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PARAM Padma SuperComputer Vishal Bakshi Aditya Polumetla.

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Presentation on theme: "PARAM Padma SuperComputer Vishal Bakshi Aditya Polumetla."— Presentation transcript:

1 PARAM Padma SuperComputer Vishal Bakshi Aditya Polumetla

2 Topics ● Introduction ● Specifications ● Machine Architecture ● Microkernel Architecture ● PARAMNet II ● System Software ● Applications on PARAM

3 PARAM ● PARAM – PARAllel Machine ● Developed by Center for Development of Advanced Computing (C-DAC) India ● PARAM Padma is the latest in the line of PARAM series after PARAM 8000, PARAM 9000 and PARAM ● Introduced in 2003 ● Its a next generation high performance scalable computing cluster ● PARAM Padma's theoretical peak performance of complete configuration is 1.13 TFlops

4 PARAM Padma

5 PARAM Padma Configuration

6 Specifications Compute Nodes: 248 Power 4 1 Ghz processors 54 4-way SMP and 1 32-way SMP (Symmetric MultiProcessing) configuration OS – AIX / LINUX AIX (Advanced Interactive eXecutive) is a IBM's UNIX operating system Aggregate Memory of 0.5 TeraBytes

7 Specifications continued Network: PARAMNet II (primary) GigaByte Ethernet (backup) File Servers: 24 UltraSparc-III 900MHz processors 6 4-way SMP configuration OS – Solaris File System – QFS (Quantitative File System)

8 Specifications continued External Storage: Storage array 5 TeraBytes Tape Library 12 TeraBytes System Software: C-DAC's HPCC Suite of System Software It provides a high flexible software environment for the cluster

9 PARAM Padma System Layout

10 PARAM Machine Architecture

11 PARAM Machine Architecture continued Cluster Personality - Data Link Provider Interface (DLPI) driver allows mapping of common network protocols to the underlying network MPP (Massively Parallel Processor) Personality - Architecture allows microkernel to be loaded on compute nodes - implements custom designed Concurrent Runtime Environment (CORE) - Standard message passing interface 1. Parallel Virtual Machine (PVM) 2. Message Passing Interface (MPI)

12 PARAS Microkernel Architecture Message for high MPP Supports multiple tasks with a paged virtual memory space Multiple threads of execution within each task Message based interprocess communication Communication between tasks by message passing Location independent interprocess communication supported by port abstraction

13 PARAS Microkernel Architecture continued Services: - An executive which schedules priority based threads - Location transparent interprocess communication mechanism - Simple virtual memory model - Low kernel hardware supervisor

14 PARAS Microkernel – Block Diagram

15 Microkernel Architecture PARAS service request dispatcher routes all requests to appropriate service provides Resource Managers - Process Manager - Virtual Memory Manager - Inter-Process Communication (IPC) Manager

16 Microkernel Abstractions Five basic abstractions supported - Tasks - Threads - Ports - Messages - Regions

17 Operating Environment

18 Operating Environment continued Components of Operating Environment - Partition Manager: global resource manager and management of that partition's resources - Process Server: Spawning tasks on a node and provides remote system call interface - Microkernel File System Server: to serve UNIX file system calls - Name Server: provides port naming services to user application

19 PARAMNet II Developed by C-DAC System Area Network (SAN) switch to interconnect the nodes of the system Provides a low latency and high bandwidth interconnect data 2.5 Gigabits/sec message latency of 10 µ sec switch latency of 0.5 µ sec

20 PARAMNet II continued Major components are / 16-port SAN switch 2. Network Interface Card (NIC) with CCP-III (C-DAC Co-Processor) communication coprocessor 3. Application Programming Interface (C-VIPL) C-DAC's Virtual Interface Provider Library

21 PARAMNet II – SAN Switch Non-blocking crossbar based architecture 2.5 Gbps full duplex bandwidth per port Distributed schedulers allow individual routing tables per port, allowing for any network topology More than 8 / 16 ports supported using multi-level switching Ethernet based management interface allows for remote access and control of multiple switches

22 PARAMNet II – SAN Switch continued Virtual channel based routing with 1 KB buffering per port each at input and output Interval routing scheme based on 32-bit header (16-bit routing information) Group adaptive routing based on LRU algorithm to ensure uniform bandwidth distribution in a group Point-to-point flow control with pause and resume token

23 PARAMNet II - NIC Provides interface to SANSW8 (8 port ) and SANSW16 (16 port) PARAMNet II switch Supports for connection oriented and connectionless protocols Can be configured for other protocols Capable of performing I/O from paged virtual memory

24 PARAMNet II – NIC continued Support for up to 1024 connections and up to 1024 completion queues Support for different page sizes Packetization and reassembly done in hardware Error detection and recovery done in hardware Latency of 10 µ sec

25 PARAMNet II - C-VIPL

26 PARAMNet II – C-VIPL continued C-VIPL is an application programming interface for PARAMNet II Major feature – Thread safe implementation Supports AIX, Linux, Solaris and Windows OS

27 System Level Block diagram for PARAMNet II

28 System Level Block diagram for PARAMNet II continued PARAMNet II network comprises of N hosts connected in non-blocking fat tree topology For more than 8 / 16 hosts multiple SANSW8 / SANSW16 are required As switch latency is low multiple levels of switches have less latency

29 PARAM Padma and PARAMNet II PARAM Padma has 12 PARAMNet II switches connected to two-level configuration to form 64 node CLOS network CLOS Network: multi-stage network topology that provides alternate paths between input and output making it possible to eliminate the blocking that occurs in other networks Latency associated with packet routing are small for a non -blocking topology

30 HPCC Software HPCC software on the PARAM Padma provides a high performance flexible software environment

31 HPCC Software continued HPCC Software consists of -program development tools - system management tools - software engineering tools Provides low overhead for communication Optimized Message Passing Interface (MPI) Parallel file system with MPI-IO interface to enable applications to scale on large cluster

32 HPCC Software continued C-FPS is a client-server and user level parallel file system that addresses high I/O throughput requirements The Fortran programming environment consists of - Fortran 90 compiler, - parallelizing compiler for Fortran 77/90 for SMP - integrated development environment and Fortran 77 to Fortran 90 converter

33 HPCC Software continued The DIViA debugging environment comprises of a coherent set of tools that help programmers in debugging parallel programs PARMON the system management tool, enables the administrator to monitor activities and resource utilization of various cluster components RMS resource management tool enables users to optimally schedule jobs across the cluster nodes

34 Storage Architecture Storage is provided by Storage array and Tape library Storage Area Network PARAM Padma has a network centric storage architecture Storage capacity of 5 TB scalable to 22 TB Use of Fibre Channel Arbitration Loop (FC-AL) technology to interconnect storage subsystems

35 Applications on PARAM Padma Bioinformatics - stimulations of large bio molecules - analysis of large databases for studying functions of genes Computational Structural Mechanics - fracture analysis - stress analysis - visualization for structural and fluid mechanics - study of thin walled structures

36 Applications on PARAM Padma contt Seismic Data Processing - for oil and natural gas exploration Computational Chemistry - calculation of electronic structure and properties of molecules - molecular dynamics simulation Computational Fluid Dynamics - simulation of external and internal flows - simulation of hypersonic flows

37 References A Microkernel Based Operating System for PARAM 9000, Mohan Ram, N et al, CDAC PARAM Padma – A Teraflops Computing System And High Performance Computing in India, Purohit, S.K., CDAC, Current State and Future Trends in High Performance Computing & Communications (HPCC) Research in India, Sinha, P.K. et al, 10 th IEEE Internaltional Workshop on FTDCS Overview of recent supercomputers, Aad J. van der Steen, NCF, The Hague, 1997.


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