Diane Hanfelt-Goade MD Director, Adult CF Center
28 year-old gentleman with cystic fibrosis, genotype Δ F508 homozygous Diagnosed as an infant with meconium ileus Followed every 3 months in CF clinic Colonization with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus History of staph schleiferi and aspergillus tares. Called with increasing cough and SOB for three weeks
1. Moderate to severe lung dysfunction 2.Pancreatic insufficiency. 3.Chronic sinusitis, nasal polyps 4.Allergic rhinitis. 5.Impaired glucose tolerance. 6.Reactive airway disease. 7.History of hiatal hernia. 8.History of H. pylori 9.Sleep apnea 10.Low body mass index.
1.Pulmozyme 2.5 milligrams inhaled once daily. 2.7% hypertonic saline inhaled once per day. 3.Oxygen 2 liters nocturnally. 4.Vest once per day 5.Acapella once or twice per day. 6.Tobi 300 milligrams inhaled, 28 days on, 28 days off. This is an off cycle. 7.Aztreonam 75 milligrams inhaled three times a day 28 days on, 28 days off. 8.Azithromycin 500 milligrams by mouth Monday, Wednesday, Friday. 9.Ultrase MT18s, 8-9 with meals and 4-5 with snacks. 10.Ensure three cans daily. 11.Multivitamin one tablet by mouth once daily. 12.Calcium 600 milligrams with 125 of D, once daily. 13.Flonase 0.5 %, two sprays per nostril once or twice per day. 14. AquADEK, 2 tablet by mouth daily 15.Scan Dical as needed. 16.Vitamin D 50,000 international units reports he took for 8 to 10 days 17.Vitamin A, dosage unknown, one tablet by mouth every day. 18.Vitamin E 400 international units one by mouth every day. 19.Zyrtec 10 mg by mouth as needed for allergies. 20. Spiriva 18 micrograms inhaled once daily. 21.Saline nasal washes as needed. 22.ProAir 90 micrograms inhaled two to three puffs prior to therapy and as needed. 23.Advair HFA 2 puffs twice daily.
Pulmonary function tests FVC of 2.27 (39%), FEV1 1.30 (27%), FEF 25-75% is 0.52 (11%), RV/TLC % of 46
A multisystem disease Autosomal recessive inheritance Cause: mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) ◦ chromosome 7 ◦ codes for a c-AMP regulated chloride channel Rosenstein, BJ and Zeitlin, PL. Cystic fibrosis. The Lancet. 351: 277-82.
One or more clinical features of CF PLUS Two CF mutations on genetic testing OR Two positive quantative pilocarpine iontophoresis sweat chloride values OR An abnormal nasal transepithelial potential difference value Cystic Fibrosis Foundation. Clinical Practice Guidelines for Cystic fibrosis.1997.
1 st Descriptions 17 th Century European folklore ◦ “A child that tastes salty when kissed will soon die.“ ◦ Thought to be hexed/bewitched 18 th Century Case Descriptions ◦ Cases of children with severe malnourishment, steatorrhea, meconium ileus Quinton PM. Phys Rev;1999;79:S3-S22. www.cysticfibrosismedicine.com
Clinical Description 1943 Dr. Stanely Farber ◦ “Mucoviscidosis” ◦ Multisystem disease Major manifestations Chronic bronchopulmonary infections Malabsorption and steatorrhea Growth Failure Farber S. Arch Pathol 1944;37:283-250.
History 1948 Dr. Paul di Sant’ Agnese ◦ High chloride/sodium in sweat CF patients ◦ Standardization of sweat test by 1959 1954 1st comprehensive CF center
The CFTR gene is located on the long arm of chromosome 7. There are 1522 mutations in CFTR listed on the mutation database (http://www.genet.sickkids.on.c a/cftr/)http://www.genet.sickkids.on.c a/cftr/ The most common mutation is Δ F508-70% CF alleles in caucasians. 1 Causes loss of aa phenylalanine at position 508 in protein http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/ Human_Genome/posters/chromosome/cftr.shtml 1. Gibson, RL, Burns, JL, and Ramsey, BW. Pathophysiology and Management of Pulmonary Infections in Cystic Fibrosis. AJRCCM 168 (918-951); 2003.
Gibson, RL, Burns, JL, and Ramsey, BW. Pathophysiology and Management of Pulmonary Infections in Cystic Fibrosis. AJRCCM 168 (918-951); 2003. CFTR functions as a regulated chloride channel Also regulates the activity of other chloride and sodium channels at the cell surface
Cilia do not beat well when PCL volume is depleted Mucins are not diluted and cannot be easily swept up the airway Mucus becomes concentrated Results in increased adhesion to airway surface Promotes chronic infection Donaldson,SH and Boucher,RC. Update on the pathogenesis of cystic fibrosis lung disease. Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine. 9: 486-491; 2003.
Mucus---helps clear airway of bacteria Clearance of mucus depends on ◦ Ciliary function ◦ Mucin secretion ◦ Volume of airway surface liquid (ASL) Forms periciliary liquid layer Dilutes mucus---facilates entrapment of bacteria and clearance Optimal volume of ASL regulated by Na+ absorption and Cl- secretion Donaldson,SH and Boucher,RC. Update on the pathogenesis of cystic fibrosis lung disease. Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine. 9: 486-491; 2003.
Donaldson,SH and Boucher,RC. Update on the pathogenesis of cystic fibrosis lung disease. Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine. 9: 486-491; 2003.
Most common “life-shortening” recessive genetic disease in Caucasians ◦ 1:3,500 newborns in the US ◦ 1 in 10,500 Native Americans ◦ 1 in 11,500 Hispanics ◦ 1 in 14,000 to 17,000 African Americans ◦ 1 in 25,500 Asians http://www.cff.org
About 30,000 people affected in United States >10,000,000 people carriers of mutant CFTR 80% cases diagnosed by age 3 Almost 10% diagnosed ≥18 years ◦ “atypical disease” UNM Adult care center has approx 66 patients http://www.cff.org
Overall trend is improved survival Female survival worse than male between 2-20 years of age 1 35% of patients are older than 18 years of age 2 Median survival 36.8 years 3 1930s life expectancy was about 6 months 2 The impact of usual adult diseases in CF is virtually unknown 1.Goss, CH and Rosenfeld, M. Update on cystic fibrosis epidemiology. Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine. 10:510-514; 2004. 2. Davis, P. Cystic Fibrosis Since 1938. AJRCCMss. Doi: 10.1164/rccm.200505-840OE; 2005. 3.www.cff.org/news/general_news
Chronic infection with CF pathogens Endobronchial disease – Cough/sputum production – Air obstruction---wheezing; evidence of obstruction on PFTs – Chest x-ray anomalies – Digital Clubbing Sinus disease – Nasal Polyps – CT or x-ray findings of sinus disease Cystic Fibrosis Foundation. Clinical Practice Guidelines for Cystic fibrosis.1997.
Benign lesions in nasal airway If large enough, can be associated with significant nasal obstruction, drainage, headaches, snoring Likely associated with chronic inflammation May need surgical intervention High recurrence rate From: http://www.emedicine.com/http://www.emedicine.com/ ped/topic1550.htm
Pancreatic insufficiency – Autopsy of malnourished infants--1938--- “cystic fibrosis of the pancreas”---mucus plugging of glandular ducts 1 1.Davis, P. Cystic Fibrosis Since 1938. AJRCCM Articles in Press. Doi: 10.1164/rccm.200505-840OE; 2005.
– Chloride impermeability affects HCO3- secretion and fluid secretion in pancreatic ducts 2 Pancreatic enzymes stay in ducts and are activated intraductally Autolysis of pancreas Inflammation, calcification, plugging of ducts, fibrosis – Malabsorption Failure to thrive Fat soluble vitamin deficiency 1.Davis, P. Cystic Fibrosis Since 1938. AJRCCM Articles in Press. Doi: 10.1164/rccm.200505-840OE; 2005. 2. Quinton, P. Physiologic Basis of Cystic Fibrosis. Physiol Rev 79:3-22, 1999.
Complications Endocrine ◦ Glucose intolerance/CFRD Reduction in insulin secretion due to pancreatic damage Insulin resistance related to infection and CF exacerbations Associated with accelerated pulmonary decline and increased mortality ◦ Arthropathy (2-9%) ◦ Osteopenia/osteoporosis
Focal inspissation of bile ◦ Obstructs biliary ductules Second leading cause of death in CF 1 Prevalence 9-37% 1 Spectrum of disease ◦ increased liver enzymes ◦ biliary cirrhosis ◦ portal hypertension 1. Efrati, O et al., Liver Cirrhosis and portal hypertension in CF. European Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology. 15(10): 1073-1078; 2003.
Clinically---hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis – CFTR on luminal side of sweat duct Chloride goes in from lumen via CFTR and out to blood by other transporters Sodium goes in via ENaC Defective CFTR---Na and Cl- movement and reabsoprtion into lumen impeded Goodman, B and Percy, WH..CFTR in Teaching Membrane Transport. Adv Physiol Educ. 29 (79-82); 2005
Pathophysiology Murphy TM and Rosenstein BJ Genetic and Protein Defect Abnormal Salt and Water Transport Persistent Airway Infection, invasion of neutrophils Accumulation of Leukocyte-Derived DNA and Elastase-Rich Secretions Exacerbations of Infections Airway Obstruction Progressive Lung Destruction Early Death
Modify phenotype and disease expression in CF TGF-beta 1 ◦ potent suppressor of T cell activation ◦ can decrease T cell proliferation and cytokine production ◦ In a study of 808 patients w delta F 508 mutation, polymorphisms in the TGF-beta 1 gene were associated with more severe CF lung disease MBL — Mannose-binding lectin ◦ important component of the complement system ◦ deficiencies increase the risk for pyogenic infections ◦ In CF, variant MBL alleles associated with reduced lung function, increased risk for complex infections, and early death polymorphisms of TNF-a ◦ increase susceptibility to Ps. aeruginosa infection and contribute to the clinical manifestations of CF
Individuals with CF are living longer most common cause of death in CF is respiratory failure secondary to pulmonary infection. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia cepacia complex are the pathogens most commonly associated with a shortened life span With prolonged infection, P. aeruginosa converts to a mucoid phenotype by the production of alginate Conversion to mucoidy is associated with worsening lung function increase in the prevalence of several potentially pathogenic microorganisms in CF
Gibson, RL, Burns, JL, and Ramsey, BW. Pathophysiology and Management of Pulmonary Infections in Cystic Fibrosis. AJRCCM 168 (918-951); 2003.
B. cepacia syndrome: fevers, rapidly progressive necrotizing pneumonia, death Chronic cepacia infection— decreased lung function and increased mortality Several closely related species termed genomovars 1 – III has been associated with more severe disease Holmes, A, Govan, J, and Goldstein, R. Agricultural Use of Burkholderia (Pseudomonas) cepacia: A Threat to Human Health? Emerging Infectious Diseases. 4(2):221-227; 1998 1. Gibson, RL, Burns, JL, and Ramsey, BW. AJRCCM 168 (918-951); 2003.
NTM in about 13% of patients ◦ 75% is MAC ◦ Treat if criteria for disease is met: pulm nodules, deteriorating function Aspergillus ◦ Infection vs. colonization ◦ ABPA Nationwide, MRSA increased from 2.1 percent in 1996 to 21.2 percent in 2007
Increased cough Increased sputum production or chest congestion Increased dyspnea with exertion Increased fatigue Decreased appetite Increased respiratory rate or dyspnea at rest Change in sputum appearance Fever (present in a minority of patients) Absenteeism from school or work Increased nasal congestion or drainage Reductions in FEV1 ◦ Reduction of greater than 10% = admission
Admitted for 14 days ◦ antibiotics ◦ chest phsyiotherapy and inhaled meds 4 times daily ◦ Aggressive nutrition, physical therapy ◦ Blood sugar control After 14 days of treatment, patients receiving antibiotics had greater increases in several pulmonary function measures than those treated with placebo Standard of care, so covered by most insurances Majority of patients with some second payer coverage
Directed to culture results Recognize that multiple species often present ◦ We are now using synergy data as well Most common: tobra + anti-PA ES PCN (zosyn) or 3 rd or 4 th gen ceph The clearance of aminoglycosides is accelerated in CF patients ◦ Once daily dosing endorsed by the CFF Patients hypermetabolic, increased hepatic clearance of sulfonamides No changes: vanco, quinolones ? Absorption of oral antibiotics
18 months: data on 65 patients with at least one positive culture ◦ Most with persistent positive cultures ◦ Most with polymicrobial infections 52 PA ◦ 90% mucoid ◦ Increasing MDRO – now almost 50% ◦ 18 MSSA and PA ◦ 5 MRSA and PA
23 MSSA 14 MRSA 2 B. cepacia patients ◦ MSSA, PA, B. cepacia ◦ MRSA, B. cepacia ◦ Aspergillus fumigatus, B. cepcia 4 Stenotrophomonas ◦ 1 small colony variant 4 H. flu
Kleb pneumo Flavobacterium meningosepticum Achromobacter Morganella Aspergillus fumigatus Aspergillus terus Scedosporium apiospermum Nocarida transvalensis – R to bactrim
CF Foundation guidelines UNM is a certified care center ◦ Certification requires demonstration of an integrated team approach ◦ Compliance with guidelines and standards of care Standards developed using evidence based care practices, committee review Current guidelines and supporting data at the CF Foundation website http://www.cff.org/treatments/CFCareGuidelines
Diane Hanfelt-Goade, adult clinic director Charles Gallegos CFNP, CF care specialist Linda Reineke, nutritionist and diabetes educator Bill Demary, resp therapy Felisha Martinez, social work
“A systematic review was performed addressing a series of questions related to treatment of pulmonary exacerbations. For each question, the body of evidence was evaluated by the full Committee. Recommendations were drafted using the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) grading scheme, which provides a mechanism to weigh the quality of evidence and the potential harms and benefits in determining recommendations (Table 1)” Cystic Fibrosis Pulmonary Guidelines: Treatment of Pulmonary Exacerbations Patrick A. Flume1, Peter J. Mogayzel, Jr.2, Karen A. Robinson3, Christopher H. Goss4, Randall L. Rosenblatt5, Robert J. Kuhn6, Bruce C. Marshall7, and the Clinical Practice Guidelines for Pulmonary Therapies Committee* Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 2009 Nov;180(9):802-8. Epub 2009 Sept. 3
Although they did not meet criteria for this systematic review, there are observational studies that suggest better outcomes for patients treated in a hospital than for those treated at home (10, 11). If there is any doubt, admission to the hospital is the suggested option. This may be particularly relevant for patients with comorbidities that complicate care and for patients with more severe exacerbations who may be too fatigued or in too much distress to be able to perform the therapies adequately. For example, nutritional needs, elevated in most patients with CF, are even greater during an exacerbation (8)
Chest physiotherapy ◦ Postural drainage and percussion ◦ P.E.P valve, Acapella valve, Flutter valve ◦ High frequency chest wall oscillation Albuterol ◦ Bronchodilation ◦ Increase ciliary efficiency Dornase alpha/recombinant DNase (pulmozyme) ◦ Breaks down excess DNA from neutrophils and bacteria Hypertonic Saline by nebulization ◦ Thins secretions
Saiman et al., 2003 double blind placebo controlled trial of azithromycin ◦ 185 patients randomized to receive 3 times weekly azithromycin or placebo ◦ Improvements in lung function, weight, and number of pulmonary exacerbations (decreased courses of antibiotics and days in hospital) Saiman et al., Azithromycin in Patinets with Cystic Fibrosis Chronically Infected with Pseudomonas Aeruginosa. JAMA 290(13):1749; 2003.
Initiate if have malabsorption history ◦ Fecal fat ◦ Fecal elastase May need H2 blocker or PPI to activate enteric coated enzyme Enzymes with meals and snacks, usually keep at bedside Patients bring their own, as hospital typically does not carry the branded enzymes Fibrosing colonopathy ◦ Strictures in the colon associated with high dose enzyme use (enzyme gets to colon and causes damage leading to scarring/stricture)
Ursodiol ◦ Increased bile flow ◦ Decrease toxicity of bile acids Sclerotherapy, portosystemic shunts Liver transplantation---only curative treatment for portal hypertension
Quality of life ◦ Frequent hospitalizations ◦ Time spent on therapies ◦ Morbidity from disease ◦ Restrictions secondary to disease Adherence to therapies Family planning End of life issues
CF is a genetic disorder that most commonly results in chronic pulmonary infections and issues related to pancreatic insufficiency Ultimately, the majority of patients still die from respiratory failure due to chronic infections Appropriate treatment is complex and requires a team approach
Lack of knowledge/info on CF specific care ◦ Currently, “CF survival guide” on drop down menu in CF order set ◦ interns/residents should use the CF checklist and survival guide ◦ this should become available on the Hospitalist Wiki? Standard order sets for admission may not apply ◦ DVT prophylaxis should not be used as a matter of course ◦ Patients on daily vit K therapy ◦ Patients at much higher risk for hemoptysis or bleeding than for clotting - CF DM educator should take point on CF DM ◦ Routine insulin orders generally not applicable, CFRD different than type 1 DM ◦ Endo consult appropriate for anyone on a pump
We should define a clear procedure for admission of CF "tune ups“ ◦ May be several days before a bed available ◦ CF team always contact admitting team ◦ Information not always passed along ◦ CF team always dictates a stat note with reason for admission, order recs Lack of communication on inpatients ◦ Charles rounds with pulmonary team daily ◦ Charles discusses patients with Diane daily ◦ Entire CF team rounds wed afternoon ◦ ? Should we round with medicine teams once a week also, or after an admission ◦ Resident or Intern should contact Charles to arrange a good time, Monday?