Slide 2 Motivations and Introduction Phenomenal growth in computer industry/technology: X2/18mo in 20yr. multi-GFLOPs processors, largely due to –Micro-electronics technology –Computer Design innovations We have come a long way in a short time of 60 years since the 1 st general purpose computer in 1946: Instruction Set Architecture: An Introduction
Slide 3 Motivations and Introduction Past (Milestones): –First electronic computer ENIAC in 1946: 18,000 vacuum tubes, 3,000 cubic feet, 20 2-foot 10-digit registers, 5 KIPs (thousand additions per second); –First microprocessor (a CPU on a single IC chip) Intel 4004 in 1971: 2,300 transistors, 60 KIPs, $200; –Virtual elimination of assembly language programming reduced the need for object-code compatibility; –The creation of standardized, vendor-independent operating systems, such as UNIX and its clone, Linux, lowered the cost and risk of bringing out a new architecture –RISC instruction set architecture paved ways for drastic design innovations that focused on two critical performance techniques: instruction-level parallelism and use of caches
Slide 4 Motivations and Introduction Present (State of the art): –Microprocessors approaching/surpassing 10 GFLOPS; –A high-end microprocessor ( $10million) ten years ago; –While technology advancement contributes a sustained annual growth of 35%, innovative computer design accounts for another 25% annual growth rate a factor of 15 in performance gains!
Slide 5 Technology Trend Big Fish Eating Little Fish In reality:
Slide 7 Technology Trend 1998 Computer Food Chain PCWork- station Mainframe Supercomputer Mini- supercomputer Clusters Mini- computer Now who is eating whom? Server
Slide 8 Parallel Computing Architectures in Top 500 www.top500.org Nov. 2004 MEMORY BUS/CROSSBAR CPU Symmetric Multiprocessing (SMP)Massively Parallel Processor (MPP) CPU M M M M PC network cluster MPP Cluster SMP Constellations SIMD Single processor Supercomputer Trends in Top 500
Slide 9 Why Such Changes in 10 years? Performance –Technology Advances »CMOS VLSI dominates older technologies (TTL, ECL) in cost AND performance –Computer architecture advances improves low-end »RISC, superscalar, RAID, … Price: Lower costs due to … –Simpler development »CMOS VLSI: smaller systems, fewer components –Higher volumes »CMOS VLSI : same dev. cost 10,000 vs. 10,000,000 units –Lower margins by class of computer, due to fewer services Function –Rise of networking/local interconnection technology
Slide 10 Amazing Underlying Technology Change In 1965, Gordon Moore sketched out his prediction of the pace of silicon technology. Moore's Law : The number of transistors incorporated in a chip will approximately double every 24 months. Decades later, Moore's Law remains true. From Intel
Slide 11 Technology Trends: Moore ’ s Law Gordon Moore (Founder of Intel) observed in 1965 that the number of transistors on a chip doubles about every 24 months. In fact, the number of transistors on a chip doubles about every 18 months. From intel
Slide 12 Technology Trends Based on SPEED, the CPU has increased dramatically, but memory and disk have increased only a little. This has led to dramatic changed in architecture, Operating Systems, and programming practices.
Slide 13 Technology dramatic change Processor –transistor number in a chip: about 55% per year –clock rate: about 20% per year Memory –DRAM capacity: about 60% per year (4x every 3 years) –Memory speed: about 10% per year –Cost per bit: improves about 25% per year Disk –capacity: about 60% per year –Total use of data: 100% per 9 months! Network Bandwidth –10 years: 10Mb 100Mb – 5 years: 100Mb 1 Gb
Slide 15 Computer Architecture Is … the attributes of a [computing] system as seen by the programmer, i.e., the conceptual structure and functional behavior, as distinct from the organization of the data flows and controls, the logic design, and the physical implementation. Amdahl, Blaaw, and Brooks, 1964 SOFTWARE
Slide 16 Computer Architecture ’ s Changing Definition 1950s to 1960s Computer Architecture Course: Computer Arithmetic 1970s to mid 1980s Computer Architecture Course: Instruction Set Design, especially ISA appropriate for compilers 1990s Computer Architecture Course: Design of CPU, memory system, I/O system, Multiprocessors, Networks 2010s: Computer Architecture Course: Self adapting systems? Self organizing structures? DNA Systems/Quantum Computing?
Slide 17 CSCE430/830 Course Focus Understanding the design techniques, machine structures, technology factors, evaluation methods that will determine the form of computers in the 21st Century Technology Programming Languages Operating Systems History Applications Interface Design (ISA) Measurement & Evaluation Parallelism Computer Architecture: Instruction Set Design Organization Hardware/Software Boundary Compilers
Slide 18 Computer Engineering Methodology Technology Trends Evaluate Existing Systems for Bottlenecks Benchmarks Simulate New Designs and Organizations Workloads Implement Next Generation System Implementation Complexity Architecture design is an iterative process: Searching the space of possible designs at all levels of computer systems
Slide 19 Summary 1.Moors’s laws: The number of transistors incorporated in a chip will approximately double every 18 months. 2.CPU speed increases dramatically, but the speed of memory, disk and network increases slowly. 3.Architecture design is an iterative process. Measure performance: Benchmarks
Slide 20 Quantitative Principles Performance Metrics: How do we conclude that System-A is “ better ” than System-B? Amdahl ’ s Law: Relates total speedup of a system to the speedup of some portion of that system. Topics: (Sections 1.1, 1.2, 1.5, 1.6) – Metrics for different market segments – Benchmarks to measure performance – Quantitative principles of computer design
Slide 21 Importance of Measurement Architecture design is an iterative process: Search the possible design space Make selections Evaluate the selections made Good Ideas Mediocre Ideas Bad Ideas Cost / Performance Analysis Good measurement tools are required to accurately evaluate the selection.
Slide 22 Two notions of “ performance ” Plane Boeing 747 BAD/Sud Concodre Speed 610 mph 1350 mph DC to Paris 6.5 hours 3 hours Passengers 470 132 Throughput (pmph) 286,700 178,200 Time to do the task (Execution Time) – execution time, response time, latency, etc. Tasks per day, hour, week, sec, ns... (Performance) – throughput, bandwidth, etc. Which has higher performance?
Slide 23 Performance Definitions Performance is in units of things-per-second. –bigger is better Execution time is the reciprocal of performance. –performance(x) = 1 execution_time(x) "X is n times faster than Y" means execution_time (Y) performance(X) n = ----------------- = ----------------- execution_time (X) performance(Y) When is throughput more important than execution time? When is execution time more important than throughput?
Slide 24 Performance Terminology “ X is n% faster than Y ” means: ExTime(Y) Performance(X) n -------- =-------------- = 1 + ------ ExTime(X)Performance(Y) 100 n = 100(Performance(X) - Performance(Y)) Performance(Y) Example: Y takes 15 seconds to complete a task, X takes 10 seconds. What % faster is X than Y? n = 100(ExTime(Y) - ExTime(X)) ExTime(X)
Slide 25 Suppose that enhancement E accelerates a fraction F of the task by a factor S, and the remainder of the task is unaffected Speedup due to enhancement E: This fraction enhanced Quantitative Design: Amdahl's Law Amdahl’s Law gives a quick way to find the speedup from some enhancement.
Slide 26 Quantitative Design: Amdahl's Law This fraction enhanced ExTime old ExTime new ExTime new = ExTime old x (1 - Fraction enhanced ) + Fraction enhanced Speedup overall = ExTime old ExTime new Speedup enhanced = 1 (1 - Fraction enhanced ) + Fraction enhanced Speedup enhanced
Slide 27 Pictorial Depiction of Amdahl ’ s Law Before: Execution Time without enhancement E After: Execution Time with enhancement E: Enhancement E accelerates fraction F of original execution time by a factor of S Unaffected fraction: (1- F) Affected fraction: F Unaffected fraction: (1- F) F/S Unchanged Execution Time without enhancement E 1 Speedup(E) = --------------------------------------------------------- = ---------------------- Execution Time with enhancement E (1 - F) + F/S shown normalized to 1 = (1-F) + F =1
Slide 28 Floating point (FP) instructions improved to run 2X; but only 10% of actual instructions are FP. Suppose the old execution time is ExTimeold, What are the current execution time and speedup? Quantitative Design: Amdahl's Law Speedup overall = 1 0.95 =1.053 ExTime new = ExTime old x (0.9 +.1/2) = 0.95 x ExTime old Speedup = ExTime old ExTime new = 1 (1 - Fraction enhanced ) + Fraction enhanced Speedup enhanced Speedup = 1 (1 - 0.1) + 0.1/2 = 1.053
Slide 29 The clock cycle time is the amount of time for one clock period to elapse (e.g. 5 ns). The clock rate is the inverse of the clock cycle time. For example, if a computer has a clock cycle time of 5 ns, the clock rate is: 1 ---------------------- = 200 MHz 5 x 10 sec Computer Clocks A computer clock runs at a constant rate and determines when events take placed in hardware. Clk clock period -9
Slide 30 Computing CPU time The time to execute a given program is CPU time = CPU clock cycles for a program x clock cycle time Since clock cycle time and clock rate are reciprocals, thus CPU time = CPU clock cycles for a program / clock rate CPI: clock cycles per instruction CPU clock cycle for a program CPI = ------------------------- Instruction count
Slide 31 Computing CPU time The time to execute a given program is CPU time = CPU clock cycles for a program x clock cycle time Since clock cycle time and clock rate are reciprocals, thus CPU time = CPU clock cycles for a program / clock rate The number of CPU clock cycles can be determined by CPU clock cycles = (instructions/program) x (clock cycles/instruction) = Instruction count x CPI which gives The units for this are instructions clock cycles seconds seconds = ---------------- x -------------- x -------------- program instruction clock cycle CPU time = Instruction count x CPI x clock cycle time CPU time = Instruction count x CPI / clock rate
Slide 32 Example of Computing CPU time If a computer has a clock rate of 2 GHz, how long does it take to execute a program with 1,000,000 instructions, if the CPI for the program is 3.5?
Slide 33 Example of Computing CPU time If a computer has a clock rate of 2 GHz, how long does it take to execute a program with 1,000,000 instructions, if the CPI for the program is 3.5? Using the equation CPU time = Instruction count x CPI / clock rate gives CPU time = 1000000 x 3.5 / (2 x 10 9 ) If a computer ’ s clock rate increases from 200 MHz to 250 MHz and the other factors remain the same, how many times faster will the computer be? CPU time old clock rate new 250 MHz -------------- = ------------------ = -------------- = 1.25 CPU time new clock rate old 200 MHZ What simplifying assumptions did we make? 6
Slide 34 Performance Example Two computers M1 and M2 with the same instruction set. For a given program, we have How many times faster is M2 than M1 for this program? ExTime M1 IC M1 x CPI M1 / Clock Rate M1 = ExTime M2 IC M2 x CPI M2 / Clock Rate M2 = 2.8/50 3.2/75 = 1.31 Clock rate (MHz) CPI M1502.8 M2753.2
Slide 35 Aspects of CPU Performance CPU time= Seconds = Instructions x Cycles x Seconds Program Program Instruction Cycle CPU time= Seconds = Instructions x Cycles x Seconds Program Program Instruction Cycle Inst Count CPICycle Time Program X Compiler X (X) Inst. Set. X X Organization X X Technology X
Slide 36 Performance Summary Two performance metrics execution time and throughput. Amdahl ’ s Law When trying to improve performance, look at what occurs frequently => make the common case fast. CPU time: CPU time = Instruction count x CPI x clock cycle time CPU time = Instruction count x CPI / clock rate Execution Time without enhancement E 1 Speedup(E) = --------------------------------------------------------- = ---------------------- Execution Time with enhancement E (1 - F) + F/S