

38 T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE 1985-Present: Microsoft Windows –Microsoft introduced Windows, a GUI for IBM PC- compatible computers in 1985 Image courtesy of Computer History Museum,

39 T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE 1989: The World Wide Web –Berners-Lee and a small team of scientists conceived HTML (the language of the Internet), URLs (Internet addresses), and put up the first server supporting the neq World Wide Web format Image courtesy of Computer History Museum,

40 T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE 1993: The Internet Browser –The development in 1993 of the graphical browser Mosaic by Marc Andreesen and his team at the National Center For Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) made the web accessible to everyone. –Marc Andreesen and entrepreneur Jim Clark founded Netscape in 1994 to create a web browser based on the Mosaic project. Image courtesy of Computer History Museum,

41 T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE 1996: The Handheld Computer –The PalmPilot handheld computer was introduced by Palm Computing, Inc. Image courtesy of Computer History Museum,

42 T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE Problem Transformation into Calculations Many real problems can be transformed into calculations. Then, these calculations can be conducted in computers. –Examples: Image processing, optimization, ciphering and deciphering, simulations in dynamic systems

43 T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE Personal Computers to Supercomputers Personal Computer (PC) –Desktop PC

44 T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE –Notebook PC

45 T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE –Tablet PC

46 T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE –Wearable PC Source:

47 T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE Handheld Computer

48 T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE Workstation –To visualize and solve complex, technical problems.

49 T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE Server Computers –Applications in business financial, customer management solutions, decision support data warehouse, e-commerce, and enterprise resource planning

50 T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE Supercomputer –In a six-game match, a chess-playing IBM computer known as Deep Blue defeats chess grandmaster Garry Kasparov - the first time a reigning world champion loses a match to a computer opponent in tournament play. Deep Blue is an IBM RS/6000 SP supercomputer capable of calculating 200 million chess positions per second. Source:

51 T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE Information Systems Data processing systems –Transaction handling, record keeping –Primarily for clerical personnel and operational-level managers Source:

52 T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE Management information system –Uses an integrated database and supports a variety of functional areas –Structured information (for example, a weekly inventory status report with predefined content and format) –Applications in hospitals (patient accounting, point-of-care processing), insurance (claims- processing systems, policy administration, actuarial statistics), and colleges (student registration, placement)

53 T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE Decision support system –Helps the decision makers, especially those at the tactical and strategic levels, in the decision- making process –Interactive system Source:

54 T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE Executive information system –Subset of DSS –Supports decision making at the executive levels of management, primarily the tactical and strategic levels Source:

55 T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE Artificial intelligence –Expert systems, simulation of human sensory capabilities, neural networks, intelligent agents, robots and robotics Source:

56 T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE Virtual reality –Combines computer graphics with special hardware to immerse users in an artificial three- dimensional world Source:

57 T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE References A Short History of Computing –Tim Bergin, Computing History Museum American University, Computer History Museum –http://www.computerhistory.orghttp://www.computerhistory.org Computers –Larry Long & Nancy Long, Twelfth Edition, Pearson Education, Inc.


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