3Cyberinfrastructure as defined by Indiana University Cyberinfrastructure consists of computing systems, data storage systems, advanced instruments and data repositories, visualization environments, and people, all linked together by software and high performance networks to improve research productivity and enable breakthroughs not otherwise possible.
4The birth of a new wordDerived in late ‘90s from foundational work in computer gridsGained widespread usage following 2003’s “Revolutionizing Science and Engineering Through Cyberinfrastructure: Report of the National Science Foundation Blue-Ribbon Advisory Panel on Cyberinfrastructure” (aka the Atkins Report)Based on “infrastructure,” a relatively new term
5Okay, so what’s infrastructure? Merriam-WebsterUnderlying foundation or basic framework (as of a system or organizationPermanent installations required for military purposesSystem of public works of a country, state, or region; also: resources required for an activityOxford Dictionary of EnglishBasic physical and organizational structures and facilities (e.g. buildings, roads, power supplies) needed for operation of a society or enterprise
6Put them together and…Cyberinfrastructure: an infrastructure for knowledge
7The evolution of language Cyberinfrastructure consists of computational systems, data and information management, advanced instruments, visualization environments, and people, all linked together by software and advanced networks to improve scholarly productivity and enable knowledge breakthroughs and discoveries not otherwise possible. (2009 joint report of EDUCAUSE Campus Cyberinfrastructure Working Group and Coalition for Academic Scientific Computation)Slight edit of IU’s 2007 definition given in first slide. This definition is much more general and less research-centric.
8Break it down Three discrete elements TechnologyPeopleEffectA supercomputer may be a component of cyberinfrastructure, but does not in isolation constitute cyberinfrastructurePeople are a key element
9How do you know?What distinguishes cyberinfrastructure from information technology infrastructure?People!Also…Linkage of technology elements by software and high performance networks into a larger systemUse of cyberinfrastructure having as its outcome the improvement of research productivity and breakthroughs not otherwise possible
10I’ll take “cyberinfrastructure examples” for $300, Alex… Open Science GridTeraGridOther examples at Indiana University
11Simulation of gas giant planet formation An astronomer (3) views results of simulations on PSC’s Pople and NCSA’s Cobalt supercomputers (1) as they are written to IU’s Data Capacitor (2)Further analysis of data takes place on MSU’s Talon supercomputer (4)
12How is it cyberinfrastructure? The simulations involve supercomputers, data storage systems, and visualization systemsAt different geographical locationsLinked by networks (TeraGrid) and middleware (Globus and the Coordinated TeraGrid Software and Services)With a researcher as an integral component of execution
13LEAD II: Bridging the gap Research solutions often involve analyzing boundaries between systemsAgriculture: How often to apply fungicide to minimize potato blight?Meteorology: What are the ideal times to apply fungicide?Cyberinfrastructure bridges the gap between sophisticated data products and information from one domain (meteorology) and application in another (agriculture)
14Linked Environments for Atmospheric Discovery: LEAD II Science Gateway
15How is it cyberinfrastructure? A user composes a computation by connecting tasks through a graphical interface in the LEAD II Science GatewayThe task is handed to a workflow engine, which runs itLEAD II workflows require hundreds of CPUs and produce gigabytes of data which must be analyzedLEAD II pioneered the community account as a way for researchers to execute computationally intensive analysis and modeling tools on the TeraGrid
16Polar Grid Polar ice caps are decreasing Traditional analysis couldn’t occur till researchers returned from the fieldAccuracy and quality unknown until too lateHad to wait a year to repeat experimentsPhoto courtesy Keith Lehigh, Indiana University
17How is it cyberinfrastructure? Ruggedized equipment allows scientists to begin data analysis in the fieldPinpoint collection errors and identify areas of interest for further collectionAdjust experiments accordinglyPolar Grid equipment in Greenland is used to transfer, process, visualize, and store data collected from air and surface radar and sensors and transmit it back to the USAn excellent example of cyberinfrastructure enabling innovations and discoveries not otherwise possible
18FutureGrid Cyberinfrastructure for computational science Creates a hardware, network, and software environment in which researchers can perform and replicate experimental researchHumans interact with cyberinfrastructure to create new software for future cyberinfrastructure
19Where is cyberinfrastructure going? Used often since 2003’s Atkins ReportNSF has announced new strategic initiative: Cyberinfrastructure for 21st Century ResearchCapability vs. reliabilityWe accept uncertainty in cyberinfrastructure that we wouldn’t accept in traditional infrastructure such as plumbing or electricityCyberinfrastructure – as a term and as a concept – will continue to develop over time
20Related termsScience Gateway: interactive interface providing end-to-end support for a particular workflowCommon componentsData search and discoverySecurityUser private data storageWorkflow toolsTracking data provenanceExamplesLEAD IInanoHUB (Purdue)
21Related termseScience: large scale science increasingly carried out by global collaborations enabled by the InternetRequire access to very large data collections, very large scale computing resources, and high performance visualizationMore about cyber-enabled science and less about the underlying infrastructure
22Related termsCybersecurity: measures taken to protect a computer or computer system against unauthorized access
23ConclusionsTwo useful, useable definitions of cyberinfrastructure, depending on contextCyberinfrastructure consists of computing systems, data storage systems, advanced instruments and data repositories, visualization environments, and people, all linked together by software and high performance networks to improve research productivity and enable breakthroughs not otherwise possible.Cyberinfrastructure consists of computational systems, data and information management, advanced instruments, visualization environments, and people, all linked together by software and advanced networks to improve scholarly productivity and enable knowledge breakthroughs and discoveries not otherwise possible.
25Acknowledgements Research was supported in part by NSF OCI , OCI , OCI , OCI , CNS , OCI , OCI , CNS , OCI , AGS , OCI , and OCIAny opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science FoundationThanks to Thomas Sterling and to CASC/EDUCAUSE workshop organizers and participants who helped develop a definition of cyberinfrastructure