Presentation on theme: "May 3, 2015204521 Digital System Architecture Technology Trends Pradondet Nilagupta Fall 2005 (original notes from Randy Katz, & Prof. Jan M. Rabaey, UC."— Presentation transcript:
May 3, 2015204521 Digital System Architecture Technology Trends Pradondet Nilagupta Fall 2005 (original notes from Randy Katz, & Prof. Jan M. Rabaey, UC Berkeley)
May 3, 2015204521 Digital System Architecture2 Original Big Fishes Eating Little Fishes
May 3, 2015204521 Digital System Architecture3 1988 Computer Food Chain PCWork- station Mini- computer Mainframe Mini- supercomputer Supercomputer Massively Parallel Processors
May 3, 2015204521 Digital System Architecture4 1998 Computer Food Chain Mini- supercomputer Massively Parallel Processors Mini- computer PCWork- station Mainframe Supercomputer Now who is eating whom? Server
May 3, 2015204521 Digital System Architecture5 1985 Computer Food Chain Technologies PCWork- station Mini- computer Mainframe Mini- supercomputer Supercomputer ECLTTL MOS
May 3, 2015204521 Digital System Architecture6 Why Such Change in 10 years? (1/2) Function –Rise of networking/local interconnection technology Performance –Technology Advances CMOS VLSI dominates TTL, ECL in cost & performance –Computer architecture advances improves low-end RISC, Superscalar, RAID, …
May 3, 2015204521 Digital System Architecture7 Why Such Change in 10 years? (2/2) Price: Lower costs due to … –Simpler development CMOS VLSI: smaller systems, fewer components –Higher volumes CMOS VLSI : same dev. cost 10,000 vs. 10,000,000 units –Lower margins by class of computer, due to fewer services
May 3, 2015204521 Digital System Architecture8 Technology Trends: Microprocessor Capacity Moore ’ s Law CMOS improvements: Die size: 2X every 3 yrs Line width: halve / 7 yrs “ Graduation Window ” Alpha 21264: 15 million Pentium Pro: 5.5 million PowerPC 620: 6.9 million Alpha 21164: 9.3 million Sparc Ultra: 5.2 million
May 3, 2015204521 Digital System Architecture9 Memory Capacity (Single Chip DRAM) year size(Mb)cyc time 19800.0625250 ns 19830.25220 ns 19861190 ns 19894165 ns 199216145 ns 199664120 ns 2000256100 ns
May 3, 2015204521 Digital System Architecture10 CMOS Improvements Die size 2X every 3 yrs Line widths halve every 7 yrs 0 5 10 15 20 25 19801983198619891992 Die Size Line Width Improvement Die size increase plus transistor count increase Transistor Count
May 3, 2015204521 Digital System Architecture11 Memory Size of Various Systems Over Time 128K 128M 2000 8K 1M 8M 1G 8G 1970 19801990 1 chip 1Kbit 640K 4K16K64K256K1M4M16M64M 256M DOS limit 1/8 chip 8 chips-PC 64 chips workstation 512 chips 4K chips Bytes Time
May 3, 2015204521 Digital System Architecture12 Technology Trends (Summary) CapacitySpeed (latency) Logic2x in 3 years2x in 3 years DRAM4x in 3 years2x in 10 years Disk4x in 3 years2x in 10 years
May 3, 2015204521 Digital System Architecture13 Processor Frequency Trend Ê Frequency doubles each generation Ë Number of gates/clock reduce by 25% Ê Frequency doubles each generation Ë Number of gates/clock reduce by 25%
May 3, 2015204521 Digital System Architecture14 Processor Performance Trends
May 3, 2015204521 Digital System Architecture15 Performance vs. Time Mips 25 MHz 0.1 1.0 10 100 Performance (VAX 780s) 1980 1985 1990 MV10K 68K 780 5 MHz RISC 60% / yr. uVAX 6K (CMOS) 8600 TTL ECL 15%/yr. CMOS CISC 38%/yr. o | | MIPS (8 MHz) o 9000 Mips (65 MHz) uVAX CMOS Will RISC continue on a 60%, (x4 / 3 years)? 4K
May 3, 2015204521 Digital System Architecture16 Processor Performance (1.35X before, 1.55X now) 1.54X/yr
May 3, 2015204521 Digital System Architecture17 Summary: Performance Trends Workstation performance (measured in Spec Marks) improves roughly 50% per year (2X every 18 months) Improvement in cost performance estimated at 70% per year
May 3, 2015204521 Digital System Architecture18 Processor Perspective Putting performance growth in perspective: IBM POWER2 Cray YMP Workstation Supercomputer Year19931988 MIPS> 200 MIPS< 50 MIPS Linpack140 MFLOPS160 MFLOPS Cost$120,000$1M ($1.6M in 1994$) Clock71.5 MHz167 MHz Cache256 KB0.25 KB Memory512 MB256 MB 1988 supercomputer in 1993 server!
May 3, 2015204521 Digital System Architecture19 Where Has This Performance Improvement Come From? Technology? Organization? Instruction Set Architecture? Software? Some combination of all of the above?
May 3, 2015204521 Digital System Architecture20 Performance Trends Revisited (Architectural Innovation) Microprocessors Minicomputers Mainframes Supercomputers Year 0.1 1 10 100 1000 19651970197519801985199019952000 CISC/RISC
May 3, 2015204521 Digital System Architecture21 Performance Trends Revisited (Microprocessor Organization) Bit Level Parallelism Pipelining Caches Instruction Level Parallelism Out-of-order Xeq Speculation...
May 3, 2015204521 Digital System Architecture22 What is Ahead? Greater instruction level parallelism? Bigger caches? Multiple processors per chip? Complete systems on a chip? (Portable Systems) High performance LAN, Interface, and Interconnect
May 3, 2015204521 Digital System Architecture23 Hardware Technology 1980 1990 2000 Memory chips64 K 4 M 256 M-1 G Speed1-2 20-40 400-1000 5-1/4 in. disks40 M 1 G 20 G Floppies.256 M 1.5 M 500-2,000 M LAN (Switch)2-10 Mbits 10 (100) 155-655 (ATM) Busses2-20 Mbytes 40-400
May 3, 2015204521 Digital System Architecture24 Software Technology 1980 1990 2000 Languages C, FORTRAN C++, HPF object stuff?? Op. System proprietary +DUM* +DUM+NT User I/F glass Teletype WIMP* stylus, voice, audio,video, ?? Comp. Styles T/S, PC Client/Server agents*mobile New things PC & WS parallel proc. appliances Capabilities WP, SS WP,SS, mail video, ?? DUM = DO S, n-UNIX's, MAC WIMP = Windows, Icons, Mouse, Pull-down menus Agents = robots that work on information
May 3, 2015204521 Digital System Architecture25 Computer Technology Trends: Evolutionary but Rapid Change Processor: –1.5-1.6 performance improvement every year; Over 100X performance in last decade. Memory: –DRAM capacity: > 2x every 1.5 years; 1000X size in last decade. –Cost per bit: Improves about 25% per year. Disk: –Capacity: > 2X in size every 1.5 years. –Cost per bit: Improves about 60% per year. –200X size in last decade. –Only 10% performance improvement per year, due to mechanical limitations. Expected State-of-the-art PC by end of year 2005 : –Processor clock speed: > 4000 MegaHertz (4 Giga Hertz) –Memory capacity: > 4000 MegaByte (4 Giga Bytes) –Disk capacity:> 500 GigaBytes (0.5 Tera Bytes)
May 3, 2015204521 Digital System Architecture26 Recent Architectural Improvements Increased optimization and utilization of cache systems. Memory-latency hiding techniques. Optimization of pipelined instruction execution. Dynamic hardware-based pipeline scheduling. Improved handling of pipeline hazards. Improved hardware branch prediction techniques. Exploiting Instruction-Level Parallelism (ILP) in terms of multiple-instruction issue and multiple hardware functional units. Inclusion of special instructions to handle multimedia applications (limited vector processing). High-speed bus designs to improve data transfer rates.
May 3, 2015204521 Digital System Architecture27 Applications: Unlimited Opportunities (1/2) Office agents: phone/FAX/comm; files/paper handling Untethered computing: fully distributed offices ?? Integration of video, communication, and computing: desktop video publishing, conferencing, & mail Large, commercial transaction processing systems Encapsulate knowledge in a computer: scientific & engineering simulation (e.g.. planetarium, wind tunnel,... )
May 3, 2015204521 Digital System Architecture28 Applications: Unlimited Opportunities (2/2) Visualization & virtual reality Computational chemistry e.g. biochemistry and materials Mechanical engineering without prototypes Image/signal processing: medicine, maps, surveillance. Personal computers in 2001 are today's supercomputers Integration of the PC & TV => TC
May 3, 2015204521 Digital System Architecture29 Challenges for 1990s Platforms (1/2) 64-bit computers video, voice, communication, any really new apps? Increasingly large, complex systems and environments Usability? Plethora of non-portable, distributed, incompatible, non-interoperable computers: Usability? Scalable parallel computers can provide “commodity supercomputing”: Markets and trained users?
May 3, 2015204521 Digital System Architecture30 Challenges for 1990s Platforms (2/2) Apps to fuel and support a chubby industry: communications, paper/office, and digital video The true portable, wireless communication computer Truly personal card, pencil, pocket, wallet computer Networks continue to limit: WAN, ISDN, and ATM?