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2. Computer Clusters for Scalable Parallel Computing

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1 2. Computer Clusters for Scalable Parallel Computing
2.1 Clustering for Massive Parallelism A computer cluster is a collection of interconnected stand-alone computers which can work together collectively and cooperatively as a single integrated computing resource pool. Clustering explores massive parallelism at the job level and achieves high availability (HA) through stand-alone operations. 2.1.1 Cluster Development Trends Milestone Cluster Systems hot research challenge fast communication job scheduling SSI HA 2.1.2 Design Objectives of Computer Clusters Ch 2-1. Computer Cluster

2 Dedicated vs. Enterprise Clusters
Scalability Packaging Cluster nodes can be packaged in a compact or a slack fashion. In a compact cluster, the nodes are closely packaged in one or more racks sitting in a rooms. In a slack cluster, the nodes are attached to their usual peripherals, and they may be located in different rooms, different buildings, or even remote regions. Packaging directly affects communication wire length, and thus the selection of interconnection technology used. Control A cluster can be either controlled or managed in centralized or decentralized fashion. A compact cluster normally has centralized control, while a slack cluster can be controlled either way. Homogeneity Security Intracluster communication can be either exposed or enclosed. Dedicated vs. Enterprise Clusters An enterprise cluster is mainly used to utilize idle resources in the nodes. Ch 2-1. Computer Cluster

3 2.1.3 Fundamental Cluster Design Issues
Scalable Performance Single-System Image (SSI) Availability Support Clusters can provide cost-effective HA capability with lots of redundancy in processors, memory, disks, I/O devices, networks, and operating system images. Cluster Job Management Job management software is required to provide batching, load balancing, parallel processing, and other functionality. Internode Communication Fault Tolerance and Recovery Cluster Family Classification Computer cluster These are clusters designed mainly for collective computation over a single large job. High-Availability clusters HA clusters are designed to be fault-tolerant and achieve HA of service. HA clusters operate with many redundant nodes to sustain faults or failures. Load-balancing clusters These clusters shoot for higher resource utilization through load balancing among all participating nodes in the cluster. Ch 2-1. Computer Cluster

4 2.2 Computer Cluster and MPP Architecture
2.1.4 Analysis of the Top 500 Supercomputers Architecture Evaluation SMP  MPP  cluster systems Speed Improvement over Time Pflops (Peta flops): 1,000조 부동소수점 명령/초 Performance plot of the Top 500 supercomputer from 1993 to (Fig. 2.2) Operating System Trends in the Top 500 Linux (82%) The Top Five Systems in 2010 Table 2.2 Country Share and Application Share Major increases of supercomputer applications are in the area of database, research, finance, and information services. 2.2 Computer Cluster and MPP Architecture 2.2.1 Cluster Organization and Resource Sharing A Basic Cluster Architecture Ch 2-1. Computer Cluster

5 2.2.3 Cluster System Interconnects
Figure 2.4 shows the basic architecture of a computer cluster over PCs or workstations. Resource Sharing in Clusters Fig, 2.5 The shared-nothing configuration in Part (a) simply connects two or more autonomous computers via a LAN such as Ethernet. A shared-disk cluster is shown in Part (b). This is what most business clusters desire so that they can enable recovery support in case of node failure. The shared-memory cluster in Part (c) is much more difficult to realize. The nodes could be connected by a scalable coherence interface (SCI) ring, which is connected to the memory bus of each node through an NIC module. Node Architecture and MPP Packaging Cluster nodes are classified into two categories: compute nodes and service nodes Table 2.3 introduces two example compute node architecture: homogeneous design and hybrid node design. 2.2.3 Cluster System Interconnects High-Bandwidth Interconnects Ch 2-1. Computer Cluster

6 2.2.4 Hardware, Software, and Middleware Support
Crossbar Switch in Google Search Engine Cluster (Fig. 2.7) Share of System Interconnects over Time Distribution of large-scale system interconnects (Fig. 2.8). The InfiniBand system fabric built in a typical high-performance computer cluster (Fig. 2.9). 2.2.4 Hardware, Software, and Middleware Support The middleware, OS extensions, and hardware support needed to achieve HA in a typical Linux cluster system (Fig. 2.10). 2.2.5 GPU Clusters for Massive Parallelism GPU Cluster Components A GPU cluster is often built as a heterogeneous system consisting of three major components: the CPU host nodes, the GPU nodes and the cluster interconnect between them. Ch 2-1. Computer Cluster

7 Academic Cluster Computing Initiative
Ch 2-1. Computer Cluster

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