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DESIGNING BLOODHOUND SSC— The 1000mph Car* IMA Mathematics 2011, 24 th March 2011 Dr Ben Evans College of Engineering Swansea University *supported by EPSRC Platform Grant EP/D074258; EPSRC Research Grant EP/F032617

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OUTLINE BLOODHOUND SSC Project World Land Speed Record Importance of aerodynamic design Process of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) Validation of the process and THRUST SSC CFD applied to the design of BLOODHOUND SSC Conclusions

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THE BLOODHOUND SSC PROJECT

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LAND SPEED RECORD 1898 Gaston Ch-LaubatFrance 39mph 1904 Louis RigollyFrance103mph 1927 Sir Henry SegraveUK203mph 1935 Sir Malcolm CampbellUK301mph 1964 Donald CampbellUK403mph 1964 Craig BreedloveUSA526mph 1965 Craig BreedloveUSA600mph 1983 Richard NobleUK633mph 1997 Andy Green UK 763mph (Mach 1.016)

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BLOODHOUND SSC 1000 mph SUBSONIC TO SUPERSONIC M=0.0M=1.0M=0.5M=1.5 SUBSONIC TRANSONICSUPERSONIC HYPERSONIC THRUST SSC 763 mph THRUST2 633 mph BABS (at Pendine) 171 MPH BLUEBIRD (at Pendine) 174 MPH

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BLOODHOUND SSC: DESIGN CHALLENGES propulsion structural performance control of the dynamic stability confirmed braking system strategy aerodynamics

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UNCONTROLLED LIFT FORCE Donald Campbell’s Bluebird Coniston Water January 4 th 1967

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ANALYSING AERODYNAMIC DESIGNS: WIND TUNNEL TESTING

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ANALYSING ENGINEERING DESIGNS: COMPUTER SIMULATION Simulation using computers (a) mathematical model (c) computer solution (d) analysis of the results Olek Zienkiewicz 1921––2009 (b) approximation aerodynamic modelling→computational fluid dynamics (CFD)

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MATHEMATICAL MODEL: AIR FLOW Basic laws of physics: conservation of mass, momentum and energy

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APPROXIMATION: 1D uniform subdivision non–uniform subdivision the subdivision: mesh creating the subdivision: mesh generation sub–regions: elements nodes: approximation gets better as the element size decreases or as the number of nodes increases

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APPROXIMATION: 2D

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CFD PROCESS: 2D define the regionmesh generation analyse solution actual wing mathematical description of the aerofoil section approximate equations and solve

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AUTOMATIC MESH GENERATION: 2D REGION

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CFD PROCESS: 3D actual aircraft mathematical description of the aircraft surface mesh generation analyse solution define the region approximate equations and solve

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COMPUTER PERFORMANCE/COST 1990s: CRAY C90 supercomputer several million pounds10 3 MFlops national supercomputer centres 2010: PC cluster £130K430 cpus 9x10 6 MFlops university departments

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CFD: FLITE3D

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THRUST SSC PROJECT THRUST SSC 1997 Ron Ayres

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THRUST SSC: CFD VALIDATION Mach 0.71 1.08 0.96 1.05 Experiment CFD μ=0 1 million elements 24 hours CRAY C90

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CFD: VARIATION IN LIFT ground surface axis of vehicle ground surface axis of vehicle

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THRUST SSC World Land Speed Record 763 mph Black Rock Desert, Nevada October 15 th 1997

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BLOODHOUND SSC: DESIGN EVOLUTION project launch October 2008 current design initial concept 2007

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BLOODHOUND SSC: DESIGN FEATURES battery pack front wheels front wings cockpit oxidiser tank motor for rocket oxidiser pump jet engine intake duct jet engine rocket rear wheels rear wings atop the vertical stabiliser (fin)

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WHEEL DESIGN pressure coefficient on the surface single keeltriple keel single keel triple keel

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ENGINE INTAKE DESIGN CFD for the twin intake CFD for the modified single intake design total pressure at the engine face

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FRONT WHEEL PLACEMENT yaw angle = -2º Original designModified design yaw angle = 5º

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REAR SUPERSONIC LIFT dark blue: low pressure → red: high pressure

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Study parameters - delta leading edge sweep angle - base area - rear wheel track - fairing spike length - fairing spike height - boat-tail angle - body-delta angle - ride height - delta angle of attack - delta strut camber - rear shape - diffuser - suspension ‘blister’ - delta leading edge ‘crank’ - delta – body blend - fairing radius - fairing cone diameter - delta AoA PARAMETRIC OPTIMISATION

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dark blue: low pressure → red: high pressure

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FULL VEHICLE 100 million elements 24 hours 128 AMD Opteron processors

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CONFIGURATIONS ANALYSED Config evolution

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ACCELERATING CAR red: low pressure → purple: high pressure

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CFD: FINAL DESIGN

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CAR BUILD: AUTUMN 2010―CHRISTMAS 2011

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RECORD ATTEMPT Hakskeen Pan in the north eastern corner of South Africa clay surface 10 miles of track & 1 mile overrun very hard and very flat good access & ideal weather clearance of 9 square miles by 300 workers in 128 days

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RUN PROFILE

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Dr Jason Jones, Professor Oubay Hassan, Dr Clare Wood, KM, Dr Ben Evans Inset (left) Dr Lakhdar Remaki Inset (right) Professor Nigel Weatherill

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Thank you for listening…

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