Presentation on theme: "CSCI 1412 Tutorial 1 Introduction to Hardware, Software Parminder Kang Home:"— Presentation transcript:
CSCI 1412 Tutorial 1 Introduction to Hardware, Software Parminder Kang Home:
Q1: Difference between hardware and software? Hardware: Hardware is best described as a device that is physically connected to your computer or something that can be physically touched. plastic, metal and glass components Example: display devices; LCD. storage; hard drive, CD, DVD, FDD. Input; Keyboard, mouse, scanner, bar code reader. Output; printer, display devices. Communication; NIC.
Software: software is a general term used to describe a collection of computer programs, procedures and documentation that perform some tasks on a computer system. set of instructions and data processed by the hardware used to control the hardware Example: Application Software (word processors) System Software (Operating Systems), to provide the necessary services for application software. Middleware which controls and co-ordinates distributed Systems.
What is Firmware?
Q2: Software, Program and Data? Program: In order to do any specific job you have to give a sequence of instructions to the computer. This set of instructions is called a computer program. Software: software is a general term used to describe a collection of computer programs, procedures and documentation that perform some tasks on a computer system. Software refers to the set of computer programs, procedures that describe the programs, how they are to be used. The process of software development is called programming. Example: Application Software (word processors) System Software (Operating Systems), to provide the necessary services for application software. Middleware which controls and co-ordinates distributed Systems.
Data: Distinct pieces of information, usually formatted in a special way. Programs are collections of instructions for manipulating data. Data can exist in a variety of forms. 1.numbers or text on pieces of paper 2.bits and bytes in electronic memory 3.facts stored in a person's mind. Types: ASCII, binary. For example: database and metadata.
Set of instructions set of Programs software System softwareApplication software
Q4: Application, System/Utility and Programming Language software? Application Software: Application software is set on programs to carry out Operations for specific application. Example: MS office COBOL (Common Business Oriented Language ) for business applications FORTRAN (Formula Translation) is useful for scientific application. System Software: system software is defined as a set of one or more programs designed to control the operation of computer system. Also knows as Operating System. Main Function: controlling all operations required to move data into and out of the computer. essential for the development of applications software Example: DOS, UNIX and WINDOWS
Utility Software: Manage and tune computer hardware, Operating system and application software. maintenance & problem solving tools - housekeeping Example: Virus Scanner, Disk Defragmenter. System Mechanic, Register cleaner etc. Network Managers. Programming Language: A programming language is artificial language that can be used to write programs. Programs are used to control the behaviour of machine. Types: High Level and Low Level.
Programming Language High Level Low Level Machine language Assembly Language Written in machine code no translation required by CPU. Hence fast execution. difficult to learn and debug the code. Hardware dependent. program consist of set of letters and symbols. one-to-one translation between Assembly language and machine code. Hence retain efficiency. easier to learn and debug than machine language. still Hardware dependent. easier to learn and use. hardware independent. efficiency; source code needs to convert into machine code before execution
Q5: Define Supercomputer, Mainframe, mini- computer and dedicated computer? Supercomputer: very expensive machines. used for complex applications that requires immense amount of mathematical calculations. Uses: Climate research, weather forecasting, molecular modelling, quantum mechanical physics. Simulation.
Mainframe: A very large and expensive computer. Simultaneously supports hundreds or thousands of users. and provides greater availability and security. Uses: bulk data processing eg. Financial transaction processing. Difference between mainframe and supercomputer?
Minicomputer: It is a multiprocessing system. lies between workstation and mainframe. supports ten to hundreds of users. Uses: the functions are similar to the mainframe but at smaller scale. Eg: SPARC (by Sun Microsystems) and POWER (by IBM) Dedicated computer: Special purpose computer, dedicated for one or few tasks. often used in real time control. also known as Embedded systems. Eg: industrial automation and control (nuclear power plant controller) cars Washing machine, security alarms, GPS etc.
Q6: functionality of components of CPU?
Control Unit: Fetch Decode and Execute. ALU: Performs arithmetic and logical operations Memory: Registers Hold data, instructions and intermediate results.