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Introduction to Information and Computer Science Basic Computing Concepts Including History Lecture a This material (Comp4_Unit1a) was developed by Oregon.

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Information and Computer Science Basic Computing Concepts Including History Lecture a This material (Comp4_Unit1a) was developed by Oregon."— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction to Information and Computer Science Basic Computing Concepts Including History Lecture a This material (Comp4_Unit1a) was developed by Oregon Health and Science University, funded by the Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology under Award Number IU24OC

2 Basic Computing Concepts Including History Learning Objectives 2 Define what a computer is (Lecture a) Describe different types of computers, including PCs, mobile devices and embedded computers (Lecture a) Define the common elements of computer systems (Lecture a) Describe the various hardware and software options for typical desktop, laptop and server systems for home and business use with a focus on healthcare systems (Lectures b and c) Explain the development of computers and the Internet, including healthcare systems, up until the present time. (Lecture d and e) Health IT Workforce Curriculum Version 3.0/Spring 2012 Introduction to Information and Computer Science Basic Computing Concepts Including History Lecture a

3 Computer Definition According to Webster's Dictionary: one that computes; specifically : a programmable, usually electronic, device that can store, retrieve, and process data Originally term applied to people 3 Health IT Workforce Curriculum Version 3.0/Spring 2012 Introduction to Information and Computer Science Basic Computing Concepts Including History Lecture a Man doing computations (EPA, 1973)

4 Types of Computers Personal Computers Desktop computer Laptop/Notebook/Net book Tablets/iPad Smartphones 4 Health IT Workforce Curriculum Version 3.0/Spring 2012 Introduction to Information and Computer Science Basic Computing Concepts Including History Lecture a Android Smartphone (CC BY-SA 3.0. unnamed, nd.) MSI laptop computer (CC BY-SA 3.0. Kristoferb, 2010) First Generation iPad (Fleishman, 2010)

5 Types of Computers Large Scale Computers Mainframe Server Supercomputer 5 Health IT Workforce Curriculum Version 3.0/Spring 2012 Introduction to Information and Computer Science Basic Computing Concepts Including History Lecture a IBM 704 Mainframe (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, nd.) Columbia Supercomputer (Trower, NASA)

6 Types of Computers Embedded Computers 6 Health IT Workforce Curriculum Version 3.0/Spring 2012 Introduction to Information and Computer Science Basic Computing Concepts Including History Lecture a (top) A portable DVD player by Philips (Evan- Amos, 2010) (bottom) ABS Brakes (Dean, 2007)) Dishwasher (Paes, nd.) MRI Laboratory of Functional and Molecular Imaging (NINDS, NIH, nd.)

7 Computer Components Hardware Software 7 Health IT Workforce Curriculum Version 3.0/Spring 2012 Introduction to Information and Computer Science Basic Computing Concepts Including History Lecture a Graphic workstation (public domain, nd.)

8 Computer Hardware Input Devices Keyboard Touch Screen Mouse Microphones Camera Stylus Scanners 8 Health IT Workforce Curriculum Version 3.0/Spring 2012 Introduction to Information and Computer Science Basic Computing Concepts Including History Lecture a (top) Keyboard (Mrsi, 2010) (bottom left) PDA (public domain, nd.) (bottom right) Computer mouse (public domain, nd.)

9 Computer Hardware Output Devices Monitors Projectors Printers Sound Output 9 Health IT Workforce Curriculum Version 3.0/Spring 2012 Introduction to Information and Computer Science Basic Computing Concepts Including History Lecture a Output devices: printer and monitor (public domain, nd.)

10 Computer Hardware Motherboard A motherboard is a circuit board Contains –Processor –Memory –Connectors –Expansion slots 10 Health IT Workforce Curriculum Version 3.0/Spring 2012 Introduction to Information and Computer Science Basic Computing Concepts Including History Lecture a Labeled diagram of Acer E360 Socket 939 motherboard (Moxfyre, 2008)

11 Computer Hardware Processor The processor or Central Processing Unit (CPU) is the "brain" of the computer Controls all functions of the computer Its processing speed is measured in hertz (Hz) –Current systems run at GHz speeds (billion machine cycles per second) –Not the only determinant of overall computer speed Modern systems have multiple processors or cores 11 Health IT Workforce Curriculum Version 3.0/Spring 2012 Introduction to Information and Computer Science Basic Computing Concepts Including History Lecture a Intel 80486DX CPU (Dunn, 2005)

12 Computer Hardware Memory Two types –Read Only Memory (ROM): permanent –Random Access Memory (RAM): volatile RAM is where programs are stored as they run –Known as primary storage –Can be multiple levels of RAM Too little memory can slow down computer 12 Health IT Workforce Curriculum Version 3.0/Spring 2012 Introduction to Information and Computer Science Basic Computing Concepts Including History Lecture a RAM Memory Modules (Cyberdex, 2006)

13 Computer Hardware Secondary Storage Secondary storage is permanent, off chip storage Hard drives: internal and external Slower than memory 13 Health IT Workforce Curriculum Version 3.0/Spring 2012 Introduction to Information and Computer Science Basic Computing Concepts Including History Lecture a Internal view of hard drive (Garczewski, 2004)

14 Computer Hardware Other Storage Removable storage –Floppy disks –Optical disks –USB Flash drive 14 Health IT Workforce Curriculum Version 3.0/Spring 2012 Introduction to Information and Computer Science Basic Computing Concepts Including History Lecture a (top) DVD (left) Sandisk-brand USB thumb drive, SanDisk Cruzer Micro, 4GB (Evan-Amos, 2011)

15 Computer Hardware Connectors and Ports Ports are way to connect peripheral devices to your computer Universal serial bus (USB) port is very fast 15 Health IT Workforce Curriculum Version 3.0/Spring 2012 Introduction to Information and Computer Science Basic Computing Concepts Including History Lecture a Other ports –Video –Audio –Firewire –Ethernet –Modem USB plug type A (A. Frank, 2005)

16 Computer Software Operating System 16 Health IT Workforce Curriculum Version 3.0/Spring 2012 Introduction to Information and Computer Science Basic Computing Concepts Including History Lecture a The operating system (OS) coordinates hardware and software Computers cannot run without an OS Allows users to interact with the computer Manages tasks in the CPU, memory, storage, peripheral devices, programs, etc. Examples –Microsoft Windows –Mac OS –Linux

17 Computer Software Application Software Application software are the programs you run Includes –Word processors –EMR –Spreadsheets –Browsers –Video Games 17 Health IT Workforce Curriculum Version 3.0/Spring 2012 Introduction to Information and Computer Science Basic Computing Concepts Including History Lecture a OpenOffice Word Processor (Hribar, 2011)

18 More Components 18 Health IT Workforce Curriculum Version 3.0/Spring 2012 Introduction to Information and Computer Science Basic Computing Concepts Including History Lecture a Networks –Allow computer to connect to others and to Internet –Hardware: network ports, connections, routers –Software: OS and NOS Databases –Collection of data easily stored and retrieved –Hardware: server (computer and storage) –Software: DBMS

19 Computer Software and Hardware 19 Health IT Workforce Curriculum Version 3.0/Spring 2012 Introduction to Information and Computer Science Basic Computing Concepts Including History Lecture a Software is the interface between the user and the computer Without meaningful, easy to use applications, people wouldn't use computers If the hardware is slow, people won't use the applications Important to get a good balance

20 Basic Computing Concepts Including History Summary – Lecture a 20 Computers are electronic devices that input, calculate and output data Computers range from PCs to large mainframes and supercomputers Computers are also found in most electronic devices today Composed of hardware and software Health IT Workforce Curriculum Version 3.0/Spring 2012 Introduction to Information and Computer Science Basic Computing Concepts Including History Lecture a

21 Basic Computing Concepts Including History References – Lecture a References Definition of computer from Webster’s Dictionary online: webster.com/dictionary/computer c http://www.merriam- webster.com/dictionary/computer c Evans A, Martin K, Poatsey MA. Chapter 1: Why Computers Matter to You. In: Technology in Action: Complete. 7th ed. New Jersey: Prentice Hall; Evans A, Martin K, Poatsey MA. Chapter 2: Looking at Computers: Understanding the Parts. In: Technology in Action: Complete. 7th ed. New Jersey: Prentice Hall; Parsons JJ, Oja D. Chapter 1: Computers and Digital Basics. In: New Perspectives on Computer Concepts 2011: Comprehensive. 13th ed. Boston: Course Technology; Shelley GB, Vermaat ME. Chapter 1: Introduction to Computers. In: Discovering Computers 2011: Introductory. 1st ed. Boston: Course Technology; Health IT Workforce Curriculum Version 3.0/Spring 2012 Introduction to Information and Computer Science Basic Computing Concepts Including History Lecture a

22 Basic Computing Concepts Including History References – Lecture a (continued) Images (continued) Slide 3: Environmental Protection Agency. (1973, July). ARC - Archival Research Catalog. Retrieved November 2011, from The National Archives website: Slide 4: Android Smartphone: Unamed102. Retrieved November 2011, from Wikimedia Commons website: This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution ShareAlike 3.0 License.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Android_home.pnghttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Creative CommonsAttribution ShareAlike 3.0 Slide 4: Laptop: Kristoferb (talk). (2010, June 14). Retrieved November 2011, from This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:MSI_Laptop_computer.jpghttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Slide 4: First generation iPad: copyright Glenn Fleishman, Seattle, WA. 02.jpg. Retrieved November, 2011from Wikimedia Commons website: This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic license.http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:IPad- 02.jpghttp://commons.wikimedia.org/Attribution 2.0 Generic Slide 5: The Columbia Supercomputer at NASA's Advanced Supercomputing Facility at Ames Research Center: Trower, NASA, nd.). _NASA_Advanced_Supercomputing_Facility.jpg. Retrieved November 2011, from Wikimedia Commons website: This file is in the public domain because it was created by NASA.http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Columbia_Supercomputer_- _NASA_Advanced_Supercomputing_Facility.jpghttp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/public domainNASA Slide 5: An IBM 704 mainframe. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. (n.d.). Retrieved November 2011, from Wikimedia Commons website: The copyright holder of this file, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, allows anyone to use it for any purpose, provided that the copyright holder is properly attributed. Redistribution, derivative work, commercial use, and all other use is permitted. Livermore National Laboratory 22 Health IT Workforce Curriculum Version 3.0/Spring 2012 Introduction to Information and Computer Science Basic Computing Concepts Including History Lecture a

23 Basic Computing Concepts Including History References – Lecture a (continued) Images (continued) Slide 6: A portable DVD player by Philips: Evan-Amos. (2010, September 3). portable-dvd-player.jpg Retrieved November 2011, from Wikimedia Commons website: Public domain image.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Philips- portable-dvd-player.jpg Slide 6: ABS brakes: © by Jeff Dean. (2007, May 4). Retrieved November 2011, from Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia website: The copyright holder of this file allows anyone to use it for any purpose, provided that the copyright holder is properly attributed.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Absbrakes.jpg Slide 6: Paes, C. (n.d.). Retrieved November 2011, from Wikimedia Commons website: The copyright holder of this work allows anyone to use it for any purpose including unrestricted redistribution, commercial use, and modification.http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Dishwasher_open_for_loading.jpghttp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki Slide 6: MRI: NINDS. (n.d.). Retrieved November 2011, from Wikimedia Commons website: Slide 7: Graphic workstation: Public Domain. (n.d.). Retrieved November 2011, from WPClipart website: Slide 8: Computer Keyboard: Mrsi, I. (2010, August 23). Retrieved November 2011, from Wikimedia Commons website: Public domain. Slide 8: PDA: (n.d.). Retrieved November 2011, from Clker.com website: Public domain: Slide 8: Computer Mouse: Public domain (nd.). Retrieved November 2011from 23 Health IT Workforce Curriculum Version 3.0/Spring 2012 Introduction to Information and Computer Science Basic Computing Concepts Including History Lecture a

24 Basic Computing Concepts Including History References – Lecture a (continued) Images (continued) Slide 9: Output devices: printer and monitor: Public domain (nd.). Retrieved November 2011 from Slide 10: Labeled diagram of Acer E360 Socket 939 motherboard. Moxfyre. (2008, September 23). Retrieved November 2011, from Wikipedia The Free Encyclopedia website: Slide 11: Intel 80486DX CPU. Photograph © Andrew Dunn (2005, November 9 ). Website: Retrieved November 2011 from Wikimedia Commons website: Dunn Slide 12: RAM memory modules. Cyberdex (2006). Retrieved November 2011 from Wikimedia Commons website: Public domain image. Slide 13: Internal view of hard drive. Łukasz Garczewski (2004). Retrieved November 2011 from Wikimedia Commons website: Public domain image. Slide 14: A Sandisk-brand USB thumb drive, SanDisk Cruzer Micro, 4GB. Evan-Amos (2011). Retrieved from Wikimedia Commons website: Public domain image. Slide 14: DVD: WPClipart (nd.). Retrieved November 2011 from WPClipart website: Public domain image.http://www.wpclipart.com/computer/disks/CD/CD_DVD_small_bright.png.html Slide 15: USB plug type A: A. Frank (2005, February). Retrieved November 2011 from Wikipedia The Free Encyclopedia website: This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.0 Generic license.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:USB_TypeA_Plug.JPGhttp://en.wikipedia.orgAttribution-Share Alike 2.0 Generic Slide 17: OpenOffice Word Processor screenshot. M. Hribar (2011). 24 Health IT Workforce Curriculum Version 3.0/Spring 2012 Introduction to Information and Computer Science Basic Computing Concepts Including History Lecture a


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