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What is Grid Computing? Cevat Şener Dept. of Computer Engineering, METU.

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Presentation on theme: "What is Grid Computing? Cevat Şener Dept. of Computer Engineering, METU."— Presentation transcript:

1 What is Grid Computing? Cevat Şener Dept. of Computer Engineering, METU

2 February 20072 Why Do We Need? Our computational needs are infinite, whereas our financial resources are finite users will always want more & more powerful computers try & utilize the potentially hundreds of thousands of computers that are interconnected in some unified way need seamless access to remote resources

3 February 20073 2100 Performance+QoSPerformance+QoS Evolution Personal SMP, Cluster Cluster of The Global Grid Super Clusters

4 February 20074 What is Grid? An infrastructure that couples Computers (e.g., PCs, clusters,...) Software (e.g., special purpose applications) Databases (e.g., access to human genome database) Special Instruments (e.g., radio telescope) People (e.g., researchers) Across the Internet and presents them as an unified integrated (single) resource

5 February 20075 An Analogy “The (Computational) Grid is analogous to Electricity (Power) Grid and the vision is to offer a dependable, consistent, pervasive, and inexpensive access to high-end resources irrespective their location of physical existence and the location of access.”

6 February 20076 The Grid Impact! “ The global computational grid is expected to drive the economy of the 21 st century similar to the electric power grid that drove the economy of the 20 th century ”

7 February 20077 The Internet and … Network … Network Internetwork … Internetwork The Internetwork (The Internet)

8 February 20078 … The Grid Cluster … Cluster Cluster of Clusters … Cluster of Clusters The Cluster of Clusters (The Grid)

9 February 20079 Grid and Web Services Standards Convergence of Core Technology Standards allows common base for Business and Technology Services Grid OGSI GT2 GT1 Web HTTP WSDL, SOAP WS-* Have been converging WSRF Started far apart in applications & technology XML BPEL

10 February 200710 The Value of Open Standards Networking: The Internet (TCP/IP) Communications: e-mail (pop3,SMTP,Mime) Information: World-wide Web (html, http, j2ee, xml) Applications: Web Services (SOAP, WSDL, UDDI) Distributed Computing: Grid (Globus  OGSA) Operating System: Linux

11 February 200711 Standards Involved SOA Standards WSDL UDDI BPEL WS-Profile WS-Security WS-Choreography And many others… Grid Standards OGSI Extension to WSDL WS-Resource WS-ResourceLifetime WS-ResourceProperties WS-RenewableReferences WS-ServiceGroup WS-BaseFaults

12 February 200712 Computational Grids A network of geographically distributed resources. Each user should have a single login account to access all resources. Resources may be owned by diverse organizations.

13 February 200713 Computational Grids Grids are typically managed by grid middleware (gridware). Gridware can be viewed as a special type of middleware that enable sharing and manage grid components based on user requirements and resource attributes (e.g., capacity, performance, availability…)

14 February 200714 Methods of Grid Computing Distributed Supercomputing High-Throughput Computing On-Demand Computing Data-Intensive Computing Collaborative Computing Logistical Networking

15 February 200715 Distributed Supercomputing Combining multiple high-capacity resources on a computational grid into a single, virtual distributed supercomputer. Tackle problems that cannot be solved on a single system.

16 February 200716 High-Throughput Computing Uses the grid to schedule large numbers of loosely coupled or independent tasks, with the goal of putting unused processor cycles to work.

17 February 200717 On-Demand Computing Uses grid capabilities to meet short-term requirements for resources that are not locally accessible. Models real-time computing demands.

18 February 200718 Data-Intensive Computing The focus is on synthesizing new information from data that is maintained in geographically distributed repositories, digital libraries, and databases. Particularly useful for distributed data mining.

19 February 200719 Collaborative Computing Concerned primarily with enabling and enhancing human-to-human interactions. Applications are often structured in terms of a virtual shared space.

20 February 200720 Logistical Networking Global scheduling and optimization of data movement. Contrasts with traditional networking, which does not explicitly model storage resources in the network. Called "logistical" because of the analogy it bears with the systems of warehouses, depots, and distribution channels.

21 February 200721 Who Needs Grid Computing? A chemist may utilize hundreds of processors to screen thousands of compounds per hour. Teams of engineers worldwide pool resources to analyze terabytes of structural data. Meteorologists seek to visualize and analyze petabytes of climate data with enormous computational demands....

22 February 200722 More and More Application Areas High Energy Physics Biomedicine Earth Sciences Computational Chemistry Astronomy Geo-Physics Financial Simulation...

23 February 200723 An Example: LHC from EGEE The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) located at CERN, Geneva, Switzerland Scheduled to go into production in 2007 Will generate 10 Petabytes of information per year This information must be processed and stored somewhere It is beyond the scope of a single institution to manage this problem

24 February 200724 Grid People Grid developers Tool developers Application developers End Users System Administrators

25 February 200725 Grid Developers Very small group. Implementers of a grid “protocol” who provides the basic services required to construct a grid.

26 February 200726 Tool Developers Implement the programming models used by application developers. Implement basic services similar to conventional computing services: User authentication/authorization Process management Data access and communication

27 February 200727 Tool Developers Also implement new (grid) services such as: Resource locations Fault detection Security Electronic payment

28 February 200728 Application Developers Construct grid-enabled applications for end- users who should be able to use these applications without concern for the underlying grid. Provide programming models that are appropriate for grid environments and services that programmers can rely on when developing (higher-level) applications.

29 February 200729 System Administrators Balance local and global concerns. Manage grid components and infrastructure. Some tasks still not well delineated due to the high degree of sharing required.

30 February 200730 Grid Architecture Core Services and Abstractions Resource and Connectivity protocol Diverse global services Local OS A p p l i c a t i o n s User Applications Collective services Fabric

31 February 200731 Workflows as Application Model An application is developed as a workflow containing one or more jobs Connections among jobs are all off-line through files. DAG

32 February 200732 Workflows as Application Model Jobs could be executed sequentially or in parallel. A job may contain tasks interconnected through on-line MPI calls. Sequential Parallel

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