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© 2009 Matthew J. Sottile, Timothy G. Mattson, and Craig E Rasmussen 1 Concurrency in Programming Languages Matthew J. Sottile Timothy G. Mattson Craig E Rasmussen
© 2009 Matthew J. Sottile, Timothy G. Mattson, and Craig E Rasmussen 2 Chapter 6 Objectives Examine the historical development of concurrent and parallel systems. –Hardware –Languages Discuss relationship that languages had with evolving hardware.
Outline Evolution of machines Evolution of languages Limits of automatic parallelization © 2009 Matthew J. Sottile, Timothy G. Mattson, and Craig E Rasmussen 3
Early concurrency Biggest challenge with early computers was keeping them busy. –Increasing utilization. Idle CPUs meant wasted cycles. Common source of idle CPUs: I/O How to use the CPU when a program is waiting on I/O? © 2009 Matthew J. Sottile, Timothy G. Mattson, and Craig E Rasmussen 4
Addressing the I/O problem Two early methods became popular: –Multiprogramming –Interrupt driven I/O Concurrency addressed the utilization problem by allowing different programs to use resources when one becomes blocked on I/O. © 2009 Matthew J. Sottile, Timothy G. Mattson, and Craig E Rasmussen 5
Multiprogramming Transparently multiplex the computing hardware to give the appearance of simultaneous execution of multiple programs. Prior to multicore, single CPU machines used this approach to provide multitasking. © 2009 Matthew J. Sottile, Timothy G. Mattson, and Craig E Rasmussen 6
Interrupt Driven I/O Another development was interrupt driven I/O. This allows hardware to notify the CPU when I/O operations were complete. –Avoids inefficient active polling and checking by CPU. –CPU can do other work and only worry about I/O operations when the I/O hardware tells it that they are ready. Interrupt-based hardware helps manage parallel devices within a machine. © 2009 Matthew J. Sottile, Timothy G. Mattson, and Craig E Rasmussen 7
CPU sophistication Multiprogramming and interrupt-based hardware addressed early utilization problems when CPUs were simple. CPUs continued to advance though: –Huge increases in speed (cycles/second) –More sophisticated instruction sets This led to more hardware advances to support the increased capabilities of newer CPUs. © 2009 Matthew J. Sottile, Timothy G. Mattson, and Craig E Rasmussen 8
Memory performance The time difference between CPU clock cycles and physical I/O devices (like tapes) always were large. Soon CPUs overtook digital memory performance as well. –Memory itself looked slower and slower relative to the CPU. –Results in the same utilization problem faced in the early days with I/O devices. © 2009 Matthew J. Sottile, Timothy G. Mattson, and Craig E Rasmussen 9
Hierarchical memory One approach to dealing with this growing gap between CPU performance and memory performance was caches. Place one or more small, fast memories between the CPU and main memory. –Recently accessed data is replicated there. –Locality assumption is often safe: memory that was recently accessed is likely to be accessed again. –Caches speed up these subsequent accesses, and we amortize cost to first access it from slow memory with multiple subsequence accesses from fast cache. © 2009 Matthew J. Sottile, Timothy G. Mattson, and Craig E Rasmussen 10
Pipelining Another advance was to decompose instructions into pieces such that the CPU be structured like a factory assembly line. –Instructions start at one end, and as they pass through, subtasks are performed such that at the end, the instruction is complete. This allows multiple instructions to be executing at any point in time, each at a different point in the pipeline. –This is a form of parallelism: instruction level parallelism. © 2009 Matthew J. Sottile, Timothy G. Mattson, and Craig E Rasmussen 11
Pipelining Pipelining allowed for more complex instructions to be provided that required multiple clock cycles to complete. –Each clock cycle, part of the instruction could proceed. Instruction level parallelism allowed this multi- cycle complexity to be hidden. –If the pipeline could be kept full, then every cycle an instruction could complete. © 2009 Matthew J. Sottile, Timothy G. Mattson, and Craig E Rasmussen 12
Vector processing Another method for achieving parallelism in the CPU was to allow each instruction to operate on a set of data elements simultaneously. Vector processing tool this approach – instructions operated on small vectors of data elements. This became very popular in scientific computing, and later in multimedia and graphics processing. –Today’s graphics processing units are a modern descendant of early vector machines. © 2009 Matthew J. Sottile, Timothy G. Mattson, and Craig E Rasmussen 13
Dataflow In the 1970s and 1980s, dataflow was proposed an alternative architecture to the traditional designs dating back to the 1940s. In dataflow, programs are represented as graphs in which vertices represent computations and edges represent data flowing into and out of computations. –Large opportunities for parallelism – any computation with data ready could execute. © 2009 Matthew J. Sottile, Timothy G. Mattson, and Craig E Rasmussen 14
Dataflow Example: an expression (a+b)*(c+d) could be represented as the flow graph below. The independence of the + nodes means they can execute in parallel. © 2009 Matthew J. Sottile, Timothy G. Mattson, and Craig E Rasmussen 15
Massively parallel machines In the 1980s and early 1990s, “massively parallel” machines with many, many parallel processors were created. Design goal: use many, many simple CPUs to solve problems with lots of available parallelism. –Many instructions would complete per second due to high processor count. –This would outperform more systems with few complex CPUs. –Relied on finding problems with lots of parallelism. © 2009 Matthew J. Sottile, Timothy G. Mattson, and Craig E Rasmussen 16
Distributed systems and clusters Special purpose supercomputers (such as MPPs) were very expensive. Networks of workstations could achieve similar performance by writing programs that used message passing as the method for coordinating parallel processing elements. Performance was often lower than special purpose supercomputers due to network latency, but extreme cost savings to buy clusters of workstations outweighed performance impact. © 2009 Matthew J. Sottile, Timothy G. Mattson, and Craig E Rasmussen 17
Today: Multicore and accelerators Processor manufacturers today can put multiple CPUs on a single physical chip. –Expensive shared memory multiprocessors of the past are now cheap desktop or laptop processors! Demands of multimedia (video, 3D games) have led to adoption of multicore and vector processing in special purpose accelerators. –Most machines today have a graphics card that is more capable than a vector supercomputer 20 to 30 years ago. © 2009 Matthew J. Sottile, Timothy G. Mattson, and Craig E Rasmussen 18
Outline Evolution of machines Evolution of languages Limits of automatic parallelization © 2009 Matthew J. Sottile, Timothy G. Mattson, and Craig E Rasmussen 19
FORTRAN The first widely used language was FORTRAN – the FORmula TRANslation language. –Dominant in numerical applications, which were the common application area for early computers. Standarad FORTRAN took many decades to adopt concurrency constructs. Dialects of FORTRAN built for specific machines did adopt these constructs. –E.g.: IVTRAN for the ILLIAC IV added the “DO FOR ALL” loop to provide parallel loops. © 2009 Matthew J. Sottile, Timothy G. Mattson, and Craig E Rasmussen 20
ALGOL The ALGOrithmic Language was introduced around the same time as FORTRAN. –Introduced control flow constructs present in modern languages. ALGOL 68 introduced concurrency constructs. –Collateral clauses allowed the programmer to express sequences of operations that could be executed in arbitrary order (or in parallel). –Added a data type for semaphores used for synchronization purposes. –Introduced “par begin”, a way of expressing that a block of statements can be executed in parallel. © 2009 Matthew J. Sottile, Timothy G. Mattson, and Craig E Rasmussen 21
Concurrent Pascal and Modula Concurrent Pascal is a dialect of the Pascal language designed for operating systems software developers. –Operating systems are fundamentally concerned with concurrency since the introduction of multiprogramming and parallel I/O devices. Added constructs representing processes and monitors. –Monitors are similar to objects in that they provide data encapsulation and synchronization primitives for defining and enforcing critical sections that operate on this data. © 2009 Matthew J. Sottile, Timothy G. Mattson, and Craig E Rasmussen 22
Communicating Sequential Processes CSP was a formal language defined to represent concurrent processes that interact with each other via message passing. The occam language was heavily influenced by CSP and provided language constructs for: –Creating processes. –Defining sequential and parallel sequences of operations. –Channels for communication between processes. © 2009 Matthew J. Sottile, Timothy G. Mattson, and Craig E Rasmussen 23
Ada Ada was a language designed for the US Dept. of Defense in the 1970s and 1980s, still in use today. Intended to be used for critical systems in which high software assurance was required. Included constructs for concurrent programming early in its development. Ada used the “task” abstraction to represent concurrently executing activities. –Communication via message passing or shared memory. © 2009 Matthew J. Sottile, Timothy G. Mattson, and Craig E Rasmussen 24
Ada Tasks communication is via rendezvous. Tasks reach points where they block until another task reaches a paired point, at which time they communicate and continue. –The tasks “rendezvous” with each other. Ada 95 also introduced protected objects for synchronization of data access. –Provides mutual exclusion primitives to the programmer. © 2009 Matthew J. Sottile, Timothy G. Mattson, and Craig E Rasmussen 25
Functional languages Functional languages have been around since LISP in the 1950s. Typically considered to be at a higher level of abstraction from imperative languages like C. –E.g.: Mapping a function over a list. A functional programmer doesn’t implement lower level details like how the list is represented or how the loop iterating over its elements is structured. Higher level of abstraction leaves more decision making up to the compiler. –Such as parallelization. © 2009 Matthew J. Sottile, Timothy G. Mattson, and Craig E Rasmussen 26
Functional languages MultiLISP was a dialect of Scheme that focused on concurrent and parallel programming. Included the notion of a future variable. –A future is a variable that can be passed around but may not have a value associated with it until a later time. –Operations on these future values can be synchronized if they are required before they are available. Futures have influenced modern languages, like Java and X10. © 2009 Matthew J. Sottile, Timothy G. Mattson, and Craig E Rasmussen 27
Dataflow languages Dataflow languages like Id and VAL were created to program dataflow hardware. –Purely functional core languages restricted side effects and made derivation of data flow graphs easier. –Lack of side effects facilitates parallelism. –I-structures and M-structures were part of the Id language to provide facilities for synchronization, memory side effects, and I/O. Modern languages like Haskell provide constructs (e.g.: Haskell MVars) that are based on features of dataflow languages. © 2009 Matthew J. Sottile, Timothy G. Mattson, and Craig E Rasmussen 28
Logic languages Based on formal logic expressions. –Programmers stated sets of relations and facts to encode their problems. –Fundamental core of the languages are logical operators (AND, OR, NOT). –High degree of parallelism in logic expressions. If we have an expression “A and B and C”, A, B, and C can be evaluated in parallel. Logic languages like PROLOG influenced modern languages like Erlang. © 2009 Matthew J. Sottile, Timothy G. Mattson, and Craig E Rasmussen 29
Parallel languages A number of languages were explored that specifically focused on parallelism. –Earlier examples were focused on general purpose programming, with concurrency constructs as a secondary concern. Languages like High Performance Fortran and ZPL instead focused on abstractions that were specifically designed to build parallel programs. © 2009 Matthew J. Sottile, Timothy G. Mattson, and Craig E Rasmussen 30
Parallel languages In both HPF and ZPL, data distribution was a key concern. –Given a set of parallel processing elements, how does the programmer describe how large logical data structures are physically decomposed across the processors? –Goal was to let the compiler generate the often tedious and error prone code to handle data distribution and movement. © 2009 Matthew J. Sottile, Timothy G. Mattson, and Craig E Rasmussen 31
Parallel languages Encourages users to take a “global view” of programs, not focus on local processor view. This lets programmer focus on the problem they want to solve, instead of details about how to map their problem onto a parallel machine. Parallel languages also focus on retargetability. –If parallelization decisions are fully controlled by the compiler, then it can make different decisions for different platforms. Portability is easier in this case. © 2009 Matthew J. Sottile, Timothy G. Mattson, and Craig E Rasmussen 32
Modern languages With the introduction of multicore, concurrency constructs are being added to most mainstream languages now. –Java: Threading and synchronization primitives. –Fortran: Co-Array Fortran added to 2008 standard. –.NET languages: Synchronization and threading –Clojure: LISP derivative with software transactional memory –Scala: Concurrent functional language. –Haskell: Software transactional memory, Mvars, threads. © 2009 Matthew J. Sottile, Timothy G. Mattson, and Craig E Rasmussen 33
Modern languages Most new language features in concurrent languages are based on features explored in earlier languages. Studying older languages that include concurrency constructs is informative in understanding what motivated their design and creation. © 2009 Matthew J. Sottile, Timothy G. Mattson, and Craig E Rasmussen 34
Outline Evolution of machines Evolution of languages Limits of automatic parallelization © 2009 Matthew J. Sottile, Timothy G. Mattson, and Craig E Rasmussen 35
Inferrence of parallelism is hard Most people agree that it is exceptionally difficult to automatically parallelize programs written in sequential languages. –Language features get in the way. E.g., pointers introduce potential for aliasing, which restricts compiler freedom to parallelize. –High-level abstractions are lost in low-level implementations. Complex loops and pointer-based data structures make it very challenging to infer structures that can be parallelized. © 2009 Matthew J. Sottile, Timothy G. Mattson, and Craig E Rasmussen 36
Move towards concurrent languages Vectorizing and parallelizing compilers are very powerful, but they are reaching their limits as parallelism seen in practice increases. The big trend in language design is to introduce language features that are built to support concurrent and parallel programming. © 2009 Matthew J. Sottile, Timothy G. Mattson, and Craig E Rasmussen 37
© 2009 Matthew J. Sottile, Timothy G. Mattson, and Craig E Rasmussen 1 Concurrency in Programming Languages Matthew J. Sottile Timothy G. Mattson Craig.
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