Presentation on theme: "What is Grid Computing? Cevat Şener Dept. of Computer Engineering, METU."— Presentation transcript:
What is Grid Computing? Cevat Şener Dept. of Computer Engineering, METU
February Why Do We Need? Our computational needs are infinite, whereas our financial resources are finite users will always want more & more powerful computers try & utilize the potentially hundreds of thousands of computers that are interconnected in some unified way need seamless access to remote resources
February Performance+QoSPerformance+QoS Evolution Personal SMP, Cluster Cluster of The Global Grid Super Clusters
February What is Grid? An infrastructure that couples Computers (e.g., PCs, clusters,...) Software (e.g., special purpose applications) Databases (e.g., access to human genome database) Special Instruments (e.g., radio telescope) People (e.g., researchers) Across the Internet and presents them as an unified integrated (single) resource
February An Analogy “The (Computational) Grid is analogous to Electricity (Power) Grid and the vision is to offer a dependable, consistent, pervasive, and inexpensive access to high-end resources irrespective their location of physical existence and the location of access.”
February The Grid Impact! “ The global computational grid is expected to drive the economy of the 21 st century similar to the electric power grid that drove the economy of the 20 th century ”
February The Internet and … Network … Network Internetwork … Internetwork The Internetwork (The Internet)
February … The Grid Cluster … Cluster Cluster of Clusters … Cluster of Clusters The Cluster of Clusters (The Grid)
February Grid and Web Services Standards Convergence of Core Technology Standards allows common base for Business and Technology Services Grid OGSI GT2 GT1 Web HTTP WSDL, SOAP WS-* Have been converging WSRF Started far apart in applications & technology XML BPEL
February The Value of Open Standards Networking: The Internet (TCP/IP) Communications: (pop3,SMTP,Mime) Information: World-wide Web (html, http, j2ee, xml) Applications: Web Services (SOAP, WSDL, UDDI) Distributed Computing: Grid (Globus OGSA) Operating System: Linux
February Standards Involved SOA Standards WSDL UDDI BPEL WS-Profile WS-Security WS-Choreography And many others… Grid Standards OGSI Extension to WSDL WS-Resource WS-ResourceLifetime WS-ResourceProperties WS-RenewableReferences WS-ServiceGroup WS-BaseFaults
February Computational Grids A network of geographically distributed resources. Each user should have a single login account to access all resources. Resources may be owned by diverse organizations.
February Computational Grids Grids are typically managed by grid middleware (gridware). Gridware can be viewed as a special type of middleware that enable sharing and manage grid components based on user requirements and resource attributes (e.g., capacity, performance, availability…)
February Methods of Grid Computing Distributed Supercomputing High-Throughput Computing On-Demand Computing Data-Intensive Computing Collaborative Computing Logistical Networking
February Distributed Supercomputing Combining multiple high-capacity resources on a computational grid into a single, virtual distributed supercomputer. Tackle problems that cannot be solved on a single system.
February High-Throughput Computing Uses the grid to schedule large numbers of loosely coupled or independent tasks, with the goal of putting unused processor cycles to work.
February On-Demand Computing Uses grid capabilities to meet short-term requirements for resources that are not locally accessible. Models real-time computing demands.
February Data-Intensive Computing The focus is on synthesizing new information from data that is maintained in geographically distributed repositories, digital libraries, and databases. Particularly useful for distributed data mining.
February Collaborative Computing Concerned primarily with enabling and enhancing human-to-human interactions. Applications are often structured in terms of a virtual shared space.
February Logistical Networking Global scheduling and optimization of data movement. Contrasts with traditional networking, which does not explicitly model storage resources in the network. Called "logistical" because of the analogy it bears with the systems of warehouses, depots, and distribution channels.
February Who Needs Grid Computing? A chemist may utilize hundreds of processors to screen thousands of compounds per hour. Teams of engineers worldwide pool resources to analyze terabytes of structural data. Meteorologists seek to visualize and analyze petabytes of climate data with enormous computational demands....
February More and More Application Areas High Energy Physics Biomedicine Earth Sciences Computational Chemistry Astronomy Geo-Physics Financial Simulation...
February An Example: LHC from EGEE The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) located at CERN, Geneva, Switzerland Scheduled to go into production in 2007 Will generate 10 Petabytes of information per year This information must be processed and stored somewhere It is beyond the scope of a single institution to manage this problem
February Grid People Grid developers Tool developers Application developers End Users System Administrators
February Grid Developers Very small group. Implementers of a grid “protocol” who provides the basic services required to construct a grid.
February Tool Developers Implement the programming models used by application developers. Implement basic services similar to conventional computing services: User authentication/authorization Process management Data access and communication
February Tool Developers Also implement new (grid) services such as: Resource locations Fault detection Security Electronic payment
February Application Developers Construct grid-enabled applications for end- users who should be able to use these applications without concern for the underlying grid. Provide programming models that are appropriate for grid environments and services that programmers can rely on when developing (higher-level) applications.
February System Administrators Balance local and global concerns. Manage grid components and infrastructure. Some tasks still not well delineated due to the high degree of sharing required.
February Grid Architecture Core Services and Abstractions Resource and Connectivity protocol Diverse global services Local OS A p p l i c a t i o n s User Applications Collective services Fabric
February Workflows as Application Model An application is developed as a workflow containing one or more jobs Connections among jobs are all off-line through files. DAG
February Workflows as Application Model Jobs could be executed sequentially or in parallel. A job may contain tasks interconnected through on-line MPI calls. Sequential Parallel