Presentation on theme: "Introduction to the World of Computers"— Presentation transcript:
1 Introduction to the World of Computers Chapter 1Introduction to the World of Computers
2 Learning ObjectivesExplain why it is essential to learn about computers today and discuss several ways computers are integrated into our business and personal lives.Define a computer and describe its primary operations.List some important milestones in computer evolution.Identify the major parts of a personal computer, including input, processing, output, storage, and communications hardware.Define software and understand how it is used to instruct the computer what to do.
3 Learning ObjectivesList the five basic types of computers, giving at least one example of each type of computer and stating what that computer might be used for.Explain what a network, the Internet, and the World Wide Web are, as well as how computers, people, and Web pages are identified on the Internet.Describe how to access a Web page.Discuss the societal impact of computers, including some benefits and risks related to their prominence in our society.
4 Overview This chapter covers: What computers do and how they are used Computer terminologyAn overview of the history of computersThe basic types of computers in use todayAn overview of networks and the InternetSocietal impacts of computers
5 Computers in Your Life Why learn about computers? Pervasive computing Also known as ubiquitous computingComputers have become an integral part of our livesBasic computer literacyKnowing about and understanding computers and their uses is an essential skill today for everyone
6 Computers in Your Life Before 1980 Computers were large, expensive Very few people had access to themComputers were mostly used for high-volume processing tasksMicrocomputers in the early 80sInexpensive personal computersComputer use increased dramaticallyTodayMore than 60% of US households include a computer, and most use computers at workElectronic devices are converging into single units with multiple capabilities
7 Computers in the Home Computers used for a variety of tasks: Looking up information and newsExchangeShopping and paying billsDownloading music and moviesOrganizing digital photographsPlaying gamesTelecommutingConvergenceThe computer has become the central part of home entertainmentDual-mode mobile phones
8 Computers in the Home Wireless networking Computers can be used in nearly any locationSmart appliancesTraditional appliances with built-in computer or communication technologySmart homesHousehold tasks are monitored and controlled by a main computer in the house
10 Computers in Education K-12 schools now use the computer as an overall student-based learning toolColleges and universities are even more integratedClassrooms, computer labs, dorms, librariesWireless hotspots and Internet assignmentsTeachersPrepare handouts, exams, and class presentationsMaintain course Web pagesDistance learningStudents participate from locations other than the traditional classroom setting using computers and Internet access
12 Computers in the Workplace Computers have become a universal on-the-job tool for decision-making, productivity, and communicationUsed by all types of employeesUsed for access control and other security measuresUse by service professionals is growingUsed extensively by the militaryEmployees in all lines of work need to continually refresh their computer skills
14 Computers on the GoComputers are encountered in nearly every aspect of daily lifePortable PCs and handheld computersWi-Fi hotspots and Internet cafesATM machines and retail storesSelf-checkout systems and consumer kiosksM-commerce systemsGPS systems
16 What Is a Computer and What Does It Do? Computer: A programmable, electronic device that accepts data, performs operations on that data, and stores the data or results as neededComputers follow instructions, called programs, which determine the tasks the computer will performBasic operationsInput: Entering data into the computerProcessing: Performing operations on the dataOutput: Presenting the resultsStorage: Saving data, programs, or output for future useCommunications: Sending or receiving data
18 Data vs. Information Data Raw, unorganized facts Can be in the form of text, graphics, audio, or videoInformationData that has been processed into a meaningful formInformation processingConverting data into information
19 Computers Then and NowThe computer as we know it is a fairly recent inventionThe history of computers is often referred to in terms of generationsEach new generation is characterized by a major technological developmentPrecomputers and early computers (before 1945)Abacus, slide rule, mechanical calculatorPunch Card Tabulating Machine and Sorter19
20 Computers Then and Now First-generation computers (1946-1957) Enormous and powered by vacuum tubesUsed a great deal of electricity, and generated a lot of heatENIAC and UNIVACSecond-generation computers ( )Used transistorsComputers were smaller, more powerful, cheaper, more efficient, and more reliablePunch cards and magnetic tape were used to input and store data
21 Computers Then and Now Third-generation computers (1964-1970) Used integrated circuits (ICs)Keyboards and monitors introducedFourth-generation computers (1971-present)Use microprocessorsIBM PC, Apple MacintoshUse keyboards, mice, monitors, and printersUse magnetic disks, flash memory, and optical disks for storageComputer networks, wireless technologies, Internet introduced
22 Computers Then and Now Fifth-generation (now and the future) Infancy stageNo precise classificationMay be based on artificial intelligence (AI)Likely use voice inputMay be based on optical computers and utilize nanotechnology
24 Hardware Hardware: The physical parts of a computer Internal hardware Located inside the main box (system unit) of the computerExternal hardwareLocated outside the system unit and plug into ports located on the exterior of the system unitHardware associated with all five computer operations
26 Hardware Input devices Used to input data into the computer Keyboards, mice, scanners, cameras, microphones, joysticks, etc.Processing devicesPerform calculations and control computer’s operationCentral processing unit (CPU) and memoryOutput devicesPresent results to the userMonitors, printers, speakers, projectors, etc.
27 Hardware Storage devices Used to store data on or access data from storage mediaHard drives, DVD disks and drives, USB flash drives, etc.Communications devicesAllow users to communicate with others and to electronically access informationModems, network adapters, etc.
29 SoftwareSoftware: The programs or instructions used to tell the computer hardware what to doSystem software: Operating system allows a computer to operateBoots the computer and launches programs at the user’s directionMost use a GUI to interact with the user via windows, icons, menus, buttons, etc.Windows, Mac OS, Linux, etc.
32 Application SoftwareApplication software: Performs specific tasks or applicationsCreating letters, budgets, etc.Managing inventory and customer databasesEditing photographsScheduling appointmentsViewing Web pagesSending and receivingRecording / playing CDsDesigning homesPlaying games
34 Computer Users and Professionals Computer users (end users)People who use a computer to obtain informationComputer professionals include:ProgrammersSystems analystsComputer operations personnel
35 Computers to Fit Every Need Six basic categories of computersEmbedded computersMobile devicesPersonal computersMidrange serversMainframe computersSupercomputers
36 Embedded ComputersEmbedded computer: Embedded into a product and designed to perform specific tasks or functions for that productCannot be used as general-purpose computersOften embedded into:Household appliancesThermostatsSewing machinesA/V equipmentCars
37 Mobile DevicesMobile device: A very small device with some type of built-in computing or Internet capabilityTypically based on cellular phonesExamples:Smart phonesSmart watchesHandheld gaming devicesPortable digital media players
38 Personal Computers/Desktop PCs Personal computer: a computer system designed to be used by one person at a timeAlso called a microcomputerCan be desktop or portable computersDesktop PCs: fit on or next to a deskCan use tower case, desktop case, or all-in-oneCan be PC-compatible or MacintoshNot designed to be portable
39 Portable PCs Notebook (laptop) computers Typically use clamshell designTablet PCsCan be slatetablets orconvertible
40 Portable PCs Handheld computers Size of a paperback book or pocket calculatorSome include phone capabilitiesUltra Mobile Personal Computer (UMPC): Fully-functioning handheld
41 Portable PCs Most include wireless networking capabilities Can synch (share information) with a desktop computer as neededCan use a docking station or notebook stand as needed
42 Thin Clients and Internet Appliances Thin client or network computer (NC): PC designed to access a network for processing and data storageLower cost and easier maintenanceLimited or no local storageNot able to function as a computer if network is downInternet appliance: Specialized network computer designed for Internet access and/or exchangeOften set-top boxesCan include Internet-enabled gaming consoles
44 Midrange ServersMidrange server: A medium-sized computer used to host programs and data for a small networkUsers connect via a network with a computer, thin client, or dumb terminalMay consist of a collection of individual circuit boards called blades (blade servers)
45 Mainframe ComputersMainframe computer: Powerful computer used by several large organizations to manage large amounts of centralized dataStandard choice for large organizations, hospitals, universities, large businesses, banks, government officesLocated in climate-controlled data centers and connected to the rest of the company computers via a networkLarger, more expensive, and more powerful than midrange serversUsually operate 24 hours a dayAlso called high-end servers or enterprise-class servers
47 SupercomputersSupercomputer: Fastest, most expensive, most powerful type of computerGenerally run one program at a time, as fast as possibleCommonly built by connecting hundreds of smaller computers, supercomputing clusterUsed for space exploration, missile guidance, satellites, weather forecast, oil exploration, scientific research, complex Web sites, decision support systems, 3D applications, etc.Grid computing: Using the unused processing power of a large number of computers to work together on a single task
49 Computer Networks and the Internet Computer network: A collection of hardware and other devices that are connected together.Users can share hardware, software, and dataUsers can communicate with each otherNetwork servers: Manage resources on a networkClients: Access resources through the network serverComputer networks exist in many sizes and typesHome networksSchool and small business networksLarge corporatePublic wireless networksThe Internet
51 What Are the Internet and the World Wide Web? Internet: The largest and most well-known computer network in the worldIndividuals connect to the Internet using an Internet service provider (ISP)World Wide Web: One resource (a vast collection of Web pages) available through the InternetWeb sites contain Web pages stored on Web serversWeb pages viewed using a Web browser (Internet Explorer, Safari, Firefox, Opera, etc.A wide variety of information is available through the Web
53 Accessing a Network or the Internet Need a modem or network adapterSome networks require a username and passwordInternet connections can be:Direct (always-on) connectionsDial-up connectionsInternet addresses are used to access resources on the InternetIP address: Numeric address that identifies computers ( )Domain name: Text-based address that identifies computers (microsoft.com)Uniform resource locator (URL): Identifies Web pages (http://www.pbskids.org)address: Identifies people for exchange
54 IP Addresses and Domain Names IP addresses are numeric and uniqueDomain Names: Correspond to IP addressesTop-level domains (TLDs)identifies type of organizationor its location
55 Uniform Resource Locators (URLs) URL: Uniquely identifies a Web pageConsists of:Information identifying the Web serverNames of folders in which the Web page files are storedWeb page’s filenameProtocols:Hypertext Transfer Protocol (http) is typically used to display Web pages (https is used for secure Web pagesFile Transfer Protocol (ftp) is often used for file exchange
57 E-Mail Addresses E-mail addresses consist of: Username: A persons’ identifying name for a particular domainsymbolDomain name for the computer that will be handling the person’s (mail server)Pronouncing Internet addresses
58 Surfing the Web Web browser: Used to display Web pages Browser home page: The first page displayed when the browser is openedTo load a Web page, you can:Type a URL in the Address barClick a hyperlink on a displayed Web pageSelect a Favorite/Bookmark or page from the History list
60 Searching the WebSearch site: Web page that helps you find Web pages containing the information you are seekingTypically search using keywordsReference sites: Look up addresses, telephone numbers, ZIP codes, maps, etc.
61 Electronic mail ( ): electronic messages exchanged via a private network or the InternetCan be conventional or Web-basedCan contain photos, attached files, etc.
62 Computers and SocietyThe vast improvements in technology over the past decade have had a distinct impact on daily life, both at home and at workMany benefits of a computer-oriented societyAlso risksComputer virusesIdentity theft and phishingPrivacy issuesDifferences in online communicationsThe anonymity factorInformation integrity (not all information on the Internet is accurate)
63 Summary Computers in Your Life What Is a Computer and What Does It Do Computers to Fit Every NeedComputer Networks and the InternetComputers and Society